Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Chapter VI
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII
Chapter IX
Chapter X
Chapter XI
Chapter XII
Chapter XIII
Chapter XIV
Chapter XV
Chapter XVI
Chapter XVII
Chapter XVIII
Chapter XIX
Chapter XX
Chapter XXI
Chapter XXII
Chapter XXIII
Chapter XXIV
Chapter XXV
Chapter XXVI
Chapter XXVII
Chapter XXVIII
Chapter XXIX
Chapter XXX
Chapter XXXI
Chapter XXXII
Chapter XXXIII
Chapter XXXIV
Chapter XXXV
Chapter XXXVI
Chapter XXXVII
Chapter XXXIX
Chapter XL
Chapter XLI
Chapter XLII
Chapter XLIII
Chapter XLIV
Chapter XLV
Chapter XLVI
Chapter XLVII
Chapter XLVIII

The name Ezekiel signifies, The strength of God. And God did indeed make his face strong against all opposition. It was the tradition of the Jews, that for his boldness and faithfulness in reproving them, he was put to death by the captives in Babylon.

The prophecies of this book were spoken and written in Babylon, to the Jews who were captives there. Ezekiel prophesied in the beginning of their captivity, to convince them when they were secure and unhumbled; Daniel, in the latter end of it, to comfort them, when they were dejected and discouraged.

There is much in this book which is very mysterious, especially in the beginning and latter end of it. But tho' the visions are intricate, the sermons are plain, and the design of them is, to shew God's people their transgressions. And tho' the reproofs and threatenings are very sharp, yet toward the close we have very comfortable promises, to be fulfilled in the kingdom of the Messiah, of whom indeed Ezekiel speaks less than almost any of the prophets.

The visions, which are his credentials, we have, chap. 1 - 3. The reproofs and threatenings, chap. 4 - 24. We have messages sent to the neighbouring nations, foretelling their destruction, chap. 25 - 35. To make way for the restoration of Israel, and the re - establishment of their city and temple, which are foretold, chap. 36 - 48.

Chapter I

The time when this prophecy was delivered, the place where, and person by whom, ver. 1 - 3. His vision of the glory of God, in his attendance, surrounded with angels, (here called living creatures) ver. 4 - 14. In his providences, represented by the wheels and their motions, ver. 15 - 26. And in the face of Jesus Christ, sitting upon the throne, ver. 26 - 28.

1 Thirtieth year - From the finding the book of the law in the eighteenth year of Josiah, from which date to the fifth year of the captivity are thirty years. Fifth day - Probably it was the sabbath - day, when the Jews were at leisure to hear the prophet. River - Perhaps retiring thither to lament their own sins, and Jerusalem's desolation. Chebar - A river now called Giulap, arising out of the mountain Masius, and falling into Euphrates, somewhat below a city called by the same name.
2 The month - Thamus, as ver.1, answering to our June and July. Fifth year - This account observed will guide us in computing the times referred to ver.1. These five of Jehoiachin, and the eleven of his predecessor, added to fourteen of Josiah's reign, after he found the law, make up thirty years, ver.1. Jehoiachin - Who is also called Jechoniah, and Coniah. It may be of use to keep an account, when and where God has manifested himself to us in a peculiar manner. Remember, O my soul, what thou didst receive at such a time, at such a place: tell others what God did for thee.
3 The word - What was visions, ver.1, is here the word, both as signifying and declaring the mind of God, what he would do, and as continuing his commands to Ezekiel and to the people. Ezekiel - He speaks of himself in a third person. Priest - He was of the priests originally; he was a prophet by an extraordinary call. The hand - He felt the power of God opening his eyes to see the visions, opening his ear to hear the voice, and his heart to receive both. When the hand of the Lord goes along with his word, then it becomes effectual.
4 Looked - I very diligently surveyed the things that were represented to me in the vision. Whirlwind - This denotes the indignation and judgments of God; a quick, impetuous and irresistible vengeance. North - From Babylon, which lay northward from Judea; and the prophet, tho' now in Babylon, speaks of the Jews, as if they were in Jerusalem. A fire - An orb or wheel of fire: God being his own cause, his own rule, and his own end. Brightness - Yet round about it was not smoak and darkness, but a clear light. The midst - Of the fire.
5 The likeness - Such a representation of the holy angels as God saw fit to make use of, came out of the midst of the fire: for angels derive their being and power from God: their glory is a ray of his.
6 Wings - With two they flew, denoting the speed of their obedience; and with two they covered their body, denoting their reverence.
7 Feet - Their thighs, legs and feet, were of a human shape. Straight - Not bowed to this or that part, which argues weakness. The sole - That which is properly the foot. A calf's - A divided hoof spake the cleanness of the creature. They - Their feet.
8 Under - Their power and manner of exerting it is secret and invisible. Sides - On each side of the chariot one of these living creatures flood, and so on each side hands were ready to act as they were moved. They four - It is doubled to confirm the truth and certainty of the thing.
9 Their wings - The wings of the two cherubim which went foremost, and the wings of the two hindermost, were joined together when they moved. Went - This explains the former words, assuring us, that every one of those living creatures are ready, and unwearied in doing the pleasure of their Creator.
10 A man - Each face is compared to what is most excellent in its kind, man excels in wisdom, lions in strength, the ox in patience and constancy of labour, the eagle in speed and high flight.
11 Divided - So each face appeared distinct above the shoulders, and there the wings divided from each other were united to the body of the living creature.
12 Straight - Which way soever they went, each living creature had one face looking straight forward. The spirit - The will, command, and breathing of the Spirit of God, both gave and guided their motions. Was to go - Going is attributed here to the Spirit of God, by allusion, for he who is in every place cannot properly be said to go from or to any place. Turned not - They looked not back, they turned not out of the way, they gave not over, 'till they had compleated their course.
13 The fire - This fire stood not still, but as the Hebrew is, Made itself walk up and down. It moved itself, which is too much to ascribe to creatures: God only moved all these living creatures.
14 Ran - They ran into the lower world, to do what was to be done there: and when they had done, returned as a flash of lightning, to the upper world, to the vision of God. Thus we should be in the affairs of this world: though we run into them we must not repose in them, but our souls must presently return like lightning, to God, their rest and center.
15 Living creatures - By each of the living creatures stood one wheel, so that they were four in number, according to the number of living creatures. Four faces - By this it appears, each wheel had its four faces. While he was contemplating the glory of the former vision, this other was presented to him: wherein the dispensations of providence are compared to the wheels of a machine, which all contribute to the regular motion of it. Providence orders, changes: sometimes one spoke of the wheel is uppermost, sometimes another. But the motion of the wheel on its own axle - tree, is still regular and steady. And the wheel is said to be by the living creatures, who attend to direct its motion. For all inferior creatures are, and move, and act, as the Creator, by the ministration of angels directs and influences them: visible effects are managed and governed by invisible causes.
16 Work - All that was wrought, whether engraved or otherwise was of one colour. Beryl - A sea green. One likeness - The same for dimensions, colour, frame, and motion. In the middle - It is probable, the wheels were framed so as to be an exact sphere, which is easily rolled to any side.
17 They - The wheels. Four sides - The wheels being supposed round every way as a globe, by an exact framing of two wheels one in the other; the four semi - circles which are in two whole wheels, may be well taken for these four sides on which these wheels move, and such a wheel will readily be turned to all points of the compass. Returned not - They returned not 'till they came to their journey's end; nothing could divert them, or put them out of their course. So firm and sure are the methods, so unalterable and constant the purposes of God, and so invariable the obedience and observance of holy angels. So subject to the sovereign will of God are all second causes.
18 The rings - The circumference of the wheels. Dreadful - Their very height imprest a fear on the beholder. Them four - Every one of the four wheels. How fitly do the wheels, their motion, their height, and eyes, signify the height, unsearchableness, wisdom, and vigilance of the Divine Providence.
20 The spirit - The Spirit of God. These angels in their ministry punctually observed both his impulse and conduct. They - The wheels, inferior agents and second causes. Their spirit - The wheels concurred with the spirit of the living creatures, so that there was an hearty accord between those superior and inferior causes. For - An undiscerned, yet divine, mighty, wise, and ever - living power, spirit, and being, actuated all, and governed all.
21 For - The same wisdom, power, and holiness of God, the same will and counsel of his, that guides and governs the angels, does by them order and dispose all the motions of the creatures in this lower world.
22 Likeness - The appearance or resemblance. As crystal - For splendor, purity, and solidity, all that was above these creatures and wheels was beautiful and very majestic, and 'tis therefore called terrible, because it impressed a veneration upon the mind of the beholders.
23 Under - Below at a great distance, stood these living creatures. Straight - Stretched forth, ready for motion. One - Each of the four had two other wings with which they covered their bodies.
24 The voice - Thunder. Speech - The prophet heard the voice in an articulate manner. An host - A tumultuous voice of men. Stood - Having done their office they present themselves before God, waiting for the commands of their Lord.
26 A man - Christ, God - man, who here appears as king and judge.
27 Amber - In this colour does Christ appear against the rebellious Jews; he that would have visited them clothed with the garments of salvation, now puts on the garments of vengeance, expressed by such metaphors. Brightness - Majesty, justice, and unstained holiness, shine round about him.
28 The bow - A like appearance of Christ in a surrounding brightness, as of the rainbow you have, Rev 4:3. Mercy, and truth, and both according to covenant are about the throne of Christ. Glory - It was not the full glory of God, but such as the prophet might bear. I fell - With deep humility and reverence.

