1. (Compare Margin). The Hebrews used
stones for weights.
just—complete in measure.
2. Self-conceit is unteachable; the humble
grow wise (compare Pr 16:18; 18:12).
3. guide—to lead, as a shepherd (Pr 6:7; Ps
4. (Compare Pr 10:2).
wrath—that is, of God.
5. direct—or, "make plain"; wicked ways
are not plain (Pr 13:17).
6. deliver them—that is, from evil,
which the wicked suffer by their own doings (Pr 5:22; Ps
7. expectation … perish—for death
cuts short all his plans (Lu 16:25).
hope of unjust—better, "hope of
wealth," or "power" (compare Isa 40:29, Hebrew). This gives an advance
on the sentiment of the first clause. Even hopes of gain die with
8. Perhaps the trouble prepared by the
wicked, and which he inherits (compare Pr 11:6).
9. (Compare Ps 35:16; Da 11:32). The just is saved by superior
10, 11. The last may be a reason for the
first. Together, they set forth the relative moral worth of good and
11. By the blessing—implying active
12. despiseth—or, "reviles," a course
contrasted with the prudent silence of the wise.
holdeth his peace—as if neither
hearing nor telling.
13. tale-bearer—(Compare Margin),
one trading as a peddler in scandal, whose propensity to talk leads him
to betray confidence.
14. counsel—the art of governing (Pr 1:5).
counsellors—literally, "one giving
counsel"; the participle used as a collective.
15. (Compare Pr 6:1).
the actors put for the action, which may be lawfully hated.
16. retaineth—or literally, "lay hold of
as a support." Honor is to a feeble woman thus as valuable as riches to
17. merciful—kind to others; opposed to
cruel. Such benefit themselves by doing good to others (compare Pr 24:5), while the cruel injure
themselves as well as others.
flesh—that is, his body, by
penuriousness (Col 2:23).
18. a deceitful work—or, "wages," which
fail to satisfy, or flee away (Pr 10:2; 23:5).
sure reward—or, "gain," as from
trading (Ho 10:12; Ga 6:8, 9).
19. Inference from Pr 11:18 (compare Pr 11:5, 6; 10:16).
20. (Compare Pr 11:5).
froward—as in Pr 2:15, opposed to the simplicity and purity of
in their way—or, "conduct."
21. The combined power of the wicked cannot
free them from just punishment, while the unaided children of the
righteous find deliverance by reason of their pious relationship (Ps 37:25,
22. Jewels were often suspended from the nose
(Ge 24:47; Isa 3:21). Thus adorned, a hog disgusts less than
a fair and indiscreet woman.
23. (Compare Pr 10:28).
wrath—is that of God.
24-31. The scope of the whole is a comment on
11:23. Thus liberality, by
God's blessing, secures increase, while penuriousness, instead of
expected gain, procures poverty.
25. liberal soul—(Compare
made fat—prospers (Pr
28:25; De 32:15; Lu 6:38).
watereth … watered—a common
figure for blessing.
26. Another example of the truth of Pr 11:23; the miser loses reputation,
though he saves corn.
selleth it—that is, at a fair
27. good [and] mischief—that is,
procureth … seeketh—implying
28. (Compare Pr 10:15; Ps 49:6; 1Ti
righteous … branch—(Ps 1:3; Jer
29. troubleth—as Pr 15:27 explains, by greediness for gain
inherit … wind—Even successful,
his gains are of no real value. So the fool, thus acting, either comes
to poverty, or heaps up for others.
30. a tree of life—Blessings to others
proceed from the works of the righteous (Pr 3:18).
winneth souls—(Compare Margin)
to do them good as opposed to Pr 6:25; Eze 13:18 (compare Lu 5:10).
31. Behold—Thus calling attention to the
illustrations (compare Pr 11:23),
the sentiment of which is confirmed even in time, not excluding future
rewards and punishments.