BACILIERI, ba"chi-li-e'ri, BARTOLOMEO: Cardinal-priest; b. at Breonio (near Verona), Italy, Mar. 28, 1842. He was educated at Verona and the Collegio Capranica, Rome, and after long service in the priesthood, was consecrated titular bishop of Nyssa in 1888, at the same time being appointed bishop coadjutor of Verona. Three years later he became bishop of the latter see, and in 1901 was created cardinal-priest of San Bartolomeo all'Isola. He is a member of the congregations of the Index and of Indulgences and Relics.
BACON, BENJAMIN WISNER: Congregationalist; b. at Litchfield, Conn., Jan. 15, 1860. He was graduated at Yale in 1881 and the Yale Divinity School 1884, and held successive Congregational pastorates at Old Lyme, Conn. (1884-89), and Oswego, N. Y. (1889-96). In 1896 he became instructor in New Testament Greek in the Yale Divinity School, and in 1897 Buckingham professor of New Testament criticism and interpretation. In addition to numerous briefer contributions and a translation of Wildeboer's Het Ontstaan van den Kanon des Ouden Verbonds (Groningen, 1889) under the title The Origin of the Canon of the Old Testament (London, 1895), he has written The Genesis of Genesis (Hartford, 1891); Triple Tradition of the Exodus (1894); Introduction to the New Testament (New York, 1900); The Sermon on the Mount (1902); and The Story of St. Paul (Boston, 1905).
English philosopher and statesman; b. in London Jan. 22, 1561, son of Sir Nicholas Bacon (b. 1509; d. 1579), Lord Keeper
As philosopher and man of letters Bacon's fame is in bright contrast to his sad failure in public life. His philosophy is contained chiefly in the various parts and fragments of a work which he called Instauratio magna and which he left incomplete; the most important part is the Novum organism (published 1620). His philosophy is a method rather than a system; but the influence of this method in the development of British thought can hardly be overestimated. As Luther was the reformer of religion, so Bacon was the reformer of philosophy. Luther had claimed that the Scripture was to be interpreted by private judgment, not by authority. The problem of Bacon was to suggest a method of interpreting nature. The old method afforded no fruits. It "flies from the senses and particulars" to the most general laws, and then applies deduction. This is the "anticipation of nature." To it Bacon opposes the "interpretation of nature." Nature is to be interpreted, not by the use of the deductive syllogism, but by the induction of facts, by a gradual ascent from facts, through intermediate laws called "axioms," to the forms of nature. Before beginning this induction, the inquirer is to free his mind from certain false notions or tendencies which distort the truth. These are called "Idols" (idola), and are of four kinds: "Idols of the Tribe" (idola tribus), which are common to the race; "Idols of the Den" (idola specus), which are peculiar to the individual; "Idols of the Marketplace" (idola fori), coming from the misuse of language; and "Idols of the Theater" (idola theatri), which result from an abuse of authority. The end of induction is the discovery of forms, the ways in which natural phenomena occur, the causes from which they proceed. Nature is not to be interpreted by a search after final causes. " Nature to be commanded must be obeyed." Philosophy will then be fruitful. Faith is shown by works. Philosophy is to be known by fruits.
In the application of this method in the physical and moral world, Bacon himself accomplished but little. His system of morals, if system it may be called, is to be gathered from the seventh and eighth books of his De augmentis scientiarum (1623; a translation into Latin and expansion of an earlier English work; the Advancement of Learning, 1605), and from his Essays (first ed., 10 essays, 1597; ed. with 38 essays, 1612; final ed., 58 essays, 1625). Moral action means action of the human will. The will is governed by reason. Its spur is the passions. The moral object of the will is the good. Bacon, like the ancient moralists, failed to distinguish between the good and the right. He finds fault with the Greek and Roman thinkers for disputing about the chief good. It is a question of religion, not of ethics. His moral doctrine has reference exclusively to this world. Duty is only that which one owes to the community. Duty to God is an affair of religion. The cultivation of the will in the direction of the good is accomplished by the formation of a habit. For this Bacon lays down certain precepts. No general rules can be made for moral action under all circumstances. The characters of men differ as their bodies differ.
