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Chapter 2

2:1 But speak thou [su de lalei]. In contrast to these Pharisaic Gnostics in Crete. Befit [prepei]. Old verb to be becoming, seemly. See 1Ti 2:10; Eph 5:3. With dative case [didaskaliāi]. Sound [hugiainousēi]. Healthful as in 1:13; 2:2; 1Ti 1:10, common word in the Pastorals.

2:2 Aged men [presbutas]. See Phm 1:9 for this word. For discussion of family life see also Co 3:18-4:1; Eph 5:22-6:9; 1Ti 5:1-6:2. For the adjectives here see 1Ti 3:2, 8; for the substantives see 1Ti 6:11.

2:3 Aged women [presbutidas]. Old word, feminine of [presbutēs], only here in N.T. See [presbuteras] in 1Ti 5:2. Reverent [hieroprepeis]. Old word [heiros, prepei]. Only here in N.T. Same idea in 1Ti 2:10. Like people engaged in sacred duties (Lock). In demeanour [en katastēmati]. Late and rare word (inscriptions) from [kathistēmi], deportment, only here in N.T. Not slanderers [mē diabolous]. See 1Ti 3:11; 2Ti 3:3. Nor enslaved to much wine [mēde oinōi pollōi dedoulōmenas]. Perfect passive participle of [douloō], with dative case [oinōi]. See 1Ti 3:8. “It is proved by experience that the reclamation of a woman drunkard is almost impossible” (White). But God can do the “impossible.” Teachers of that which is good [kalodidaskalous]. Compound word found here alone, bona docentes (teaching good and beautiful things). A sorely needed mission.

2:4 That they may train [hina sōphronizōsin]. Purpose clause, [hina] and present active subjunctive of [sōphronizō], old verb (from [sōphrōn], sound in mind, [saos, phrēn], as in this verse), to make sane, to restore to one’s senses, to discipline, only here in N.T. To love their husbands [philandrous einai]. Predicate accusative with [einai] of old adjective [philandros] [philos, anēr], fond of one’s husband), only here in N.T. [Anēr] means man, of course, as well as husband, but only husband here, not “fond of men” (other men than their own). To love their children [philoteknous]. Another old compound, here only in N.T. This exhortation is still needed where some married women prefer poodle-dogs to children.

2:5 Workers at home [oikourgous]. So the oldest MSS. (from [oikos, ergou] instead of [oikourous], keepers at home (from [koiso, ouros], keeper). Rare word, found in Soranus, a medical writer, Field says. Cf. 1Ti 5:13. “Keepers at home” are usually “workers at home.” Kind [agathas]. See Ro 5:7. See Col 3:18; Eph 5:22 for the same use of [hupotassomai], to be in subjection. Note [idiois] (their own). See 1Ti 6:1 for the same negative purpose clause [hina mē blasphēmētai].

2:6 The younger men [tous neōterous]. Just one item, besides “likewise” [hosautōs] as in 3; 1Ti 2, 9), “to be soberminded” [sōphronein], old verb as in Rom 12:3). It is possible to take “in all things” [peri panta] with [sōphronein], though the editors take it with verse 7.

2:7 Shewing thyself [seauton parechomenos]. Present middle (redundant middle) participle of [parechō] with the reflexive pronoun [seauton] as if the active voice [parechōn]. The Koinē shows an increasing number of such constructions (Robertson, Grammar, p. 811). See active in 1Ti 1:4. An ensample [tupon]. For this word see 2Th 3:9; Php 3:17. Uncorruptness [aphthorian]. Only example, from late adjective [aphthoros] [a] privative and [phtheirō].

2:8 Sound [hugiē], Attic usually [hugiā] in accusative singular), elsewhere in Pastorals participle [hugianōn] (verse 1). That cannot be condemned [akatagnōston]. Only N.T. example (verbal, [a] privative and [katagnōstos] and in IV Macc. 4:47. Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 200) quotes it from an inscription and the adverb from a papyrus. He that is of the contrary part [ho ex enantias]. “The one on the opposite side” (your opponent). Cf. verse 9; 1Ti 5:14. May be ashamed [hina entrapēi]. Final clause with [hina] and second aorist passive subjunctive of [entrepō], to turn, in middle and passive to turn one on himself and so be ashamed (to blush) as in 2Th 3:14; 1Co 4:14. This sense in the papyri. Evil [phaulon]. Old word, easy (easy morals), worthless; bad, as in 2Co 5:10.