Chapter II

Ezekiel is commissioned to prophesy to the Jewish captives, ver. 1 - 5. Is cautioned not to be afraid of them, ver. 6. Has words put into his mouth, signified by the vision of a roll, which he is ordered to eat, ver. 7 - 10.

1 And - He that sat upon the throne, Jesus Christ. Son of man - A phrase which is ninety - five times, at least, used in this prophecy to keep him humble who had such great revelations. Stand - Arise, fear not. And with this command God sent forth a power enabling him to rise and stand.
2 The spirit - The same spirit which actuated the living creatures.
5 Shall know - They that obey shall know by the good I will do them, those that will not, by the evil which I will bring upon them.
6 Words - Accusations, threats, or whatever else a malicious heart can suggest to the tongue. Briars - Which usually run up among thorns, are a very fit emblem of the frowardness and keenness of sinners against God and his prophet. Scorpious - Malicious, revengeful men. They that will do any thing to purpose in the service of God, must not fear the faces of men.
8 Hear - Obey. Open - This was done only in a vision.
9 Roll - Their books were not like ours, but written in parchment and in the length of it, and so one piece fastened to another, 'till the whole would contain what was to be written, and then it was wrapped or rolled about a round piece of wood, fashioned for that purpose.
10 And - The person, who held out his hand. Spread - Unrolled it. Within &c. - On both sides, on that side which was inward when rolled, and on that side also that was outward.

Chapter III

His eating the roll, ver. 1 - 3. Farther instructions and encouragements given him, ver. 4 - 11. He is carried to the captive Jews, ver. 12 - 15. An illustration of his office by that of a watchman, ver. 16 - 21. The restraining and restoring of his liberty of speech, ver. 22 - 27.

1 Eat - This was done in a vision. Findeth - In the hand which was sent to him.
3 Belly - The mouth is the proper instrument of eating, but when meat is digested, the belly is said to eat. Fill thy bowels - This denotes the fulness of the measure wherewith we should read, meditate, and digest the word of God. Honey - It was sweet to receive things by revelation from God, and so to converse with God. And usually the first part of the ministerial work is pleasant.
4 Speak - What things I shall shew thee, and in what words I shall declare them to thee.
6 Many people - Divers nations, that thou shouldest need divers tongues, to speak to them all in their own language.
7 All - The far greater part, tho' not every particular person.
8 I have - I have given thee, constancy, and manly carriage. The more impudent wicked people are in their opposition to religion, the more openly and resolutely should God's people appear in the practice and defence of it.
11 Captivity - Of the first captivity under Jeconiah's reign, who succeeded his father Jehoiakim, slain for his conspiracy with Egypt against Nebuchadnezzar.
12 A voice - An articulate sound, of many angels, attended with the rushing of the wheels, added to the noise of their wings. Blessed - Praised be the gloriously holy and just God. His place - Coming down from heaven.
13 Rushing - The wheels of providence moved over against the angels, and in concert with them.
14 Spirit - Caught him up into the air. Took - Carried me to the place where the captive Jews were crowded together. Bitterness - Not at all pleased with my work. He went in the heat of his spirit; because of the discouragements he foresaw he should meet with. But the hand of the Lord was strong upon him, not only to compel him to the work, but to fit him for it.
15 Tel - abib - A part of Mesopotamia, which was shut up within Chebar westward, and Saocora eastward. By - On that part of the river Chebar, which runs west - ward of Tel - abib. Where - Where I found them sitting astonished, at the sight of their change from freedom and honour to servitude and shame. Seven days - Mourning no doubt all that while, and waiting 'till the spirit of prophecy should open his mouth.
20 I Lay - Permit it to be laid before him. He shall - Perish in his sin. Remembered - Shall not be profitable to him; "he that apostatizes is the worst of men, because he falls from known ways of goodness and holiness."
22 There - At Tel - abib. Go forth - Withdraw from the multitude.
23 As the glory - We are not now to expect such visions. But we have a favour done us nothing inferior, if we by faith behold the glory of the Lord, so as to be changed into the same image. And this honour have all his saints.
24 Shut - To foresignify the shutting up of the Jews in Jerusalem.
25 Not go - Thou shalt be straitly confined.
26 I - I will make thee as dumb as if thy tongue clave to the roof of thy mouth.
27 But - When ever I shall reveal any thing to thee. Open - I will give thee power to speak. Let - 'Tis his duty and safety. Forbear - 'Tis at his own peril.

Chapter IV

Two things are here represented to the prophet in vision,

  1. The fortifications that shall be shortly raised against the city, signified by his laying siege to the portrait of Jerusalem, ver. 1 - 3. And lying first on one side, and then on the other side before it, ver. 4 - 8.
  2. The famine that would rage therein, signified by his eating coarse fare, and little of it, so long as this typical representation lasted, ver. 9 - 17.