Bacon separates distinctly religion and philosophy. The one is not incompatible with the other; for "a little philosophy inclineth man's mind to atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds about to religion." Bacon has been sometimes regarded as a defender of unbelief, because he opposed the search after final causes in the interpretation of nature. But it is one thing to discourage the search after final causes in science, it is another thing to deny the existence of final causes. "I had rather believe," he says, "all the fables in the Legend and the Talmud and the Alcoran than that this universal frame is without a mind" (Essay on Atheism). The object of scientific inquiry should be the "form," not the final cause.
While philosophy is not atheistic it does not inform religion. Tertullian, Pascal, and Bacon agree in proclaiming the separation of the two domains. Tertullian and Pascal do it to save religion from rationalism; Bacon does it to save philosophy from the "Idols." Credo quia absurdum is expressed in the following words: "But that faith which was accounted to Abraham for righteousness was of such a nature that Sarah laughed at it, who therein was an image of natural reason. The more discordant, therefore, and incredible, the divine mystery is, the more honor is shown to God in believing it, and the nobler is the victory of faith" (De augmentis, bk. ix). Religion comes, therefore, not from the light of nature, but from that of revelation. "First he breathed light upon the face of the matter, or chaos, then he breathed light into the face of man, and still he breatheth and inspireth light into the face of his chosen" (Essay on Truth). One may employ reason to separate revealed from natural truth, and to draw inferences from the former; but we must not go to excess by inquiring too curiously into divine mysteries, nor attach the same authority
to inferences as to principles. If Bacon was an atheist, as some claim, his writings are certainly not atheistic. He must, in that case, have been a hypocrite in order to be a flatterer, and, if a flatterer, a most foolish one. Yet the inductive method has given natural theology the facts which point most significantly to God.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bacon's religious works are thus enumerated by Prof. Thomas Fowler: (1) the Meditationes sacra' (published with the Essays, 1597); (2) A Confession of Faith (written before 1603, published 1648); (3) a Translation of Certain Psalms into English Verse (composed during a fit of sickness 1624, published 1625); (4) three prayers, The Student's Prayer, The Writer's Prayer, and a third composed during his troubles (1621). The most complete and best edition of Bacon's Works is by J. Spedding, R. L. Ellis, and D. D. Heath, 7 vols., London, 185759, new ed., 1870, which is supplemented by Spedding's Letters and Life, 7 vols., 1861-74; abridged ed., 2 vols., 1878. Of numerous editions of special works, mention may be made of The Advancement of Learning by W. Aldis Wright, 4th ed., Oxford, 1891; the Essays by Archbishop Whately, London, 1856, 6th ed., 1864; by W. Aldis Wright, Cambridge, 1862; and by E. A. Abbott, 2 vols., London, 1876; and the Novum organum, translation and text by G. W. Kitchin, Oxford, 1855; text with introduction, notes, etc., by Thomas Fowler, 2d ed., ib. 1889. For the life of Bacon and criticism, consult Macaulay's famous essay (handy ed., by Longmans, 1904), which, however, is considered incorrect and unfair; Thomas Fowler, Francis Bacon, in the series of English Philosophers, London, 1881; idem, in DNB, ii, 328360 (the best summary); R. W. Church, in the English Men of Letters, London, 1894; E. A. Abbott, Francis Bacon: Account of his Life and Works, ib. 1885; J. Nichol, Francis Bacon, his Life and Philosophy, 2 vols., ib. 1888--89, reissued, 1901.BACON, LEONARD: Congregationalist; b. in
Detroit, Mich., Feb. 19, 1802; d. in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 24, 1881. He was graduated at Yale in 1820, studied theology at Andover, became pastor of the First (Center) Church in New Haven in 1825, and retained his connection with the church during his life, after 1866 as pastor emeritus. He was instructor in revealed religion in the Yale Divinity School, 1866-71, and lecturer on church polity and American church history, 1871 till his death. He was one of the founders and early editors of The New Englander (1843) and of The New York Independent (1848). His published books include a life and selections from the works of Richard Baxter (2 vols., New Haven, 1830); Thirteen Historical Discourses on the Completion of Two Hundred Years from the Beginning of the First Church in New Haven (1839); Slavery Discussed in Occasional Essays from 1833 to 1846 (New York, 1846); The Genesis of the New England Churches (1874). He possessed a marked individuality of character and was an able and influential leader in his denomination. He was prominent in the slavery contest, and was a prolific writer and frequent speaker upon all topics of social and political reform.
