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1:1 According to the faith of God’s elect [kata pistin eklektōn theou]. Here [kata] expresses the aim of Paul’s apostleship, not the standard by which he was chosen as in Php 3:14; a classic idiom, repeated here with [epignōsin, eusebeian, epitagēn], “with a view to” in each case. For “God’s elect” see Ro 8:33; Col 3:12. The knowledge [epignōsin]. “Full knowledge,” one of Paul’s favourite words. For the phrase see 1Ti 2:4. Which is according to godliness [tēs kat’ eusebeian]. “The (truth) with a view to godliness.” The combination of faith and full knowledge of the truth is to bring godliness on the basis of the hope of life eternal.

1:2 God who cannot lie [ho apseudēs theos]. “The non-lying God.” Old adjective [a] privative and [pseudēs], here only in N.T. See 2Ti 2:13. In Polycarp’s last prayer. Promised [epēggeilato]. First aorist middle indicative of [epaggellō]. Antithesis in [ephanerōsen de] (manifested) in verse 3 (first aorist active indicative of [phaneroō]. Same contrast in Ro 16:25; Col 1:26. Before times eternal [pro chronōn aiōnōn]. Not to God’s purpose before time began (Eph 1:4; 2Ti 1:9), but to definite promises (Ro 9:4) made in time (Lock). “Long ages ago.” See Ro 16:25.

1:3 In his own seasons [kairois idiois]. Locative case. See 1Ti 2:6; 6:15. In the message [en kērugmati]. See 1Co 1:21; 2:4 for this word, the human proclamation (preaching) of God’s word. Wherewith I was intrusted [ho episteuthēn]. Accusative relative [ho] retained with the first aorist passive indicative of [pisteuō] as in 1Ti 1:11. See 1Ti 2:7. Of God our Saviour [tou sōtēros hēmōn theou]. In verse 4 he applies the words “[tou sōtēros hēmōn]” to Christ. In 2:13 he applies both [theou] and [sōtēros] to Christ.

1:4 My true child [gnēsiōi teknōi]. See 1Ti 1:2 for this adjective with Timothy. Titus is not mentioned in Acts, possibly because he is Luke’s brother. But one can get a clear picture of him by turning to 2Co 2:13; 7:6-15; 8:6-24; 12:16-18; Ga 2:1-3; Tit 1:4f.; 3:12; 2Ti 4:10. He had succeeded in Corinth where Timothy had failed. Paul had left him in Crete as superintendent of the work there. Now he writes him from Nicopolis (Tit 3:12). After a common faith [kata koinēn pistin]. Here [kata] does mean standard, not aim, but it is a faith [pistin] common to a Gentile (a Greek) like Titus as well as to a Jew like Paul and so common to all races and classes (Jude 1:3). [Koinos] does not here have the notion of unclean as in Ac 10:14; 11:8.

1:5 For this cause [toutou charin]. In N.T. only here and Eph 3:1,14. Paul may be supplementing oral instruction as in Timothy’s case and may even be replying to a letter from Titus (Zahn). Left I thee in Crete [apeleipon se en Krētēi]. This is the imperfect active of [apoleipō], though MSS. give the aorist active also [apelipon] and some read [kateleipon] or [katelipon]. Both are common verbs, though Paul uses [kataleipō] only in 1Th 3:1 except two quotations (Ro 11:4; Eph 5:31) and [apoleipō] only here and 2Ti 4:13, 20. Perhaps [apoleipō] suggests a more temporary stay than [kataleipō]. Paul had apparently stopped in Crete on his return from Spain about A.D. 65. That thou shouldest set in order [hina epidiorthōsēi]. Late and rare double compound (inscriptions, here only in N.T.), first aorist middle subjunctive (final clause with [hina] of [epidiorthoō], to set straight [orthoō] thoroughly [dia] in addition [epi], a clean job of it. The things that were wanting [ta leiponta]. “The things that remain.” See 3:13; Lu 18:22. Either things left undone or things that survive. In both senses the new pastor faces problems after the tornado has passed. Parry takes it “of present defects” in Cretan character. And appoint [kai katastēsēis]. Final clause still and first aorist active subjunctive of [kathistēmi], the word used in Ac 6:13 about the deacons. The word does not preclude the choice by the churches (in every city, [kata polin], distributive use of [kata]. This is a chief point in the [epidorthōsis] (White). Elders [presbuterous]. See 1Ti 3:2; 4:17. As I gave thee charge [hōs egō soi dietaxamēn]. First aorist (constative) middle imperative of [diatassō], clear reference to previous personal details given to Titus on previous occasions.