1 Portray - Draw a map of Jerusalem.
2 Lay siege - Draw the figure of a siege about the city. Build - Raise a tower and bulwarks.
3 A wall - That it may resemble a wall of iron, for as impregnable as such a wall, shall the resolution and patience of the Chaldeans be.
4 Lay - Take upon thee the representation of their guilt and punishment. House of Israel - The ten tribes. The number - By this thou shalt intimate how long I have borne with their sins, and how long they shall bear their punishment.
5 I have laid - I have pointed out the number of years wherein apostate Israel sinned against me, and I did bear with them. Years - These years probably began at Solomon's falling to idolatry, in the twenty - seventh year of his reign, and ended in the fifth of Zedekiah's captivity.
6 Accomplished - That is, almost accomplished. House of Judah - Of the two tribes. Forty days - Probably from Josiah's renewing the covenant, until the destruction of the temple, during which time God deferred to punish, expecting whether they would keep their covenant, or retain their idolatries, which latter they did for thirteen years of Josiah's reign, for eleven of Jehoiakim's, and eleven of Zedekiah's reign, and five of his captivity, which amount to just forty years. But all this was done in a vision.
7 Set - While thou liest on thy side thou shalt fix thy countenance on the portrait of besieged Jerusalem. Uncovered - Naked and stretched out as being ready to strike.
8 Bands - An invisible restraint assuring him, that those could no more remove from the siege, than he from that side he lay on.
9 Take - Provide thee corn enough: for a grievous famine will accompany the siege. Wheat - All sorts of grain are to be provided, and all will be little enough. One vessel - Mix the worst with the best to lengthen out the provision.
10 By weight - Not as much as you will, but a small pittance delivered by weight to all. Twenty shekels - Ten ounces: scarce enough to maintain life. From time to time - At set hours this was weighed out.
11 The sixth part - About six ounces.
12 As barley cakes - Because they never had enough to make a loaf with, they eat them as barley cakes. With dung - There was no wood left, nor yet dung of other creatures. This also was represented in a vision.
17 May want - So because they served not God with chearfulness in the abundance of all things, He made them serve their enemies in the want of all things.

Chapter V

The destruction of Jerusalem, represented by a sign, the cutting and burning and scattering of hair, ver. 1 - 4. Sin, the cause of this destruction, ver. 5 - 7. Wrath, misery and ruin threatened, ver. 8 - 15.

1 Take - Thus foretel the mourning, reproach, and deformity that are coming, for all this is signified by shaving the head and beard.
2 A third part - Described on the tile, chap.4:1, a type of what should be done in Jerusalem. The days - When the three hundred and ninety days of thy lying against the portrayed city shall be ended. With a knife - To signify them that fall by the sword. Scatter - To typify them that fell to the Chaldeans, or fled to Egypt, or other countries.
3 Take - Of the last third. Bind - As men tied up in the skirt of their garment what they would not lose: to signify the small remnant.
4 Of them - Out of that little remnant. In the fire - For their sin against God, their discontents at their state, and conspiracies against their governor, another fire shall break out which shall devour the most, and be near consuming all the houses of Israel.
5 This is Jerusalem - This portrayed city, is typically Jerusalem. The midst - Jerusalem was set in the midst of the nations, to be as the heart in the body, to invigorate the dead world with a divine life, as well as to enlighten the dark world with a divine light.
6 More - More than the heathen.
7 Multiplied - In idols, superstitions, and wickedness. Neither - You have exceeded them in superstition and idolatry, and fallen short of them in moral virtues.
9 Not done - Though the old world perished by water, and Sodom by fire, yet neither one or other was so lingering a death.
10 Scatter - This was verified when they were fetched away, who were left at the departure of the besiegers, and when the very small remnant with Johanan fled into Egypt.
11 Sanctuary - My temple. Detestable things - Thy idols.
13 Comforted - In executing my vengeance. In my zeal - For my own glory.
15 Taunt - A very proverb among them. Instruction - Sinners shall learn by thy miseries, what they may expect from me.
17 Bereave thee - Of your children, friends, and your own life. Pestilence and blood - Thy land shall be the common road for pestilence and blood. Tho' this prophecy was to be accomplished presently, in the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans; yet it may well be supposed to look forward, to the final destruction of it by the Romans, when God made a full end of the Jewish nation, and caused his fury to rest upon them.

Chapter VI

A threatening of the destruction of Israel for their idolatry, ver. 1 - 7. A promise of the gracious return of a remnant, ver. 8 - 10. Directions to lament the sins and calamities of Israel, ver. 11 - 14.

2 The mountains - The inhabitants of the mountains, who were secure in their fastnesses.
3 Rivers - To those who dwell by river sides, or in the valleys. High places - The places of your idolatrous worship.
4 Cast down - Before the altars of your idols, which you fly to for refuge.
5 And - Thus the idols were upbraided with their inability to help their worshippers, and the idolaters, with the folly of trusting in them.
6 Your works - All your costly work for your idols.
8 Remnant - It is the Lord that preserves a remnant, the enemies rage would destroy all.
9 Shall remember - So as to turn unto me. Broken - I am much grieved. Whorish heart - Idolatrous hearts depart from God, as an adulterous wife departs from her husband. Loath - With a mixture of grief towards God, of indignation against themselves, and abhorrence of the offence.
10 In vain - Either without cause, the sufferers gave him just cause to pronounce that evil; or without effect. Their sins where the cause, and their destruction is the effect of their sufferings.
11 Smite - To shew thy wonder, indignation, sorrow, and pity, for their sins and sufferings.
12 Far off - Either by flight, or captivity. Shall fall - Who dwell near to Jerusalem, or would retire to it, when the Babylonians approach.
14 Wilderness - The horrid wilderness of Moab. Therein the fiery serpents so much annoyed Israel. Accordingly the land of Canaan is at this day one of the most desolate countries in the world.

Chapter VII

In this chapter the prophet tells them, that a final ruin is coming, ver. 1 - 6. A ruin just at the door, ver. 7 - 10. An unavoidable ruin, because of their sins, ver. 11 - 15. That their strength and wealth would be no fence against it, ver. 16 - 19. That the temple, which they trusted in, should itself be ruined, ver. 20 - 22. That it should be an universal ruin, the sin that brought it being universal, ver, 23 - 27.