2:9 Servants [doulous]. “Slaves.” Supply “exhort” [parakalei]. See 1Ti 6:1 for “masters” [despotais]. Well-pleasing [euarestous]. See on 2Co 5:9. Not gainsaying [mē antilegontas]. “Not answer back.” See Ro 10:21.

2:10 Not purloining [mē nosphizomenous]. Present middle participle of [nosphizō], old verb (from [nosphi], apart), in middle to set apart for oneself, to embezzle, in N.T. only here and Ac 5:2f. Fidelity [pistin]. See Ga 5:22; 1Ti 5:12 for [pistis] in the sense of faithfulness. Nowhere else in the N.T. do we have [agathē] with [pistis] as here, but an Oxyr. papyrus (iii. 494, 9) has this very phrase [pāsan pistin endeiknumenēi]. Westcott and Hort put [agapēn] in the margin. See 3:2. That they may adorn [hina kosmōsin]. Final clause with [hina] and present active subjunctive. See 1Ti 2:9 for [kosmeō]. Paul shows slaves how they may “adorn” the teaching of God.

2:11 Hath appeared [epephanē]. “Did appear,” the first Epiphany (the Incarnation). Second aorist passive indicative of [epiphainō], old verb, in N.T. here, 3:4; Lu 1:79; Ac 27:20. Bringing salvation [sōtērios]. Old adjective from [sōtēr] (Saviour), here alone in N.T. except [to sōtērion] (salvation, “the saving act”) in Lu 2:30; 3:6; Eph 6:17. Instructing [paideuousa]. See 1Ti 1:20. Ungodliness [asebeian]. See Ro 1:18. Worldly lusts [tas kosmikas epithumias]. Aristotle and Plutarch use [kosmikos] (from [kosmos] about the universe as in Heb 9:1 about the earthly. Here it has alone in N.T. the sense of evil “in this present age” as with [kosmos] in 1Jo 2:16. The three adverbs set off the opposite (soberly [sōphronōs], righteously [dikaiōs], godly [eusebōs].

2:13 Looking for [prosdechomenoi]. Present middle participle of [prosdechomai], old verb, the one used of Simeon (Lu 2:25) and others (Lu 2:38) who were looking for the Messiah. The blessed hope and appearing of the glory [tēn makarian elpida kai epiphaneian tēs doxēs]. The word [epiphaneia] (used by the Greeks of the appearance of the gods, from [epiphanēs, epiphainō] occurs in 2Ti 1:10 of the Incarnation of Christ, the first Epiphany (like the verb [epephanē], Tit 2:11), but here of the second Epiphany of Christ or the second coming as in 1Ti 6:14; 2Ti 4:1, 8. In 2Th 2:8 both [epiphaneia] and [parousia] (the usual word) occur together of the second coming. Of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ [tou megalou theou kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou]. This is the necessary meaning of the one article with [theou] and [sōtēros] just as in 2Pe 1:1, 11. See Robertson, Grammar, p. 786. Westcott and Hort read [Christou Iēsou].

2:14 Who gave himself for us [hos edōken heauton huper hēmōn]. Paul’s great doctrine (Ga 1:4; 2:20; 1Ti 2:6). That he might redeem us [hina lutrōsētai]. Final clause, [hina] and the aorist middle subjunctive of [lutroō], old verb from [lutron] (ransom), in N.T. only here, Lu 24:21; 1Pe 1:18. Purify to himself [katharisēi heautōi]. Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of [katharizō], for which verb see Eph 5:26. Lawlessness [anomias]. See 2Th 2:3. A people for his own possession [laon periousion]. A late word (from [perieimi], to be over and above, in papyri as well as [periousia], only in LXX and here, apparently made by the LXX, one’s possession, and so God’s chosen people. See 1Pe 2:9 [laos eis peripoiēsin]. Zealous of good works [zēlōtēn kalōn ergōn]. “A zealot for good works.” Substantive for which see 1Co 14:12; Ga 1:14. Objective genitive [ergōn].

2:15 With all authority [meta pasēs epitagēs]. See 1Co 7:6; 2Co 8:8. Assertion of authority is sometimes necessary. Let no man despise thee [mēdeis sou periphroneitō]. Present active imperative in prohibition of [periphroneō], old verb, only here in N.T., to think around (on all sides). Literally, “let no man think around thee” (and so despise thee). In 1Ti 4:12 it is [kataphroneitō] (think down on), a stronger word of scorn, but this one implies the possibility of one making mental circles around one and so “out-thinking” him. The best way for the modern minister to command respect for his “authority” is to do thinking that will deserve it.

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