BACON, LEONARD WOOLSEY: Congregationalist; b. at New Haven, Conn., Jan. 1, 1830; d. at Assonet, Mass., May 12, 1907. He was educated at Yale (B.A., 1850); he studied theology at Andover and Yale (1854), and medicine at Yale (M.D., 1855). He was pastor of St. Peter's Presbyterian Church, Rochester, N. Y., in 1856-57 and of the Congregational Church at Litchfield, Conn., in 1857-60. He
was missionary at large for Connecticut in 1861-62, and then held successive pastorates at Stamford, Conn. (1863-65), Brooklyn, N. Y. (1865-70), and Baltimore, Md. (1871-72). From 1872 to 187.7 he was in Europe, and after his return to the United States was pastor at Norwich, Conn. (1878-82), Philadelphia (1883-86), and Augusta, Ga. (188688). .Since 1901 he has been pastor of the Congregational Church at Assonet, Mass. He has edited Congregational Hymn and Tune Book (New Haven, 1857); The Book of Worship (New York, 1865); The Life, Speeches, and Discourses of Father Hyaeinthe (1872); The Hymns of Martin Luther Set to their Original Melodies, ulith an English Version (1883); and The Church Book: Hymns and Tunes (1883). He has also written The Vatican Council (New York, 1872); Church Papers: Essays on Subjects Ecclesiastical and Social (1876); The Simplicity that Is in Christ (1885); Irenics and Polemics (1898); History of American Christianity (1898); and Story of the Congregationalists (1904).
BACON (BACO), ROGER: The famous Fran ciscan theologian, called doctor mirabilis ; b. at or near Ilchester (31 m. s. of Bristol), Somersetshire, 1214; d. at Oxford June 11, 1294. He studied first at Oxford, then at Paris, where he took the degree of doctor of holy scripture in 1248 and joined the order of St. Francis, probably immediately after receiving his degree. In taking this step, he followed, it is said, the advice of the famous bishop of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste (q.v.); but it is more probable that his countryman Adam of Marsh (de Morisco) from Bath, himself a Franciscan and professor of philosophy at Oxford (d. about 1260), induced him to join that order (cf. J. Felten, Robert Grosseteste, Freiburg, 1887, 94 sqq.). Bacon now taught in Oxford and Paris, though it can not be stated how long he stayed in either place.
On account of his deep insight into the realm of natural science, which was then little known, and because of the astonishing effects which his physical experiments produced upon pupils and other contemporaries, he was suspected of being a " magician" and astrologer, busying himself with illicit arts. Some accidental remarks of his on the influence of the stare upon human destiny may have furnished occasion for this surmise. There is no doubt that he was,himself the scholar of whom he narrates that he was fined for making a burning. glass (Op. maj., iii, 116). The many vexations which he experienced, especially at
Suspected the hands of the friars, induced him to and Perse- write to Pope Clement IV (formerly cuted as a Guido Foulques), who as cardinal-Magician. legate in France and England had shown a friendly disposition toward him. Clement answered from Viterbo (Aug. 22, 1266) in a kindly manner, and requested Bacon to send some of his works. Accordingly he sent his Opus majus to Rome, and between 1266 and 1268 also the Opus minus and Opus tertium. A pupil of Bacon, the London magister John, seems to have taken an important part at that time in interpret ing these works to the pope, and probably also produced and explained some instruments made by
his teacher. The first investigation was favorable to the genial scholar, but a renewed charge which was brought against him by the general of the Franciscans, Jerome of Ascoli, during the pontificate of Nicholas III (1277-81), especially on account of the treatise De vera astranomia, ended with Bacon's imprisonment in a monastery either in Paris or at some other place in France. Ten years he thus spent behind the walls, but when Jerome had become Pope Nicholas IV, Bacon obtained his liberty through the recommendation of influential friends and was permitted to return to England.Bacon belongs to those scientists of the Middle Ages who approached modern methods. On this account he criticizes sharply the scholastic method of instruction. In his Compendium 8 tudii philoso phize he speaks disparagingly of Aristotle, Albert the Great, and Thomas Aquinas, whose " boyish " learning and effort he censures, also of the great Franciscan theologian Alexander of Hales. The attacks upon the latter explain in part the hostil ities which he experienced from his fellow friars. In the Opus magus (treating in six sections " of the hindrances of philosophy; of the relation between theology and philosophy; of the study of languages; of mathematics; of optics; of experimental knowl edge ") his decidedly antischolastic standpoint is also evident. No less do we find this
Anticipa- in his Opus minus, which endeavors tion of Mod- to reproduce the contents of the Opus ern Methods principale in an abbreviated form, andand Dis- in the Opus tertium, in which the prin-