1 An end - An end of God's patience, and of the peace and welfare of the people.
4 Recompense - The punishment of them.
5 An evil - An evil and sore affliction, a singular, uncommon one.
6 An end - When the end is come upon the wicked world, then an only evil comes upon it. The sorest of temporal judgments have their allays; but the torments of the damned are an evil, an only evil.
7 The morning - The fatal morning, the day of destruction. Sounding - Not a mere echo, not a fancy, but a real thing.
10 Is come - Of your wickedness; pride and violence in particular.
11 None - They shall be utterly wasted for their sins. Wailing - The living shall not bewail their dead friends, because they shall judge the dead in a better case than the living.
12 Mourn - Men usually part with their estates grieving that they must transmit their right to others; but let them now think how little a while they could have kept them, and how little time they shall keep them who have bought them.
13 Yet alive - For if any should survive the captivity, yet the conqueror wasting and destroying all, would confound all ancient boundaries. Touching - The evils threatened are designed against all the multitude of Israel. Strengthen - Nor shall any one man of them all he able to secure himself, by any sinful contrivance.
14 They - The house of Israel have summoned in all fit for arms. None - There is not a man going to the war. Wrath - That displeasure which takes away their courage.
15 Without - In the countries. Within - The besieged city. Field - Whoever is in the field.
16 Iniquity - Either for the punishment of their iniquity, or for their iniquity itself.
18 Baldness - Either by pulling off the hair amidst their sorrows, or cutting it off in token of mourning.
19 Cast - That they may be the lighter to fly. Removed - Carried away into Babylon. Not satisfy - They shall afford them no comfort. Stumbling - block - This silver and gold they coveted immeasurably, and abused to pride, luxury, idolatry and oppression; this that they stumbled at and fell into sin, now they stumble at and fall into the deepest misery.
20 The beauty - The temple, and all that pertained to it, which was the beauty and glory of that nation. He set - God commanded it should be beautiful and magnificent. Images - Their idols. Far from them - I have sent them far from the temple.
21 It - My temple.
22 Turn - Either from the Jews, or from the Chaldeans, neither relieving the one nor restraining the other. Secret place - The temple, and the holy of holies. Robbers - The soldiers.
23 A chain - To bind the captives.
24 The pomp - The magnificence and glory, wherein they boasted; or the temple that the Jews gloried in.
26 Seek - But in vain. The priest - He shall have no words either of counsel or comfort to say to them. Ancients - Nor shall their senators know what to advise.
27 The king - Zedekiah. The prince - Every magistrate. Troubled - Hang down, and melt away. What can men contrive or do for themselves, when God is departed from them? All must needs be in tears, all in trouble, when God comes to judge them according to their deserts, and so make them know, that he is the Lord, to whom vengeance belongeth.

Chapter VIII

God in vision brings Ezekiel to Jerusalem, ver. 1 - 4. There he sees the image of jealousy, ver. 5, 6. The elders of Israel worshipping all manner of images, ver. 7 - 12. The women weeping for Tammuz, ver. 13, 14. The men worshiping the sun, ver. 15, 16. Threatenings against them, ver. 17, 18.

1 Sixth year - Of Jeconiah's captivity. Sixth month - Elul or our August. The elders - The chief of those that were now in captivity. They were come either to spend the sabbath in religious exercises, or to enquire what would become of their brethren in Jerusalem. The hand - The spirit of prophecy.
2 A likeness - Of a man; the man whom he had seen upon the throne. Fire - This fire might denote the wrath of God against Jerusalem.
3 And - This, and all the passages to the end of the 16th verse, was done in vision only. Inner gate - To the door of the gate of the inner court. The north - The temple courts had four gates towards the four quarters, and this was the north gate, which opened into the great court where Ahaz had set up his Damascen altar, and where the idols were set up. The image - Baal, which Manasseh had set up, Josiah had destroyed, but succeeding kings had again set it up. Jealousy - Because it was so notorious an affront to God, who had married Israel to himself.
5 Northward - Ahaz had removed it from the middle of the court and set it near this north gate, to which it gave name. Entry - In the very passage to the temple, to affront the worship of God.
6 They - The generality of the Jews. Great abominations - The notorious idolatries. Here - In this court, in view of my temple. Far off - Not that they designed this, but no other could be expected.
7 The door - The second door, for there were two in the north side.
8 A door - A private door, by which the priests entered into the chamber of their imagery, to perform idolatrous worship to their images.
9 Are doing - Under the approach of judgments, in this very place, under the walls of my temple.
10 Every form - Of such creatures as the Egyptians, or any others with whom the Jews had acquaintance, worshipped.
11 Seventy - Heads of the tribes or families, who should have been examples of true religion, not ringleaders in idolatry. Shaphan - Mentioned 2Kings 22:9. Shaphan was forward in reforming under Josiah and his son is as forward in corrupting the worship of God.
12 Seeth not - They deny God's care of them and their affairs, and therefore they must chuse some other god.
13 Greater - Either because added to all the rest: or, because some circumstances in these make them more abominable.
14 The door - Of the outer court, or court of the women, so called, because they were allowed to come into it. Weeping - Performing all the lewd and beastly rites of that idol, called by the Greeks, Adonis.
15 Greater - These later wickednesses may be accounted greater, because acted in a more sacred place.
16 Inner court - The innermost, that which was next the temple, called here the Lord's house. At the door - Before he saw abominations in the gates of the courts, now he is come to the very house itself. The porch - That stately porch, beautified with the curious and mighty brass pillars, Jachin and Boaz. Altar - The brazen altar for burnt - offerings, which was placed in the court before the front of the temple, and is here represented in its proper place. Their backs - In contempt of God, and his worship. The sun - In imitation of the Persians, Egyptians, and other eastern idolaters; these Jews turn their back on God who created the sun, and worship the creature in contempt of the Creator.
17 Violence - All injustice is here meant towards all sorts of men, whom they first despise and next destroy. Returned - From injustice against man they return to impiety against God. The branch - As the worshippers of Bacchus waved their Thyrsus, the stalk wreathed with ivy, and bowed their bodies and often kissed the branches, so did these idolatrous Jews.
18 Will not hear - The time was, when God was ready to have heard, even before they cried: but now they cry aloud, and yet cry in vain. It is the upright heart which God regards, and not the loud voice.

Chapter IX

Instruments prepared to destroy the city, ver. 1 - 2. The glory removes to the threshold of the temple, ver. 3. Orders given to mark a remnant, ver. 3, 4. The execution of them who were not marked begun, ver. 5 - 7. The prophet intercedes, but in vain, ver. 8 - 10. The report of him that had marked the remnant, ver. 11.

1 He - The man whom he had seen upon the throne. Them - Those whom God hath appointed to destroy the city: perhaps angels. Every man - Every one; 'tis an Hebrew idiom. Each of these had a weapon proper for that kind of destruction which he was to effect; and so, some to slay with the sword, another with the pestilence, another with famine. In his hand - Denoting both expedition in, and strength for the work.
2 And - As soon as the command was given, the ministers of God's displeasure appear. Men - In appearance and vision they were men, and the prophet calls them as he saw them. The north - Insinuating whence their destruction should come. One man - Not a companion, but as one of authority over them. With linen - A garment proper to the priesthood. They - All the seven.
3 The glory - The glorious brightness, such as sometimes appeared above the cherubim in the most holy place. Gone up - Departing from the place he had so long dwelt in. He was - Wont to sit and appear. Threshold - Of the temple, in token of his sudden departure from the Jews, because of their sins.
4 That sigh - Out of grief for other mens sins and sorrows. Cry - Who dare openly bewail the abominations of this wicked city, and so bear their testimony against it.
5 The others - The six slaughter - men.
6 At my sanctuary - There are the great sinners, and the abominable sins which have brought this on them.
7 And slew - The slaughter also was in vision.
8 Was left - Left alone, now both the sealer, and the slayers were gone.

