BEER, bêr, GEORG: German Lutheran; b. at Schweidnitz (31 m. s.w. of Breslau) Nov. 12, 1865. He studied in Berlin and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1887), taught in Erbach 1889-91, and became privat-docent at Breslau in 1892. Two years later he went in the same capacity to Halle, and in 1900 to Strasburg as associate professor of the Old Testament. Became ordinary professor of Old Testament at Heidelberg, 1909. He has written Al-Gazzâli's Makâsid al-falâsifat, i, die Logik (Leyden, 1888); Individualund Gemeinde-psalmen (Marburg, 1894); and Der Text des Buches Hiob untersucht (1897); besides preparing the translation of the Martyrdom of Isaiah and of the Book of Enoch for E. Kautzsch's Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (Tübingen, 1900).
BEER, RUDOLF: German Protestant; b. at Bielitz (40 m. w.s.w. of Cracow) Dec. 5, 1863. He was educated at the universities of Vienna and Bonn, and since 1893 has been reader in Spanish at the latter university, as well as a custodian at the Imperial and Royal Library at Vienna since 1888. He is a collaborator on the Vienna Corpus patrum ecclesiasticorum latinorum. In theology he advocates "the scientific investigation of Christian revelation." Among his works special mention may be made of his Die Anecdota Borderiana Augustineischer Sermonen (Vienna, 1887); Heilige Höhen der Griechen und Römer (1891); Die Quellen für den liber diurnus concilii Basiliensis des Petrus Bruneti (1891); and Urkundliche Beiträge zu Johannes de Segovia (1896); in addition to editions of Wyclif's De compositione hominis (London, 1887); and De ente prdicamentali qustiones tredecim (1891), and of the Monumenta conciliorum generalium (3 vols., Vienna, 1892-96).
BEET, bît, JOSEPH AGAR: English Wesleyan;
b. at Sheffield Sept. 27, 1840. He attended Wesley
College, Sheffield (1851-56), and took up mining
engineering, but afterward studied theology at the
Wesleyan College, Richmond (1862-64). He was
pastor 1864-85 and professor of systematic theology in Wesleyan College, Richmond, 1885-1905.
He was also a member of the faculty of theology
in the University of London 1901-05. He delivered the Fernley Lecture on
The Credentials of the Gospels in 1889, and lectured in America in 1896.
Though long recognized as one of the ablest theologians and exegetes of his denomination, his
sympathy with the modern critical school of interpretation and particularly his views on eschatology
have occasioned much criticism. In The Last Things
(London, 1897; 2d ed., 1905) he opposed
the belief that the essential and endless permanence
of the soul is taught in the Bible and denied that
eternal punishment necessarily means endless torment, holding that the sinner may suffer a relative
annihilation of his mental and moral faculties and
sink into a dehumanized state. He reiterated these views in
The Immortality of the soul (1901). Charges
of heresy were brought against him at the Conference of 1902, but he was reelected to his professorship on condition that he refrain from expressing his opinions on immortality and future punishment. To regain liberty of speech in 1904 he gave
notice that he would retire from his chair in twelve
months. His other works are: Commentary on Romans
(London, 1877); Holiness as Understood by the Critics of the Bible (1880); Commentary on
Corinthians (1881); Commentary on Galatians
(1883); Commentary on Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon (1890); Through Christ to
God (1892); The Firm Foundation of the Christian
Faith (1892); The New Life in Christ (1895);
Nature and Christ (New York, 1896); Key to Unlock the Bible (1901); Transfiguration of Jesus
(1905); and Manual of Theology (1906).
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