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Chapter 3

3:1 To be in subjection to rulers, to authorities, to be obedient [archais exousiais hupotassesthai peitharchein]. Remarkable double asyndeton, no [kai] (and) between the two substantives or the two verbs. [Peitharchein] (to obey), old verb (from [peithomai, archē], in N.T. only here and Ac 27:21. To be ready unto every good work [pros pan ergon agathon hetoimous einai]. Pauline phrase (2Co 9:8; 2Ti 2:21; 3:17), here adjective [hetoimos] (2Co 9:5), there verb.

3:2 To speak evil [blasphēmein]. See Col 3:8; 1Ti 6:4. Not to be contentious [amachous einai]. “To be non-fighters” (1Ti 3:3), originally “invincible.” Gentle [epieikeis]. See 1Ti 3:3. Meekness [prautēta]. [Praotēta]. See Col 3:12.

3:3 Aforetime [pote]. “Once” in our unconverted state as in Eph 2:3. Foolish [anoētoi]. See Ro 1:14, 21. Disobedient [apeitheis]. See Ro 1:30. Deceived [planōmenoi]. Present passive participle of [planaō] though the middle is possible. Divers lusts [hēdonais poikilais]. “Pleasures” [hēdonais] from [hēdomai], old word, in N.T. only here, Lu 8:14; Jas 4:1, 3; 2Pe 2:13). [Poikilais] (old word) is many-coloured as in Mr 1:34; Jas 1:2; 2Ti 3:6, etc. Living [diagontes]. See 1Ti 3:6 (supply [bion]. In malice [en kakiāi]. See Ro 1:29. Envy [phthonōi]. See Ro 1:29. Hateful [stugētoi]. Late passive verbal from [stugeō], to hate. In Philo, only here in N.T. Hating one another [misountes allēlous]. Active sense and natural result of being “hateful.”

3:4 The kindness [hē chrēstotēs]. See Ro 2:4 for this very word used of God as here. His love toward man [hē philanthrōpia]. “The philanthrophy of God our Saviour.” Old word from [philanthrōpos], for love of mankind, in N.T. only here and Ac 28:2. Appeared [epephanē]. See 2:11 and here as there the Incarnation of Christ. See 1Ti 1:1 for [sōtēr] with [theos] (God).

3:5 Done (not in the Greek, only the article [tōn], “not as a result of works those in righteousness which we did.” Same idea as in Ro 3:20f. According to his mercy he saved us [kata to autou eleos esōsen]. See Ps 109:26; 1Pe 1:3; Eph 2:4. Effective aorist active indicative of [sōzō]. Through the washing of regeneration [dia loutrou palingenesias]. Late and common word with the Stoics (Dibelius) and in the Mystery-religions (Angus), also in the papyri and Philo. Only twice in the N.T. (Mt 19:28 with which compare [apokatastasia] in Ac 3:21, and here in personal sense of new birth). For [loutron], see Eph 5:26, here as there the laver or the bath. Probably in both cases there is a reference to baptism, but, as in Ro 6:3-6, the immersion is the picture or the symbol of the new birth, not the means of securing it. And renewing of the Holy Spirit [kai anakainōseōs pneumatos hagiou]. “And renewal by the Holy Spirit” (subjective genitive). For the late word [anakainōsis], seem Ro 12:2. Here, as often, Paul has put the objective symbol before the reality. The Holy Spirit does the renewing, man submits to the baptism after the new birth to picture it forth to men.

3:6 Which [hou]. Genitive case by attraction from [ho] (grammatical gender) to the case of [pneumatos hagiou]. We do not have grammatical gender (only natural) in English. Hence here we should say “whom,” even if it does not go smoothly with [execheen] (he poured out, second aorist active indicative of [ekcheō]. The reference is to the great Pentecost (Ac 2:33) as foretold by Joel (Joe 2:28). Richly [plousiōs]. Then and to each one in his own experience. See Ro 10:12; 1Ti 6:17.