Chapter X

The scattering the coals of fire upon the city, ver. 1 - 7. The removal of the glory of God from the temple, ver. 8 - 22.

2 He - That sat on the throne. Scatter - That it may take fire in all parts, and none may escape.
3 The right side - The north - side, the side towards Babylon, from whence the fire came which consumed the city. The man - Christ, the Lord of angels, who now attend his coming and commands. The cloud - As the sign of God's presence. The inner court - The court of the priests, who were chief in the apostacy.
4 The glory - The visible token of the presence of the God of glory. Went up - In token of his departure from the temple. And stood - Shewing his unwillingness to leave, and giving them time to return to him, he stands where he might he seen, both by priests and people, that both might be moved to repentance.
5 Was heard - As a mighty and terrible thunder.
6 And stood - Either as one that deferred execution, to try whether the city would repent, or as one who was to give some farther order to the angels, that were to be the ministers of his just displeasure.
7 One Cherub - One of the four. And took - As a servant that reaches what his master would have. Went out - Out of the temple.
9 Looked - Attentively viewed. Beryl stone - Of sea - green.
10 They - The wheels. This intimates the references of providence to each other, and their dependences on each other: and the joint tendency of all to one common end, while their motions appear to us intricate and perplexed, yea, seemingly contrary.
11 When - The wheels moved by the cherubim, or that spirit of life, which moved the living creatures. They went - They were so framed, that they could move on all four sides without the difficulty and delay of turning. Head - Of the living creatures.
12 And - Now he describes both the cherubim and wheels as full of wisdom, and as governed by an excellent wisdom. The wheels - Which the four cherubim had to move, govern, and direct.
13 The wheels - As to their frame and motion. It was cried - Still there was one who guided, as by vocal direction. Unto them - To each of them.
14 Every one - Of the living creatures, chap.1:6.
17 For - There is a perfect harmony between second causes in their dependence on, and subjection to, the one infinite, wise, good, holy, and just God. The spirit of God directs all the creatures, upper and lower, so that they shall serve the divine purpose. Events are not determined by the wheel of fortune, which is blind, but by the wheels of providence, which are full of eyes.
18 And stood - On the right side of the house, where the cherubim were in the inner court.
19 And every one - The glory, the cherubim, the wheels, all stood, respiting execution, and giving opportunity of preventing the approaching misery. The east gate - The last court, the court of the people.
20 I knew - Either by special assurance as a prophet, or by comparing them with those which he had often seen in the temple.

Chapter XI

God's message of wrath to those who remained secure at Jerusalem, ver. 1 - 13. A message of comfort to the dejected captives at Babylon, ver. 14 - 21. The glory of God removes farther, ver. 22, 23. The vision disappears, of which Ezekiel gives an account, ver. 24, 25.

1 Jaazaniah - Not him that is mentioned chap.8:11. Pelatiah - Named here for that dreadful sudden death, whereby he became a warning to others.
2 He - The Lord sitting on the cherub.
3 It - The threatened danger and ruin by the Chaldeans. The caldron - This is an impious scoff, yet mixt with some fear of the prophet, Jer 1:13.
6 Ye - Many murders have you committed yourselves, and you are accountable to God for all those whom the Chaldeans have slain, seeing you persuaded them, thus obstinately to stand out.
7 Bring you forth - Not in mercy, but in wrath, by the conquering hand of Babylon.
9 Deliver you - Defeating all your projects for escape.
10 Will judge - My just judgments shall pursue you, whithersoever you fly.
11 Your caldron - The place of your sufferings; greater are reserved for you in a strange land. Judge you - I will do more against you at Riblah, where the captive king had his children, and others with them, first murdered before his eyes, and then his own eyes put out; Riblah is called the border of Israel: for Syria was adjoining to Israel on the north, and Riblah was on the frontiers of Syria.
13 Pelatiah - Mentioned ver.1, a principal man among the twenty - five princes, who made all the mischief in Jerusalem. It should seem this was done in vision now, (as the slaying of the ancient men, chap.9:6,) but it was an assurance, that when this prophecy was published, it would be done in fact. And the death of Pelatiah was an earnest of the compleat accomplishment of the prophecy. A full end - By slaying all, as this man is cut off.
15 Thy brethren - Thy nearest kindred, which it seems were left in Jerusalem. Their degeneracy is more noted in the repetition of the word brethren. Gone far - Ye are gone far from the Lord; as much as the Heathens accused the Christians of atheism.
16 Say - In vindication of them. Although - The obstinate Jews at Jerusalem will call them apostates; but I the Lord sent them thither, and will own them there. Scattered - Dispersed them in many countries which are under the king of Babylon: yet they are dear to me. A little sanctuary - A little one in opposition to that great temple at Jerusalem. To him they shall flee, and in him they shall be safe, as he was that took hold on the horns of the altar. And they shall have such communion with God in the land of their captivity, as it was thought could be had no where but in the temple.
18 They - They who assemble upon Cyrus's proclamation first, and then upon Darius's proclamation, shall overcome all difficulties, dispatch the journey, and come safely to their own land. Take away - They shall abolish superstition and idolatry from the temple.
19 One heart - Cyrus shall give them leave, and I will give them a heart to return; and on their way shall there be great utility; and, when come to Jerusalem, they shall own me, and my laws, and with one consent, build Jerusalem and the temple, and restore true religion. The stony - That hard, inflexible, undutiful, incorrigible disposition.
21 Heart - Soul and affections. Walketh - Either secretly adhere to, or provide for the service of idols, called here detestable things.
23 Went up - The glory of the Lord removes now out of the city, over which it had stood some time, waiting for their repentance. The mountain - Mount Olivet. He removed thither, to be as it were within call, and ready to return, if now at length in this their day, they would have understood the things that made for their peace.
24 The spirit - The same spirit which carried him to Jerusalem, now brings him back to Chaldea. Went up - Was at an end.

Chapter XII

The prophet by removing his stuff, and quitting his lodgings is a sign of Zedekiah's flight out of Jerusalem, ver. 1 - 16. By eating his meat with trembling, he is a sign, to set forth the famine and consternation in the city, ver. 17 - 20. An assurance that these things shall be fulfilled, ver. 21 - 28.