coveries. cipal theses of both works are reproduced in a more aphoristic form (clothed in a more elegant diction to make their understanding easier and more acceptable to his papal protector Clement IV). In his theological works, of which two only have been preserved, Bacon also appears as representative of an antischolastic tendency. The Epistola de laude Scripturm Sacrv (ed.Wharton, in Usaher'sHistoria dogmatim de S cripturis, London, 1699) is permeated by a reformatory spirit. He emphasizes the sentence: Tota seientia in Bibliis eontenta est principaliter et fontaliter ; he insists upon the reading of the Bible in the original (and, if possible, also by the laity); he emphasizes in a critical spirit the need of correcting the Vulgate and cautions against the implicit confidence of the expositors in the authority of the Church Fathers. In the last of his works, the Compendium s tudii theologici (composed in 1292), he appears rather as a representative of church tradition, and denounces the " gross errors " of a Parisian theologian, the sententiarian Richardus Cornubiensis. The advanced character of his theological thought and teaching is evident also in his works on natural philosophy; for example, he speaks in the Opus minus of the " seven principal sins" in theological study, including the neglect of the original languages of the Holy Scripture, the corruption of the traditional text, and the wrong confidence in the authority of the Fathers. With regard to the future progress and triumphs of natural science, Bacon, in bold anticipation, foresaw and predicted many things, which assure to L-27
him the repute of a prophet, just as he discovered the principles of the telescope and microscope, was able to outline the laws of refraction and reflection, and penetrated more deeply into the laws of cosmology than any other scholar of the Middle Ages. His proofs that the Julian calendar needed correction, and the ways and means which he indicated to accomplish this end, and for which he was praised by Copernicus, must also be mentioned.
Of Bacon's writings the most are philosophical, or rather physical. The most important works of this class, especially the Opus majus, remained in manuscript till toward the end of the eighteenth century. The Opera chemica Rogeri Baconis, which was published in folio in 1485, was followed by a few minor writings pertaining to alchemy and mathematics. Of these the most interesting is the tractate on the secret powers of art and nature (first published at Paris, 1541, under the title, De mirabili potestate artis et naturm; often issued since the beginning of the seventeenth century with the title: De secretis operibus artis et naturcv).
His principal work, Opus majus cad Writings. Cleme2dem IV, was first published
in the eighteenth century by Samuel Jebb (London, 1733), and not before 1859 were his philosophical and physical works, which supplement his main work, issued (Fr. R. Baconis opera qusedam hactenus inedita, scil. Opus tertium, Opus minus, Compendium studii philosophise, De nullitate magise, De secretis naturm operibus, ed. J. F. Brewer, Rolls Series, No. 15). Two other works followed this publication: the tractate De philosophia morali, which Bacon composed as part vii of his Opus majus (Dublin, 1860), and De multiplicatione specierum, which was published in 1897 as an addition to J. H. Bridges's new edition of the Opus majus (The Opus majus of R. Bacon, edited with introduction and analytical table, 2 vols., Oxford, 1897), which gives for the first time the complete text, including also the seventh part, of moral-philosophical contents. His Greek Grammar and a Fragment of his Hebrew Grammar, edited from the manuscript, with notes by E. Nolan and S. A. Hirsch, appeared in 1902 (London), and a Greek tragedy was first published in the same year by the Cambridge press. In manuscript are still the Computus naturalium (3 books pertaining to the calendar and chronology), the Communia naturalium, and the Communia, mathematics.0. ZbcK1.ERt.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For the life Jebb's preface to his edition of the Opus maiua, ut sup.; M. le Clere, in the Histoire litt6raire de la France, vol. xx, Paris, 1842; E. Charles, Roger Bacon, sa vie, sea ouvrages, sea doctrines, Paris, 1861 ("a model of industry, skill, and intelligence "); L. Schneider, Roger Bacon, sine Monographic zur Geschichte der Philosophic lea dneizehnten Jahrhunderta, Augsburg, 1873; DNB, ii, 374-378; J. H. Bridges, in the introduction to his edition of the Opus maius, ut sup. (this and Charles are the best sources); H. Hurter, Theologia catholica tempora medii nevi, pp. 310-312, Innsbruck, 1899. On Bacon as scientific investigator consult: K. Werner, Die Paychologie, Erkenntnialehre and Wissenachaftskhredes Roger Baco, and Die Koamologie and allgemeine Naturlehre lea Roger Baco, both Vienna, 1879. For his significance as forerunner of the evangelical doctrine of scripture and as Bible-critic, F. A. Gasquet, English Bible Critiaiam in the Thirteenth Century, in The Dublin Review, exxii (1898), 1-22.
