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GENEVA, CONSENSUS OF (Consensus Genevensis ): A document drawn up by Calvin for the purpose of uniting the Swiss Reformed churches with regard to the doctrine of predestination. It appeared at Geneva in 1552, having teceived the signatures of all the pastors of that city. But beyond Geneva it acquired no symbolical authority, and attempts to enlist the civil government in its favor created dissatisfaction and opposition in Bern, Basel, and Zurich.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The text is in Calvin's Opera, viii (1870), 249-366, and fn H. A. Niemeyer, Collectio eonteasionum, pp. 218-310, Leipeic, 1840. For history end full references to literature consult Schaff, Creeds, i. 474-477, and the literature on CALVIN.

GENEVIEVE, jen"e-vivr: The name of two saints of the Roman Catholic Church.

1. Genevieve, Patron Saint of Paris: b., according to tradition, at Nanterre (7 m. n.w. of Paris), perhaps in 422; d. at Paris Jan. 3, 512. She is mentioned by Gregory of Tours (Hilt. Francorum, iv. 1) as one of the saints venerated at Paris, and as buried in the basilica of the apostles Peter and Paul, built by Clovis I. and his queen. The Latin life of

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5. Modern Use in Biblical Criticism.

The latest use of the word applies to those insertions which, in the course of the transmission of the text, have crept into the body of a work. They arise from the inclusion by a copyist of material which he found written between the lines or on the margin. This often occurs with set design though without evil purpose on Use in the part of the copyist and also through his mistake. The result, however, often is that it is impossible to discover whether a corruption of the text occurs through an intended improvement or through importation of a marginal note. Corrections of this sort are found in the text of the original languages of the Bible, since the more a book is used and copied, the more likely are such corrections. This is the case with the Hebrew text. A means of detection is often the comparison of two or more translations (cf. Wellhausen's edition of Bleek's Einleitung in das Alten Testament, Berlin, 1893, 269; F. Buhl, Kanon und Text des lten Testaments, Leipsic, 1891, p. 257, Eng. transl., London, 1892; and for the New Testament cf. E. Reuss, Geschichte der heiligen Schriften des Neuen Testaments, Brunswick, 1874, 359, Eng. transl., 2 vols., Boston, 1874). In similar fashion the old versions were corrupted by the incorporation of glosses. This is the case with the manuscript of the Septuagint in spite of the criticism of such men as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and of the Vulgate (cf. Z. Frankel, Vorstudien zu der Septuaginta, Leipsic, 1841, 11 sqq.; F. Kaulen, Geschichte der Vulgata, Mainz, 1868, pp. 212 sqq., 266). For the marginal notes and references of English Bibles, which are of the nature of glosses, see BIBLES, ANNOTATED, AND BIBLE SUMMARIES, II.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheca Graeca, vol. vi. passim, Hamburg, 1798; J. G. Rosenmuller, Histories interpretationis sacrorum librorum, iv. 356 sqq., Leipsic, 1795; C. G. Wilke, Hermeneutik des Neuen Testaments, ii. 192 sqq., Leipsic, 1844; K. G(o-umlaut)deke, Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung, i.. 13, Dresden, 1862; J. A. U. Scheler, Lexicographie latine, Leipsic, 1867; E. Steinmeyer and E. Sievers, Althochdeutsche Glossen, i.-iv., Berlin, 1879-98; P. Piper, Literaturgeschichte und Grammatik der Althochdeutschen, pp. 35 sqq., Paderborn, 1880; T. Birt, Antike Buchwesen, Berlin, 1882; H. P. Junker, Grundriss der franz(o-umlaut)sischen Litteratur, pp. 15 sqq., M(u-umlaut)nster, 1889; F. Blass, Hermeneutik and Kritik, Munich, 1892; U. Wattenbach, Schriftwesen im Miltelalter, Leipsic, 1896; Krumbacher, Geschichte, 154, 216, 232 sqq.; KL, v. 708-716; and the works on introduction to the Old and the New Testament.

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