2 Eyes to see - They have capacity, if they would, to understand, but they will not understand, what thou speakest.
3 Stuff - Vessels or instruments, wherein thou mayest put what is portable.
4 In their sight - Before 'tis quite night, that they, who should learn by this sign, may see and consider it.
5 Dig - Come not through the door, but as one who knows there is a guard upon the door, get to some back part of thy house, and dig there thyself, either to make the greater haste, or to keep all secret; for all will be little enough for them that must act what thou dost represent. Carry out - Through the hole thou hast dug.
6 Bare it - In testimony of the servitude they shall be reduced to, who then must do what servants or beasts were wont to be employed in. Cover thy face - As unwilling to be seen or known. For - I have set thee for a sign to them, and thou shalt tell them the meaning of these things in due time.
7 I brought forth - Here is a transposing of his actions, and rehearsal of that in the first place, which was acted in the second place.
10 Say - Though they enquire not, yet tell them what I mean hereby, that this prophecy is a burden which the kingdom shall groan under. The prince - Zedekiah.
11 I am your sign - My person is the emblem of yours, and my actions of that you shall do. And the like shall be done to you, O inhabitants of Jerusalem. We cannot say concerning our dwelling place, that it is our resting place. For how far we may be tossed from it before we die, we cannot foresee.
12 The prince - Zedekiah. Shall bear - Disguised, as a servant, in hope to conceal himself, chuses the twilight as the time that would best favour his design. They shall dig - This was fulfilled when they broke down the wall to fly, Jer 39:4. Cover his face - Zedekiah did by this aim at concealing himself.
13 It - Neither the land nor the city; for his eyes will be put out at Riblah.
16 Declare - By relating those sins, for which God was justly angry, and for which he punished them, though they were his own people. Thy - The Chaldeans. See how God brings good out of evil! The dispersion of sinners, who had done God much dishonour and disservice in their own country, proves the dispersion of penitents, who shall do him much honour and service in other countries!
19 The people - Thy fellow captives. And of the land - Those that dwell in the countries round about Jerusalem. Her land - Jerusalem's land, so called because it was the head city thereof. Desolate - Because it shortly shall be laid waste, emptied of inhabitants, wealth and plenty. Violence - Injustice, oppression and tyranny of the Jews toward one another.
22 That proverb - That short saying commonly used. Days - Of wrath and vengeance, are to come a great while hence. Every vision - Threatening vision, which Jeremiah and Ezekiel would fright us with, comes to nothing.
25 I will speak - There has been and shall be a succession of God's ministers, by whom he will speak, to the end of the world. Even in the worst times, God left not himself without witness, but raised up men that spoke for him, and spoke from him.

Chapter XIII

The prophet shews the sin and punishment of the false prophets, ver. 1 - 16. Of the false prophetesses, ver. 17 - 23.

2 That prophesy - Out of their own deceiving hearts, not from God.
3 Foolish prophets - Foolish prophets are not of God's sending: for whom he sends, he either finds fit, or makes fit. Where he gives warrant, he gives wisdom. Their own spirit - Not the spirit of God. Seen nothing - God hath shewed them no vision.
4 Thy prophets - Thy prophets, not mine. Like the foxes - Hungry, and ravening, crafty, and guileful. In the deserts - Where want makes them more eager after their prey.
5 Ye - Vain prophets. Gone up - As in a besieged city, whose wall is broken down, a valiant soldier would run up into the breach to repel the enemy; so true prophets partly by prayer, and partly by doctrine, labour to preserve God's people. Hedge - The house of Israel is the Lord's vineyard, through the hedge whereof many breaches are made. To stand - Not with arms, but with fasting, prayer, and repentance.
6 Vanity - Things that have no foundation.
9 Mine hand - My power striking them. In the assembly - Have no seat among the rulers, nor voice among the counsellors. Written - Not registered among those that return, Ezra 2:1,2. Enter - They shall never come into the land of Israel. They shall not be written in the book of eternal life, which is written for the just ones of the house of Israel, saith the Chaldea paraphrast.
10 Peace - They told sinners, no harm would happen to them. And those are the most dangerous seducers, who suggest to sinners that which tends to lessen their dread of sin, or their fear of God. These are compared to men who build a slight tottering wall, which others daub with untempered mortar; sorry stuff, that will not bind, nor hold the bricks together: doctrines not grounded on the word of God.
14 Ye shall know - Those that deceived others, will in the end be found to have deceived themselves. And no doom will be more fearful, than that of unfaithful ministers.
15 Accomplish - Fulfil what my prophets foretold.
18 Sew pillows - A figurative speech, expressing the security, which they promised to every one that came to them. Kerchiefs - Triumphal caps, which were made by these prophetesses, and put upon the head of every who one consulted them, and by these they were to interpret, as a promise of victory over the Babylonians. Stature - That is, of every age, whether younger or elder, which usually is seen by their stature. To hunt - All this is really spreading a net, as hunters do, to catch the prey. Will ye save - Can you preserve them alive, whom you deceive by your promises?
19 Pollute me - Pretending my name for what I never spake. My people - My own people. Handfuls of barley - For a mean reward. To slay - You denounce evil to the best, whom God wilt keep alive. To save - Declaring safety, to the worst, whom God will destroy.
20 There - At Jerusalem. Grow - You promise a flourishing, growing, state to all enquirers; and this is the net with which you hunt souls. Tear them - With violence, and suddenness.
23 See no more vanity - They shall see all their predictions vanish, which shall so confound them, that they shall pretend no more to visions.

Chapter XIV

The elders of Israel come to enquire of the prophet, ver. 1 - 5. They are ordered to repent, or not to pretend to enquire of God, ver. 6 - 11. Tho' Noah, Daniel and Job were to pray for the people, yet they would not prevail, ver. 12 - 21. Yet a remnant shall escape, ver. 22, 23.

1 Elders - Men of note, that were in office and power among the Jews, who were come from Jerusalem.
3 Set up - Are resolved idolaters. The stumbling block - Their idols which were both the object of their sin, and occasion of their ruin.
4 According - According to his desert, I will give answer, but in just judgment.
5 Take - That I may lay open what is in their heart, and discover their hypocrisy, and impiety. Through their idols - It is always through some idol or other, that the hearts of men are estranged from God: some creature has gained that place in the heart, which belongs to none but God.
7 The stranger - Every proselyte. I the Lord - He shall find by the answer, 'twas not the prophet, but God that answered: so dreadful, searching, and astonishing shall my answer be.
8 A sign - Of divine vengeance.
9 The prophet - The false prophet, who speaks all serene, and quiet, in hope of reward. Have deceived - Permitted him to err, or justly left him in his blindness.
13 When - At what time soever.
14 Noah - Who 'tis probable prevailed with God to spare the world for some years, and saved his near relations when the flood came. Daniel - Who prevailed for the life of the wise men of Chaldea. Job - Who daily offered sacrifice for his children, and at last reconciled God to those that had offended.
17 That land - What land soever it be.
19 In blood - In death and destruction, not by the sword.
21 How much more - If they could not be able to keep off one of the four, how much less would they be able to keep off all four, when I commission them all to go at once.
22 Their way - Their sin and their punishment. Comforted - In this proof of the truth of God.
23 Comfort you - That is, you will be comforted, when you compare their case with your own: when they tell you how righteous God was, in bringing these judgments upon them. This will reconcile you to the justice of God, in thus punishing his own people, and to the goodness of God, who now appeared to have had kind intentions in all.

Chapter XV

God by the similitude of a vine, foreshews the utter destruction of Jerusalem, ver. 1 - 8.

2 The vine - tree - Israel is here compared to a vine, which, when fruitless, is utterly unprofitable. This the prophet minds them of to humble them, and awaken them to fruitfulness. A branch - One branch of a tree in the forest is of more use than the whole vine - tree is, except for its fruit.
3 A pin - Will it afford even a pin to drive into a wall or post, on which you may safely fasten any weight.
4 For fuel - When for its barrenness it is cut down, it is fit only to burn.
6 Given - Doomed for food to the fire.
8 Because - They have been so perpetually trespassing, that it seems a continued act.