3:7 Being justified by his grace [dikaiōthentes tēi ekeinou chariti]. First aorist passive participle of [dikaioō] and instrumental case of [charis] as in Ro 3:24; 5:1. That we might be made heirs [hina klēronomoi genēthōmen]. Purpose with [hina] and first aorist passive of [ginomai]. See Ro 4:13; 8:17.

3:8 The saying [ho logos]. In verses 4-7. I will [boulomai]. See 1Ti 2:8. That thou affirm confidently [se diabebaiousthai]. Indirect command. For the verb see 1Ti 1:7. That they may be careful [hina phrontizōsin]. Sub-final use of [hina] with present active subjunctive of [phrontizō], old verb, only here in N.T. To maintain good works [kalōn ergōn pro‹stasthai]. Present middle infinitive of [proistēmi], intransitive use, to stand before, to take the lead in, to care for. Paul is anxious that “believers” may take the lead in good works.

3:9 Fightings about the law [machas nomikas]. “Legal battles.” See 1Ti 6:4; 2Ti 2:23. Wordy fights about Mosaic and Pharisaic and Gnostic regulations. Shun [periistaso]. Present middle imperative of [periistēmi], intransitive, step around, stand aside (2Ti 2:16). Common in this sense in the literary Koinē. Unprofitable [anōpheleis]. Old compound adjective [a] privative and [ophelos], in N.T. only here and Heb 7:18.

3:10 Heretical [hairetikon]. Old adjective from [hairesis] [haireomai], to choose), a choosing of a party (sect, Ac 5:17) or of teaching (2Pe 2:1). Possibly a schism had been started here in Crete. Refuse [paraitou]. Present middle imperative of [paraiteō], to ask from, to beg off from. See same form in 1Ti 4:7; 5:11. Possibly an allusion here to Christ’s directions in Mt 18:15-17.

3:11 Is perverted [exestraptai]. Perfect passive indicative of [ekstrephō], old word to turn inside out, to twist, to pervert. Only here in N.T. Self-condemned [autokatakritos]. Only known example of this double compound verbal adjective [autos, kata, krinō].

3:12 When I shall send [hotan pempsō]. Indefinite temporal clause with [hotan] and the first aorist active subjunctive (or future indicative) of [pempō] (same form). Artemas [Artemān]. Perhaps abbreviation of Artemidorus. Nothing more is known of him. Or Tychicus [ē Tuchikon]. Paul’s well-known disciple (Col 4:7; Eph 6:21; 2Ti 4:12). To Nicopolis [eis Nikopolin]. Probably in Epirus, a good place for work in Dalmatia (2Ti 4:10). I have determined [kekrika]. Perfect active indicative. I have decided. To winter there [ekei paracheimasai]. First aorist active infinitive of [paracheimazō], a literary Koinē word for which see Ac 27:12; 1Co 16:6.

3:13 Zenas the lawyer [Zēnān ton nomikon]. Possibly abbreviation of Zenodorus and may be one of the bearers of the Epistle with Apollos. Probably an expert in the Mosaic law as the word means in the Gospels. A converted Jewish lawyer. The Latin term is jurisconsultum for [nomikon]. Apollos [Apollōn]. Paul’s friend (Ac 18:24-19:1; 1Co 1:12ff.). Set forward [propempson]. First aorist active imperative of [propempō], old verb, to send on ahead (1Co 16:6, 11; Ro 15:24). That nothing be wanting unto them [hina mēden autois leipēi]. Purpose with [hina] and present (or second aorist [lipēi], some MSS.) subjunctive of [leipō], old verb to leave, to remain, to lack. With dative case here [autois].

3:14 Our people [hoi hēmeteroi]. “Our folks.” The Cretan converts, not just Paul’s friends. Let learn [manthanetōsan]. Present active imperative, keep on learning how. To maintain [pro‹stasthai]. See verse 8. For necessary uses [eis anagkaias chreias]. “For necessary wants.” No idlers wanted. See 1Th 4:12; 2Th 3:10f. Unfruitful [akarpoi]. See 1Co 14:14; Eph 5:11.

3:15 That love us [tous philountas hēmās]. Paul craved the love of his friends as opposed to 2:8.

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