1. loveth knowledge—as the fruit of
instruction or training (Pr 1:2).
hateth reproof—(Pr 10:17).
brutish—stupid, regardless of his own
welfare (Ps 49:10; 73:22).
3. Wickedness cannot give permanent
root … not be moved—firm as a
flourishing tree—(Ps 1:3; 15:5; Jer 17:8).
4. A virtuous woman—in the wide sense of
well-disposed to all moral duties (Pr 31:10).
maketh ashamed—that is, by
rottenness—an incurable evil.
5. thoughts—or, "purposes."
are right—literally, "are judgment,"
that is, true decisions.
counsels—(Compare Pr 11:14).
deceit—contrary to truth and
6. The words—or, "expressed designs" of
the wicked are for evil purposes.
the mouth—or, "words" of the righteous
delivering instead of ensnaring men.
7. Such conduct brings a proper return, by the
destruction of the wicked and well-being of the righteous and his
8. despised—as opposed to
commended (Pr 11:12).
perverse heart—or, "wicked
principles," as opposed to one of wisdom.
9. despised—held in little repute,
obscure (1Sa 18:23; Isa 3:5).
hath a servant—implying some means of
10. regardeth—literally, "knoweth"
mercies … cruel—as acts of
compassion ungraciously rendered to the needy. The righteous more
regards a beast than the wicked a man.
11. The idler's fate is the result of
indolence and want of principle (Pr 6:32; 7:7).
12. the wicked … evil—They love
the crafty arts of deception.
the root … fruit—their own
resources supply them; or, it may be rendered: "He (God) giveth, or,
17:22) the root of the
righteous," and hence it is firm: or, the verb is impersonal; "As to
the root … it is firm" (Pr 17:19).
13, 14. The wicked is snared,
&c.—The sentiment expanded. While the wicked, such as liars,
flatterers, &c., fall by their own words, the righteous are unhurt.
Their good conduct makes friends, and God rewards them.
15. The way … eyes—The fool is
self-conceited (compare Pr 12:1; 1:32; 10:17; Jas
16. prudent … shame—He is slow to
denounce his insulters (Jas 1:19).
18. speaketh—literally, "speaketh
hastily," or indiscreetly (Ps 106:33),
as an angry man retorts harsh and provoking invectives.
tongue … health—by soothing and
19. Words of truth are consistent, and stand
all tests, while lies are soon discovered and exposed.
20. that imagine—or, "plan" (Pr 3:29). They design a deceitful course,
to which, with all its evils and dangers to others and themselves, the
happiness of peace-makers is opposed (compare Mt 5:9; Ro
21. no evil—(as in Ps 91:10), under God's wise limitations (Ro 8:28).
mischief—as penal evil.
22. deal truly—or, "faithfully," that
is, according to promises (compare Joh 3:21).
23. concealeth—by his modesty (Pr 10:14;
heart … proclaimeth—as his lips
speak his thoughts (compare Ec 10:3).
24. slothful—(Compare Margin), so
called because he fails to meet his promises.
under tribute—not denoting legal
taxes, but the obligation of dependence.
25. a good word—one of comfort.
26. more excellent—(Compare
Margin); or, "more successful," while the wicked fail; or, we
may read it: "The righteous guides his friend, but," &c., that is,
The ability of the righteous to aid others is contrasted with the ruin
to which the way of the wicked leads themselves.
27. (Compare Pr 12:24).
took in hunting—or, "his venison." He
does not improve his advantages.
the substance … precious—or,
"the wealth of a man of honor is being diligent," or "diligence."
precious—literally, "honor" (Ec 10:1).
28. (Compare Pr 8:8, 20, &c.). A sentiment often stated;
here first affirmatively, then negatively.