Chapter XVI

The mean beginning of the Jewish church and nation, ver. 1 - 5. The many favours God bestowed upon them, ver. 6 - 14. Their treacherous and ungrateful requital, ver. 15 - 34. Terrible judgments threatened, ver. 35 - 43. An aggravation of their sin and of their punishment, ver. 44 - 59. A promise of mercy to a remnant, ver. 60 - 63

3 Jerusalem - The whole race of the Jews. Thy birth - Thy root whence thou didst spring. Thy father - Abraham, before God called him, (as his father and kindred) worshipped strange gods beyond the river, Josh 24:14. An Amorite - This comprehended all the rest of the cursed nations.
4 In the day - In the day I called Abraham to leave his idolatry. Salted - Salt was used to purge, dry, and strengthen the new - born child. Nor swaddled - So forlorn was the state of the Jews in their birth, without beauty, without strength, without friend.
5 To the loathing - In contempt of thee as unlovely and worthless; and in abhorrence of thee as loathsome to the beholder. This seems to have reference to the exposing of the male children of the Israelites in Egypt. And it is an apt illustration of the Natural State of all the children of men. In the day that we were born, we were shapen in iniquity: our understandings darkened, our minds alienated from the life of God: all polluted with sin, which rendered us loathsome in the eyes of God.
6 When I passed by - God here speaks after the manner of men. Live - This is such a command as sends forth a power to effect what is commanded; he gave that life: he spake, and it was done.
7 Thou art come - Thou wast adorned with the choicest blessings of Divine Providence. Thy breasts - Grown up and fashioned under God's own hand in order to be solemnly affianced to God.
8 When I passed - This second passing by, may be understood of God's visiting and calling them out of Egypt. Thy time - The time of thy misery was the time of love in me towards thee. I spread my skirt - Espoused thee, as Ruth 3:9. Entered into a covenant - This was done at mount Sinai, when the covenant between God and Israel was sealed and ratified. Those to whom God gives spiritual life, he takes into covenant with himself. By this covenant they become his, his subjects and servants; that speaks their duty: and at the same time his portion, his treasure; that speaks their privilege.
9 Washed - It was a very ancient custom among the eastern people, to purify virgins who were to be espoused. And I anointed - They were anointed that were to be married, as Ruth 3:3.
10 Broidered - Rich and beautiful needle - work. Badgers skin - The eastern people had an art of curiously dressing and colouring the skins of those beasts, of which they made their neatest shoes, for the richest and greatest personages.
11 A chain - Of gold, in token of honour and authority.
14 My comeliness - "That is, thro' the beauty of their holiness, as they were a people devoted to God. This was it that put a lustre upon all their other honours, and was indeed the perfection of their beauty. Sanctified souls are truly beautiful in God's sight, and they themselves may take the comfort of it. But God must have all the glory for whatever comeliness they have, it is that which God has put upon them."
15 Playedst the harlot - Thou didst go a whoring after idols. Thy renown - Her renown abroad drew to her idolatrous strangers, who brought their idols with them. Pouredst out - Didst readily prostitute thyself to them; every stranger, who passed thro' thee, might find room for his idol, and idolatry. He it was - Thy person was at the command of every adulterer.
16 Thy garments - Those costly, royal robes, the very wedding clothes. High places - Where the idol was. With divers colours - With those beautiful clothes I put upon thee. The like things - As there was none before her that had done thus, so shall there be none to follow her in these things.
17 Images - Statues, molten and graven images. Commit whoredom - Idolatry, spiritual adultery. And possibly here is an allusion to the rites of Adonis, or the images of Priapus.
18 Coveredst - Didst clothe the images thou hadst made. Set mine oil - In lamps to burn before them.
19 For a sweet savour - To gain the favour of the idol. Thus it was - All which is undeniable.
20 And those - These very children of mine hast thou destroyed. Sacrificed - Not only consecrating them to be priests to dumb idols; but even burning them in sacrifice to Molech. Devoured - Consumed to ashes. Is this - Were thy whoredoms a small matter, that thou hast proceeded to this unnatural cruelty?
21 For them - For the idols.
24 In every street - Idol temples were in every street; both in Jerusalem and her cities.
25 At every head of the way - Not content with what was done in the city, she built her idol temples in the country, wherever it was likely passengers would come.
26 Great of flesh - Naturally of a big, make, and men of great stature.
30 How weak - Unstable, like water. An imperious woman - A woman, that knows no superior, nor will be neither guided nor governed.
31 Not as an harlot - Common harlots make gain of their looseness, and live by that gain; thou dost worse, thou lavishest out thy credit, wealth, and all, to maintain thine adulterers.
34 Contrary - Here we may see, what the nature of men is, when God leaves them to themselves: yea, tho' they have the greatest advantage, to be better, and to do better.
38 Blood - Thou gavest the blood of thy children to idols in sacrifice; I will give thee thine own blood to drink.
42 My jealousy - The jealousy whereto you have provoked me, will never cease, 'till these judgments have utterly destroyed you, as the anger of an abused husband ceases in the publick punishment of the adulteress. No more angry - I will no more concern myself about thee.
44 The mother - Old Jerusalem, when the seat of the Jebusites, or the land of Canaan, when full of the idolatrous, bloody, barbarous nations. Her daughter - Jerusalem, or the Jews who are more like those accursed nations in sin, than near them in place of abode.
45 Thou - The nation of the Jews. Thy mother's daughter - As much in thy inclinations, as for thy original. Loatheth - That was weary of the best husband.
46 Thine elder sister - The greater for power, riches, and numbers of people. Her daughters - The lesser cities of the kingdom of Israel. Thy left hand - Northward as you look toward the east. Thy younger sister - Which was smaller and less populous. Thy right hand - Southward from Jerusalem.
47 Not walked after their ways - For they, all things considered, were less sinners than thou. Nor done - Their doings were abominable, but thine have been worse.
49 This was - The fountain and occasion of all. Fulness of bread - Excess in eating and drinking. Strengthen - She refused to help strangers.
51 Hast justified - Not made them righteous, but declared them less unrighteous, than thou; of the two they are less faulty.
52 Hast judged - Condemned their apostacy, and hast judged their punishment just.
53 When - Sodom and Samaria never were restored to that state they had been in; nor were the two tribes ever made so rich, mighty, and renowned, though God brought some of them out of Babylon: the words confirm an irrecoverably low, and despised state, of the Jews in their temporals. Then - Then, not before.
54 A comfort - Encouraging sinners like those of Sodom and Samaria.
56 Not mentioned - The sins of Sodom, and her plagues, were not minded or mentioned by thee.
57 Before - The time of her pride was, when they were not yet afflicted, and despised by the Syrians. And all - The nations that were round about and combined in league against the house of David. Her - Syria, the chief whereof were the Philistines.
58 Thy lewdness - The punishment thereof.
59 In breaking the covenant - So will I break my covenant with thee.
60 Nevertheless - The Lord having denounced a perpetual punishment to the impenitent body of the Jewish nation, doth now promise to the remnant, that they shall be remembered, and obtain covenanted mercy. My covenant - In which I promised I would not utterly cut off the seed of Israel, nor fail to send the redeemer, who should turn away iniquity from Jacob. With thee - In the loins of Abraham, and solemnly renewed after their coming out of Egypt, which is the time, called the days of thy youth, Isa 44:2. Establish - Confirm and ratify. It shall be sure, and unfailing. An everlasting covenant - Of long continuance, as to their condition in the land of Canaan, and in what is spiritual, it shall be absolutely everlasting.
61 Then - When that new covenant shall take effect. Receive - Admit into church - communion, the Gentiles, now strangers, but then sisters. Thine elder - Those that are greater and mightier than thou; that by their power, wealth and honour are as much above thee as the elder children are above the younger. Thy younger - Thy lesser or meaner sister. For daughters - As daughters hearken to, and obey, so shall the Gentiles brought into the church, hearken to the word of God, which sounded out from Jerusalem. But not - Not by that old covenant which was violated; nor by external ceremonies, which were a great part of the first covenant, but by that covenant which writes the law in the heart, and puts the fear of God into the inward parts.
63 Open thy mouth - Neither to justify thyself, or to condemn others, or to quarrel with thy God. Because of thy shame - Such a confusion for thy sin will cover thee. Indeed the more we feel of God's love, the more ashamed we are that ever we offended him. And the more our shame for sin is increased, the more will our comfort in God be increased also.