1:6 Blameless [anegklētos]. In a condition of first class. Used in 1Ti 3:10 of deacons which see. That believe [pista]. Added to what is in 1Ti 3:4. “Believing children.” Not accused of riot [mē en katēgoriāi asōtias]. See 1Ti 5:19 for [katēgoria] and Eph 5:18 for [asōtia]. “Not in accusation of profligacy.” Unruly [anupotakta]. See 1Ti 1:9. Public disorder, out of doors. See also verse 10.

1:7 The bishop [ton episkopon]. Same office as “elder” in 1:5. “Elder is the title, oversight is the function” (B. Weiss). As God’s steward [hōs theou oikonomon]. See 1Co 4:1f. for Paul’s idea of the bishop (elder) as God’s steward (cf. 1Co 9:17; Col 1:25; Eph 3:2; 1Ti 1:4). Not self-willed [mē authadē]. Old word (from [autos, hēdomai], self-pleasing, arrogant. In N.T. only here and 2Pe 2:10. Not soon angry [orgilon]. Old adjective from [orgē] (anger). Here only in N.T. Vulgate, iracundum. For “brawler” and “striker” see 1Ti 3:2. Not greedy of filthy lucre [aischrokerdē]. “Not greedy of shameful gain.” Used of deacons in 1Ti 3:8, [aphilarguron] used of elders in 1Ti 3:3.

1:8 A lover of good [philagathon]. Late double compound [philos, agathos]. See Wisdom 7:22. Here only in N.T. Just [dikaion], holy [hosion] not in 1Ti 3. Temperate [egkratē]. Old and common adjective [en, kratos], strength), having power over, controlling, here only in N.T. Picture of self-control.

1:9 Holding to [antechomenon]. Present middle participle of [antechō], old verb, to hold back, in middle to hold oneself face to face with, to cling to, as in 1Th 5:14. The faithful word [tou pistou logou]. See 1Ti 1:15; 6:3; Ro 16:17. Some would see a reference here to Christ as the Personal Logos. That he may be able [hina dunatos ēi]. Final clause with present active subjunctive. Paul several times uses [dunatos eimi] in the sense of [dunamai], with infinitive as here (Ro 4:21; 11:23; 2Ti 1:12). The gainsayers [tous antilegontas]. Present active participle of [antilegō], old word, to answer back, as in Ro 10:21. “The talkers back.”

1:10 Vain talkers [mataiologoi]. Late and rare compound, empty talkers, in Vett. Val. and here. See 1Ti 1:6 for [mataiologia]. Deceivers [phrenapatai]. Late and rare compound, in papyri, eccl. writers, here alone in N.T. “Mind-deceivers.” See Ga 6:3 for [phrenapatāin]. Specially they of the circumcision [malista hoi ek tēs peritomēs]. Same phrase in Ac 11:2; Ga 2:12; Col 4:11. Jews are mentioned in Crete in Ac 2:11. Apparently Jewish Christians of the Pharisaic type tinged with Gnosticism.

