JOWETT, JOHN HENRY: English Congregationalist; b. at Halifax, Yorkshire, Aug. 25, 1864. He was educated in Hipperholme grammar-school and in the universities of Edinburgh (1883-87) and Oxford (1888-89). His first ministerial charge was as minister of St. James' Congregational Church in Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he was settled from 1889 till 1895, when he was called to succeed Robert William Dale (q.v.) as minister of Carr's Lane Congregational Church in Birmingham, and has ever since ministered to that people. In the summer of 1909 he visited the United States and was a prominent speaker in the Northfield Conference. His publications embrace: From Strength to Strength (London, 1898); Meditations for Quiet Moments (1899); Brooks by the Traveller's Way: 26 Week-night Addresses (1902); Thirsting for Souls: 26 Week-night Meditations (1902); Yet Another Day: a Prayer for Every Day in the Year (1904); The Passion. for Souls (1905); The Epistles of Peter (1905); The Silver Lining (1907); The High Calling: Meditations on St. Paul's Letter to the Philippians (1909).
JUAN DE TORQUEMADA See TORQUEMADA, JUAN DE.
Through the bull Ineffabilis (Apr. 19, 1470), having regard to the shortness of human life, Paul II. established the interval at twenty-five years. The sixth jubilee under Sixtus IV. in 1475 was comparatively poorly attended. The seventh, under Alexander VI. (1500), was more important, and in connection with it the ritual since in the main observed for the opening and closing of the "golden door" in the vestibule of St. Peter's was settled. The eighth, under Clement VII. (1525), was only notable for the sharp criticisms of Luther on the "bull of indiction." The ninth, proclaimed by Paul III. in 1549, shortly before his death, could not be inaugurated until the coronation of his successor Julius III., Feb. 22, 1550. The tenth, under Gregory XIII. (1575), was rendered notable by the lavish hospitality offered to the pilgrims by the Roman sodalities, and by the fact that the influence of the Reformation is seen in there being no mention of money payments. The succeeding jubilees, at regular intervals of twenty-five years from 1600 to 1775, present no special features. The troublous situation did not allow one to be held, in 1800, and the nineteenth, proclaimed by Leo XII. in 1825, found few participants from outside, of Italy. After a break of seventy-five years, the twentieth was held with all the traditional ceremonies under Leo XIII. in 1900. For the Year of Jubilee among the Hebrews, see SABBATICAL YEAR AND YEAR OF JUBILEE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. C. Lea. History' of Auricular Confession and Indulgences, vol. iii., Philadelphia, 1896: F. Beringer, Die Ablasse, ihr Wesen und Gebrauch, Paderborn, 1895; Creighton, Papacy, i. 30, 103, 113, 166-167, ii. 115, iv. 79, v. 8-9, vi. 68-75; V. Prinzivalli, Gli anni santi, Rome, 1899; A. de Waal, Das heilige Jahr in Rom, Frankfort, 1899; J. C. Hedley, The Holy Year, London, 1900; H. Thurston, The Holy Year of Jubilee, ib. 1900.
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