BADEN, bli'den: A grand duchy in the southwestern part of the German Empire, bounded on the north by Hesse and Bavaria, on the east by Wurttemberg and Hohenzollern, on the south and west by the Rhine, which separates it from Switzerland, Alsace, and the Rhine Palatinate (Rhenish Bavaria); area, 5,281 square miles; population (1900), 1,867,944, of whom 1,131,639 (60.6%) are Roman Catholics; 704,058 (37.7%), Evangelical Protestants, partly Lutherans, and including some of the Reformed communion, especially near the Swiss border, and several flourishing Methodist congregations, which have received help from America; 5,563, other Christians; 26,132 (1.4%), Jews; and 552, otherwise classified. In late years, owing to immigration and emigration, the number of Roman Catholics has decreased, while that of Protestants has increased.
In the eye of the law the Evangelical and Roman Catholic Churches are public corporations with the right of holding public divine services. Other bodies are restricted to privileges specially granted. Congregations manage their own affairs and the right of patronage is unknown. Ecclesiastical property is administered by Church and State jointly. No religious order can be introduced without consent of the government. Invested funds for the benefit of the sick and the poor, as well as for education, have generally been withdrawn from ecclesiastical boards.
The Evangelical Protestant Established Church is a union of diverse elements, consequent upon territorial changes, accomplished in 1821. As now constituted the grand duke is at the head. All permanent residents of a parish are regarded as members of the congregation, and the active members choose a representative committee, which has a voice in the selection of the pastor and important financial questions, and selects the Church Council. The latter with the pastor has the general charge of the congregation. Congregations are united into dioceses, and diocesan synods; consisting of all pastors and an equal number of elders meet yearly. Diocesan affairs are in the hands of a dean and a diocesan committee of two clerical and two lay members elected by the synod. A general synod meets every five years; it consists of the Prelate, seven members named by the grand duke, and one clerical and one lay delegate from each synod. It cooperates in ecclesiastical legislation, approves the church budget, has the right of complaint against the Upper Church Council, and chooses a synodal committee to work with the latter. The Upper Church Council is appointed by the grand duke. Church revenues are supplemented, when necessary, by taxation, equal sums being appropriated for the Evangelical and Roman Catholic Churches, although the latter has declined such aid under the condition imposed binding the bishop to accept all laws and ordinances of the State. Ministers receive salarief, ranging from 1,600 to 4,000 marks, graded according to years of service. Religious instruction is obligatory in all schools and a (Protestant) theological faculty is maintained at Heidelberg.The Roman Catholic Church of Baden belongs to the province of the Upper Rhine and forms the archbishopric of Freiburg. The relations between Church and State, particularly the questions of the position of the bishops, the appointment of priests, the maintenance of independent Roman Catholic schools, the right of establishing religious societies and institutions, and the management of church property, have been in almost continual dispute between the government and the curia, and pro tracted negotiations have not led T to a permanent settlement. WILHELM GOIaTZ.
