GABLER, gitfbler, JOHANN PHILIPP: German theologian; b. at Frankfort-on-the-Main June 4, 1753; d. at Jena Feb. 17, 1828. He studied for ten years at the gymnasium of his native town, and from 1772 to 1778 was a student at Jena, -where Griesbach and Eichhorn were his teachers in theol ogy. After filling minor positions in Frankfort (1778) and Gottingen (1780), and after officiating as professor at the gymnasium at Dortmund (1783), he was called to Altdorf in 1785 as deacon and pro fessor of theology. In 1804 he was called to the University of Jena, and in 1812 he succeeded his former teacher, Griesbach, as professor of theology there. As a theological author Gabler is chiefly known by his edition of- Eichhorn's Urgeschichte, to which he added a preface and notes (2 vols., Alt dorf and Nuremberg, 179(1-83), also by.a number of Latin and German essays, several of which ap peared in his periodicals: Neuestes theologisckes Journal (1798-1800), Journal far theolo*chs Literatur (1801-04), and Journal fair auaerlesena theolo0che IRteratur (1805-11). Some of these minor works are devoted to church history, and others to dogmatics, but the greater number con sist of expositions and criticisms of narratives and sayings of the New Testament. In tendency Ga bler was naturalistic and rationalistic. A collec tion of his essays, lectures, and Latin programs and speeches was published by his sons, Theodor August and Johann Gottfried Gabler (2 vols:, Ulm, 1831), with an autobiographical sketch written for EiehsWt's Annalea academia Jenensia (Jena, 1823).

(E. H>cNa>ct.)

BrerroaaArar: W. 8chr6ter. Erinnerunpen as J. B. taablar, Jena, 1827; G. Thomseiue, Do& WiedersruwaAen des evanyelisaAen Lebsns in der nun $irde Bayerns, pp. 21 eq9.. Erlangen, 1887.

GABRIEL SEVERUS: Greek metropolitan and theologian; b. at Monemvasia (45 m. s.e. of Sparta) 1541; d. at Venice Oct. 21, 1616. After completing his education at Padua, he resided in Crete and at Venice, where the Greek colony chose him priest of 1St. George in 1573. Four years later he was made metropolitan of Philadelphia, but continued to live at Venice. He was one of the most learned theologians of the modern Greek Church, whose claims he passionately defended against Roman Catholicism and the unionistic tendencies within his own communion. The first of his three chief works was the collection of three treatises on the honor due the sacred elements of the Eucharist, the "portions" (Gk: merides, pieces of bread set stride at the Eucharist in honor of the Virgin and the saints, and for the spiritual welfare of all orthodox Christians, whether living or dead), and the boiled wheat distributed to the congregation on certain days, generally in memory of the dead. This was first published at Venice in 1604. His second work was the "Treatise on the Holy and Sacred Mysteries" (1600), of which separate portions have been edited at various times. In its presentation the book is scholastic and not altogether free from


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Geneva Genevieve THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 450

translation of the Bible by Lefbvre d9haples; and in Dec., 1526, the Duke of Savoy asked for assistance from Rome in repressing the movement, while in 1528 he executed twelve gentlemen guilty " of possessing the accursed book and spreading the heresy of Luther." His efforts, however, were frustrated by the support which the Protestant cause received from Bern. In 1532 Farel arrived in Geneva and made a deep impression. Riots and combats followed, in spite of the efforts of the Council of Two Hundred to reestablish peace by a compromise ordinance (Mar. 30, 1533). In July the bishop fled, never to return, but gained military support and from the middle of 1534 to the end of 1535 threatened the city. It succeeded in beating off these attacks at last, and on Apr. 2, 1536, the mass was finally abolished. In May a general assembly of the whole people swore to be at one in the sacred law of the Gospel. There were now ten pastors, who found their hands full and appealed for assistance. In July Calvin took up his residence there, and Geneva became a city governed by Protestant laws and a refuge for Reformers from France, Italy, Spain, and England (see CALVIN, JOHN). The city was the headquarters for Evangelical missionary effort; between 1555 and 1564 not less than 150 preachers left Geneva for France. In 1589 the party of the Guises in France allied itself with the Duke of Savoy in an attempt to recover the city by force. The war lasted until 1601, costing the republic 400,000 crowns and 1,500 lives, and was terminated by the Treaty of Lyons. The position of Geneva was made still stronger the next year by the victory of the Escalade, when on Dec. 11-12, 1602, an army of 8,000 men was despatched by Charles Emmanuel of Savoy to seize the city and had fixed their scaling-ladders to the walls before the alarm was given. The Genevese repelled the enemy and completed their success by turning the defeat into a rout. In the earlier part of the seventeenth century Geneva still continued to furnish pastors and teachers for France, and at its close became once more an asylum for Huguenot fugitives after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes; between 1682 and 1720 3,600 refugees were received and maintained at the cost of the citizens. Close relations were also kept up with the Protestant churches of the North, England, Holland, and parts of Germany. In the eighteenth century, after two hundred years of constant combat with the papacy, Geneva was active in defense of the Christian faith against the attacks of Voltaire and the position of the Encyclopedist school in general: but the deism of Rousseau made alarming inroads on the Protestant Church membership. Between 1841 and 1878 there were constant conflicts between the Calvinist majority and the growing Roman Catholic minority, which resulted in the separation of Church and State.

The organization of the Church of Geneva remained unaltered for a long time, or underwent only minor modifications, until, in 1846, a radical change was effected, amounting almost to a revolution. Up to 1846 the pastors were chosen by the Vdn6rable Compagnie des Pasteurs, one of the institutions of Calvin, which also had in hand the

administration of all religious affairs of the Church, and exercised great influence on the academy and the schools. But from that year the authority of the Compagnie was confined to questions of worship proper; while the other branches of the administration of the Church were placed under the consistoire, composed of twenty-five lay members and six pastors, and elected by the people; and the pastors were chosen by the congregations. At the same time that doctrinal difference began to develop which finally led to the formation of the Evangelical Society, and the foundation of a new theological school; for which see GAUBBEN; MERLE D'AUBIGNLr; and EVANGELICAL SOCIETY oh GENEVA. The radicals, who gained control in 1846, held it for fifteen years, abolished the Protestant Church of Geneva, and established a church almost creedless. This was reversed in 1862, when the conservatives came into power. In 1873 the grand council ousted all Roman Catholic priests who refused the oath of allegiance to the State; in 1876 the cathedral was given to the Old Catholics. In 1878 the expelled curs were permitted to return, and the separation of Church and State was accepted. In 1909 a monument to John Calvin was erected by general subscription.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Important are the Mhmoires et documents publies par la soci6M d'histoire et d'arehdologie de Genhe, Geneva, 1840 eqq. Consult: Besson, Mt!mOiree pour ssrvir d Mistoire eccleaiaatique . . . de Gentve, Nancy, 1759; J. Gaberel, Hist. de 1'Egliae de Genwe, 3 vols., Geneva. 18531862; Regeste Genevois des documents imprim& relaWs h 1'kistoire de is vine et du diocese de Gentve avant Vann& 1318, Geneva, 1866; J. B. G. Maliffe, Gentve historique et archeologique, ib. 1868 (sumptuous); J. D. Blavignae, Le Christianisme A Genre, ib. 1872; idem, nudes sur Goalive, 2 vols., ib. 1872-74; idem, in MErrwires et documents d'hiatoire et d'archgologie de Genbve, vii. 20; E. Choisy, La Th6ocratie h Gentve au temps de Calvin, ib. 1897; E. Doumergue, La Gen~ve calviniste, Lausanne, 1905.




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