1:11 Whose mouths must be stopped [hous dei epistomizein]. Literally, “whom it is necessary to silence by stopping the mouth.” Present active infinitive [epistomizein], old and common verb [epi], [stoma], mouth), here only in N.T. To stop the mouth either with bridle or muzzle or gag. Overthrow [anatrepousin]. Old and common verb, to turn up, to overturn. In N.T. only here and 2Ti 2:18. In papyri to upset a family by perversion of one member. Things which they ought not [ha mē dei]. Note subjective negative [] with indefinite relative and indicative mode. For filthy lucre’s sake [aischrou kerdous charin]. The Cretans are given a bad reputation for itinerating prophets for profit by Polybius, Livy, Plutarch. Paul’s warnings in 1Ti 3:3,8; 6:5 reveal it as “a besetting temptation of the professional teacher” (Parry). See verse 7 above. Disgraceful gain, made in shameful ways.

1:12 A prophet of their own [idios autōn prophētēs]. “Their own prophet.” Self-styled “prophet” (or poet), and so accepted by the Cretans and by Cicero and Apuleius, that is Epimenides who was born in Crete at Cnossos. It is a hexameter line and Callimachus quoted the first part of it in a Hymn to Zeus. It is said that Epimenides suggested to the Athenians the erection of statues to “unknown gods” (Ac 17:23). Liars [pseustai]. See 1Ti 1:10 for the word. The Cretans had a bad reputation on this line, partly due to their claim to having the tomb of Zeus. Evil beasts [kaka thēria]. “Wicked wild beasts.” Lock asks if the Minotaur was partly responsible. Idle gluttons [gasteres argai]. “Idle bellies.” Blunt and forceful. See Php 3:19 “whose god is the belly” [hē koilia]. Both words give the picture of the sensual gormandizer.

1:13 Testimony [marturia]. Of the poet Epimenides. Paul endorses it from his recent knowledge. Sharply [apotomōs]. Old adverb from [apotomos] (from [apotemnō], to cut off), in N.T. only here and 2Co 13:10, “curtly,” “abruptly.” It is necessary to appear rude sometimes for safety, if the house is on fire and life is in danger. That they may be sound [hina hugiainōsin]. Final clause with [hina] and present active subjunctive of [hugiainō], for which verb see on 1Ti 1:10.

1:14 See 1Ti 1:4 for [prosechō] and [muthois], only here we have Jewish [Ioudaikois] added. Perhaps a reference to the oral traditions condemned by Christ in Mr 7:2-8. See also Col 2:22, apparently Pharisaic type of Gnostics. Who turn away from the truth [apostrephomenōn]. Present middle (direct) participle of [apostrephō], “men turning themselves away from the truth” (accusative according to regular idiom). “The truth” (1Ti 4:3) is the gospel (Eph 4:21).

1:15 To them that are defiled [tois memiammenois]. Perfect passive articular participle of [miainō], old verb, to dye with another colour, to stain, in N.T. only here, Jude 1:8; Heb 12:15. See [memiantai] (perf. pass. indic.) in this verse. [Molunō] (1Co 8:7) is to smear. Unbelieving [apistois]. As in 1Co 7:12f.; 1Ti 5:8. The principle or proverb just quoted appears also in 1Co 6:12; 10:23; Ro 14:20. For the defilement of mind [nous] and conscience [suneidēsis] in both Gentile and Jew by sin, see Ro 1:18-2:29.

1:16 They profess [homologousin]. Present active indicative of [homologeō], common verb [homou, legō] as in Ro 10:10f. [Eidenai] (know) is second perfect active infinitive of [oida] in indirect assertion. By their works [tois ergois]. Instrumental case. They deny [arnountai]. Present middle of [arneomai], old verb, common in the Gospels and the Pastoral Epistles (1Ti 5:8; Tit 2:12; 2Ti 2:12). Abominable [bdeluktoi]. Verbal adjective from [bdelussomai]. Only in LXX and here. Disobedient [apeitheis]. See Ro 1:30. Reprobate [adokimoi]. See on 1Co 9:27; Ro 1:28.

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