BADEN (IM AARGAU), CONFERENCE OF: An early attempt to check the Reformation in Switzerland. It met at Baden in Aargau, May 21, 1526, and closed June 8. The assembly was large and brilliant, the cities, with the exception of Zurich, having very generally sent their delegates and theologians. The chief speakers for the Reformation were (Ecolampadius and Berthold Haller; for the Roman Catholics Eck, Faber, and Murner. The entire conduct of the assembly was in the .hands of the opponents of the Reformation and its decision against the latter was a foregone conclusion. Its decrees, however, had little influence on the popular mind, and indiscreet efforts to give them practical effect brought them still further into disfavor. The acts were published by Murner (Lucerne, 1527).
BIBLIOVRAPBT: Schaff, Christian Church, vii, 98-102, New York, 1892.
BADEN (IN BADEN), CONFERENCE OF, Ig4 See PIBTORIUB.
BADER, bd'der, JOHANN: Leader of the Reformation at Landau in the Palatinate (18 m. n.w. of Carlsruhe); b., probably, at Zweibrticken (50 m. w. of Speyer), Rhenish Bavaria, about 1470; d. at Landau shortly before Aug. 16, 1545. Of his early years almost nothing is known. He seems to have studied at Heidelberg in 1486 and succeeding years and then appears as chaplain in Zweibriicken, where he was also tutor to Duke Ludwig (b. 1502). In 1518 Bader was called as minister to Landau, where he labored till his death. From 1522 he openly opposed Roman abuses and especially auricular confession. Called to appear before the spiritual court at Speyer, he followed the summons and, after many proceedings, was bidden, July 17, 1523, to preach in future the holy gospel only and to obey the imperial mandates. As he believed that he had been preaching the pure gospel, he did not feel called upon to change his former manner, and, upheld by the confidence of his congregation, he opposed the teachings of the Church the more, and openly attacked the lootrine of purgatory, mass for the dead, invocation of the saints, monastic vows, and fasts. For this he was again summoned to Speyer, Mar. 10, 1524. His proposal, to prove his teachings from the New Testament, was rejected, and he was excommunicated. Not in the least intimidated, he appealed to a future council, published his appeal with all the documents, and, supported by the city-council, steadfastly continued his reformatory work. He devoted great care to the instruction of the youth,
and assembled the "young people" of the city and instructed them in the Christian faith. About Easter, 1526, he published his GesprdchsWchlein, which may be regarded as the oldest evangelical catechism. In this he gives an exposition of the Lord's Prayer, the Apostles' Creed, the doctrine of baptism, and the ten commandments. In 1527 he opposed the Anabaptists, but afterward he was strongly influenced by Schwenckfeld, as appears especially in his Katechismus published in 1544, a new edition of his earlier work, containing a treatment of the Lord's Supper not found in the Gesprtichsbuchlein. He states that where the principal requisite for a true celebration of the Lord's Supper-a church of true believers-is lacking, it is better not to celebrate. And indeed, after 1541, Bader could no more be induced to celebrate the Lord's Supper at Landau, because he did not regard the congregation there as sufficiently holy. Jumus NEY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. P. Gelbert, Mapiater Johann Baders Leben and Schriften, Neustadt, 1868. For a full account of the debate on infant baptism at Landau, Jan. 20, 1527, between Hans Denk and Bader, of. Bader's Briderliche Warnung lfir den newen Abpbttiachen Orden der Widertdufer (1527), of which copies are to be found in Munich and in the library of the University- of Rochester. Bader strongly opposed Desk at the time, but later he adopted most of his views; cf. L. Ketle-, Bin Apoatel der Wiedertauter; pp. 196-200, Leipsic, 1882.
BAENTSCH, b6ntsh, BRUNO JOHANNES LEOPOLD: German Lutheran; b. at Halle Mar. 25, 1859. He was educated at the gymnasium and university of his native city, and held successive pastorates at Rothenburg on the Saade (1886-88) and Erfurt (1888-93). In 1893 he became privatdocent of Old Testament science at the University of Jena, where he was appointed associate professor in 1899 and full professor two years later. In theology he is an adherent of the historico-critical school. He has been a member of the K&nigliche Akademie gemeinnutziger Wissenschaften since 1891, and has written Das Bundesbuch, Ex. xx, 22-xxiii, 33 (Halls, 1892); Die moderns Bibelkritik and die Autoritdt des Gotteawortes (Erfurt, 1892); Das Heiligkeitsgesetz, Lev. xvii-xxvi, sine histmrisclh kritische Untersuchung (1893); Geschicht8construction oder Wissenschaftt (Halls, 1896); Die Bucher Exodus, Leviticus, Numeri ubersetzt and erkldrt (2 vols., Gbttingen, 1900-03); H. St. Chamberlains Yorstellungen iiber die Religion der Semiten (Langensalza, 1905); and Altorientalischer und israelitiacher Monotheismus (Tiibingen, 1906).
