BACHIARIUS, bak-i-a'ri-us: An author, presumably a monk (cf. Gennadius of Marseilles, Script. eccl., xxiv), to whom are ascribed two writings: (1) a Liber de fide, in which he defends his orthodoxy against attacks, probably of the Priscillianists (cf. Priscillian, ed. G. Schepss, CSEL, xviii, 1889, index, p. 167); and (2) a Liber de reparatione lapsi ad Januarium, in which he takes the part of a monk whose offenses against morality had been treated with extreme rigor by his abbot.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The works are in MPL, xx. Consult Fessler-Jungmann, Institutiones patrologiae, vol. ii, part 1, 418-427 Innsbruck, 1892; 8. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate, p. 28, Nancy, 1893; (G. L. Hahn, Bibliothek der Symbols, $ 208, Leipsic, 1897; F. Kattenbusch, Das apostolische Symbol, i-ii, passim, Leipeic, 1894-1900.
BACHMANN, bah'man (GEORG), PHILIPP: German Protestant; b. at Geislingen (34 m. s.e. of Stuttgart) Oct. 13, 1864. He was educated at the University of Erlangen (Ph.D., 1887) and the seminary for preachers at Munich (1888). He was a lecturer at Erlangen in 1888-90, and pastor at Urfersheim in 1890-92, after which he was a teacher of religion at Nuremberg until 1902, when he was appointed professor of systematic theology at Erlangen. He has written Die personliche Heilserfahrung (Leipsic, 1889); Die augsburgische Confession (1900); Sittenlehre Jesu (1904); and Kommentar zu I Korinther (1905).
BACHMANN, JOHANNES FRANZ JULIUS: Lutheran; b. at Berlin Feb. 24, 1832; d. at Rostock Apr. 12, 1888. He studied at Halle and Berlin, became privat-docent at Berlin, 1856, Ordinary professor of theology at Rostock, 1858, also university preacher, 1874. In his student days Tholuck and Hengstenberg attracted him most, and it was in large measure the learning, ingenuity, and firmness of the latter in defending tradition which influenced Bachmann to devote himself especially to the investigation of the Old Testament. His theological position may be thus characterised: The conception of prophecy seemed to him determined by the mode of its fulfilment; for this reason he believed that the spiritual, not the literal, exposition of the Old Testament should be followed. Nevertheless, he tried to avoid the one-sided spiritualism which Hengstenberg espoused in his earlier works. His scholarship in his chosen field is evident in two works, Die Festgesetze des Pentateuchs aufs neue kritisch untersucht (Berlin, 1858), in which he endeavors to prove, against Hupfeld, the harmonious unity of the festival laws of the Pentateuch; and in his unfinished commentary on the Book of Judges (Berlin, 1868), upon which he had spent years of labor. Of this work George F. Moore remarks (Commentary on Judges, New York, 1895, 1): "By far the fullest recent commentary on Judges is that of J. Bachmann, which was unfortunately never carried beyond the fifth chapter. The author's standpoint is that of Hengstenberg, and he is a stanch opponent of modern criticism of every shade and school; but in range and accuracy of scholarship, and exhaustive thoroughness of treatment, his volume stands without a rival." Bachmann also wrote with reverence and learning a biography of his teacher Hengstenberg (2 vols., Giltersloh, 1876-80).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Behm, Johannes Bachmann, Rostock, 1888 (by his son-in-law).
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