BEECHER, THOMAS KINNICUTT: Congregationalist, sixth son of Lyman Beecher; b. at Litchfield, Conn., Feb. 10, 1824; d. at Elmira, N. Y., Mar. 14, 1900. He was graduated at Illinois College, Jacksonville, Ill., 1843; became school principal at Philadelphia, 1846, at Hartford, Conn., 1848; pastor at Williamsburg (Brooklyn), L. I., 1852, of the Independent Church (afterward called the Park Church), Elmira, 1854, where he served a long pastorate and became widely known for his eccentricities, but still more esteemed for his charities and respected for the practical good sense of many of his plans and ideas. He developed one of the first "institutional" churches, and his Sunday-school was a model one. His chief publication was Our Seven Churches (New York, 1870), a volume of discourses upon the different denominations in Elmira. In Time with the Stars, a book of children's stories, appeared posthumously (1902).
BEECHER, WILLIS JUDSON: Presbyterian; b. at Hampden, O., Apr. 29, 1838. He studied at Hamilton College (B.A., 1858) and Auburn Theological Seminary (1864), and was ordained to the ministry in 1864. After a pastorate at Ovid, N. Y., 1864-65, he was appointed professor of moral science and belles-lettres in Knox College, Galesburg, Ill. In 1869 he became pastor of the First Church of Christ in the same city. Two years later he was appointed professor of the Hebrew language and literature in Auburn Theological Seminary. In 1902 he delivered the Stone Lectures at Princeton Theological Seminary. He was a member of the Assembly's Committee on the Revision of the Confession of Faith (1890-92), and in theology is a progressive conservative. Besides preparing the Old Testament Sunday-school lessons for the Sunday School Times since 1893, he has written Farmer Tompkins and his Bibles (Philadelphia, 1874); General Catalogue of Auburn Theological Seminary (Auburn, 1883); Drill Lessons in Hebrew (1883); Index of Presbyterian Ministers, 1706-1881 (Philadelphia, 1883; in collaboration with his sister Mary A. Beecher); The Prophets and the Promise (New York, 1905); and The Teaching of Jesus concerning the Future Life (1906).
BEELZEBUB, be-el'ze-bub (properly, in all the New Testament passages
Baal-zebub was honored in Ekron, where he had
a temple and an oracle, which was consulted by
Ahaziah, king of Israel (
Beelzebul was early identified with Baal-zebub, and, as was so often the case, was turned into a bad demon, in accordance with later Jewish ideas. Since Lightfoot (Hor Heb., s.v.), it has been common to say that the name of the demon Beelzebul was purposely made out of Beel-zebub, in order to express contempt and horror; i.e., "lord of dung," instead of "lord of flies." But, inasmuch as such a name for Satan does not occur outside of the New Testament, it is better to seek its derivation in the old Ekronic worship, which might, in New Testament times, have still existed. Beelzebul may therefore be looked upon as the same name as Beel-zebub, and therefore as having the same meaning.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. C. A. Riehm, Handwörterbuch des biblischen Alterthums, s.v., Bielefeld, 1893-94 (revives the theory that the Syriac form may have meant simply "an enemy," cf. KAT, p. 461); J. Selden, De die Syris, London, 1617; J. Lightfoot, Hor hebraic on Matt. xii, 24, and Luke xi, 15, ib. 1675; F. C. Movers, Die Phönizier i, 260-261, Bonn, 1841; idem, in JA, 1878, pp. 220-225; P. Scholz, Götzendienst und Zauberwesen bei den alten Hebräern, pp. 170-173, Regensburg, 1877; Nowack, Archäologie, ii, 304-305; EB, i, 514-515; JE, ii, 629-630.
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