BAERWINKKEL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM RICHARD: German Lutheran; b. at Dallmin (a village near Perleberg, 77 m. n.w. of Berlin) July 3, 1840. He was educated at the universities of Bonn and Halle from 1859 to 1862 (Ph.D., Jena, 1864), and after passing his theological examinations in 1862 and 1865, being at the same time a private tutor, was a teacher in a real-school in Halle from 1863 to 1868. Since the latter year he has been pastor of the Reglerkirche in Erfurt, where he is also superintendent and senior of the Evangelical Ministerium, as well as a member of the local academy of sciences since 1891, being likewise a member of its senate since 1905. He has
been, moreover, a member of the governing board of the Evangelischer Bund since its establishment in 1886, and is a member of the synodical council of the Prussian General Synod, besides being president of several ecclesiastical committees. He is a mediating theologian, and an advocate of the " modern theology of the ancient faith." He has written Luther in Erfurt (Erfurt, 1868); Ueber den religi6sen Wert von Reuters " Ut min Stromtid " (1876 ); and Im Garten Gottes (1900), as well as many briefer pamphlets, particularly in the Flugschriften des evangelischen Bundes.
BAETHGEN, bAth'gen, FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLF: Protestant theologian; b. at Lachem (a village near Hameln, 25 m. s.w. of Hanover) Jan. 16, 1849; d. at Rohrbach (a village near Heidelberg) Sept. 6, 1905. He studied at G6ttingen and Kiel, and served in the German army in the war against France, 1870-71. He was in Russia, 1873-76; in Berlin, 1876-77, and in the British Museum, 1878. He became privatrdocent at Mel in 1878, and associate professor of theology in 1884. From 1881 to 1884 he was also adjunctus ministerii in Kiel. In 1888 he was called to Halle in the same capacity, but in the following year was appointed regular professor of theology at Greifswald, where he also became counselor and member of the Pomeranian consistory. In 1895 he was called to Berlin. He was the author of Untersuchungen fiber die Psalmen nach der Peschita (Kiel, 1878); Sindban oder die sieben weisen Meister (Leipsie, 1879); Syrische Grammatik des Mar Elias von Tirhan herausgegeben and uberset<-t (1880); Anmuth and Wurde in der alltestamentliehen Poesie (Kiel, 1880, a lecture); Fragments syrischer and arabischer ,Historiker herausgegeben and ubersetzt (Leipsie, 1884); Evangelienfragmenfeder griechische.Text des Cureton'schen Syrers wieder hergestellt (1885); Beitrage zur semitischen Reli gionsgeschichte: der Gott Israels and die Goiter der Heiden (Berlin, 1888); Die Psalmen, ubersetzt and erkldrt (GBttingen,1897); and Hiob ubersetzt (1898); in addition to preparing the second edition of Riehm's Handworterbuch des biblischen Altertums (2 vols., Bielefeld, 1893-94).. 11 1
BAGSHAWE, EDWARD GILPIN: Roman Cath olic titular archbishop of Seleucia Trachea; b: at London Jan. 12, 1829. He was educated at London University College School and at St. Mary's College, Oscott, near. Birmingham (B.A., London University, 1848). In 1849 he joined the Congregation of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, London, and in 1852 was ordained priest by Cardinal Wiseman. After a priesthood of twenty years he was consecrated Roman Catholic bishop of Nottingham
by Archbishop Manning (Nov. 12, 1874), but resigned in 1901. In the following year he was
appointed titular bishop of Hypsepa, and in 1904 was elevated to the titular archdiocese of Seleucia Trachea. In addition to a number of briefer pamphlets, he has written Notes on Christian Doctrine (London, 1896; originally a series of lectures delivered before the Hammersmith Training College
for Teachers); The Breviary Hymns and Missal Sequences in English Verse (1900); The Psalms and
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