Chapter XVII

The parable of two eagles and a vine, ver. 1 - 10. The application of it, ver. 11 - 21. A promise to raise the house of David again, ver. 22 - 24.

2 A riddle - A dark saying. The house of Israel - The remainders of the house of Israel, whether of the ten, or of the two tribes.
3 A great eagle - Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon is compared to a great eagle, the king of birds, swift, strong, rapacious. Great wings - Mighty provinces on each side of his kingdom. Long winged - His kingdom was widely extended. Full of feathers - And full of people. Divers colours - Who were of divert nations, languages and manners. Lebanon - Jerusalem the chief city of the country where this great, fruitful and pleasant hill was. And took - Took, captive and carried away with him the king of Judah, Jehoiachin. The cedar - The nation.
4 The top - Both the king of Judah, now eighteen years old, and the nobles and chief of the land. Into a land - Babylon, which was a city of mighty trade.
5 The seed - Mattaniah, whom he called Zedekiah. Planted - Settled him on the throne of Judah. As a willow - The prophet compares this new made king to a willow, which grows no where so well as near great waters.
6 Of low stature - They grew and flourish, while they owned their state tributary to Babylon. Toward him - Nebuchadnezzar as their protector, and sovereign lord. The roots - All the firmness, fruitfulness, and life of this state, was in subjection to him.
7 Another - The king of Egypt. This vine - Zedekiah, his nobles and people. Did bend - Sought his friendship. Shot forth - Sent ambassadors, and trusted to the power of Egypt. Water it - That they might add to their greatness, as trees grow by seasonable watering them. By the furrows - Alluding to the manner of watering used in Egypt, by furrows or trenches to convey the water from the river Nile.
8 Was planted - By Nebuchadnezzar, in a very hopeful condition, where it might have been fruitful, and flourished.
9 Say - Tell them what will be the issue of all this, and tell it to them in my name. It prosper - Shall Zedekiah and his people thrive by this? Pull up - Utterly overthrow this kingdom. Cut Off - Put to the sword the children of Zedekiah, and of the nobles. The leaves - All the promising hope they had shall vanish. Without great power - The king of Babylon shall do this easily, when it is God that sends him. For God needs not great power and many people, to effect his purposes. He can without any difficulty overturn a sinful king and kingdom, and make no more of it than we do of rooting up a tree that cumbers the ground.
10 Yea - Suppose this vine were planted by the help of Egypt. The east wind - When the king of Babylon, who like the blasting wind comes from the north - east, shall but touch it, it shall wither. In the furrows - Even amidst its greatest helps, to make it flourish.
15 He - Zedekiah. Shall he break - Can perjury be the way for deliverance?
18 Given his hand - Solemnly confirming the oath.
20 Plead - I will punish him.
21 All - Not strictly, but the greatest part.
22 The highest branch - Of the royal seed; of the highest branch that is heir to the throne; namely, the Messiah. An high mountain - Upon mount Zion. Eminent - Not for outward splendor, but for spiritual advantages.
23 In the mountain - In Jerusalem. All fowl - All nations. In the shadow - There they shall find peace and safety.
24 The trees - The great ones on earth. The high tree - The kingdom of Babylon, which was brought low indeed, when overthrown by Darius and Cyrus.

Chapter XVIII

God reproves a corrupt proverb, ver. 1 - 4. It shall be well with the righteous, ver. 5 - 9. but ill with the wicked man, tho' he had a good father, ver. 10 - 13. It shall be well with a good man, tho' he had a wicked father, ver. 14 - 18. Therefore God is righteous, ver. 19 - 20. It shall be well with penitents, but ill with apostates, ver. 21 - 29. An exhortation to repentance, ver. 30 - 32.

2 The land of Israel - The two tribes, not the ten. The fathers - Our fore - fathers. Have eaten - Have sinned. The childrens - We their children, who were unborn, suffer for their sins.
4 Behold - There can be no colour of partial judgment in the proceedings of God, who is equally God to all. All souls - All persons. The soul - The person, whether father or son, shall die, shall bear his own punishment.
6 Hath not eaten - Hath not committed idolatry, offering sacrifice, and eating of the things sacrificed to idols; whose temples and altars were on mountains, chap. 20. & 28. Hos 4:13.
8 Increase - Illegal interest. Iniquity - Injustice of every kind.
9 Shall live - Shall be delivered from famine, pestilence, and sword, and shall see good days.
13 His blood - Heb. 'Tis plural, bloods; both the blood of the innocent which he murdered, and his own blood which thereby he forfeited; the blood of his own soul and life: that is the whole blame of his misery in time and eternity, shall lie upon himself.
17 Hath taken off - Withdrawn his hand from hurting or wronging the poor, tho' he had power to do it securely.
20 Shall not bear - This is a most unquestionable truth; and tho' perhaps it may seem otherwise in some cases, yet could we see perfectly the connexion between persons and persons; could we see the connexion of sins and sins, and how easily, secretly, and undiscerned men become guilty of the same sins, we should see father and son, though perhaps one of them might not do the evil, both guilty, and neither punished for the sin farther than if it was his own: nor do the scriptures, Exod 20:5 Deut 28:18, doom persons to punishment for sins from which they are wholly free; but if children shall follow their fathers in sin, then if they die for those sins, 'tis because these are their own, not as they are their fathers. The righteousness - It shall be well with the righteous, for he shall eat the fruit of his doing, he shall be rewarded as a righteous one. The wickedness - The reward of wickedness. "The son shall not die, not die eternally, for the iniquity of the father, if he do not tread in the steps of it: nor the father for the iniquity of the son, if he do all he can to prevent it.
22 Not mentioned - Not to him.
25 The way - His whole management of affairs. Not equal - Not right, or consistent with his own declaration, and law.
28 He shall surely live - "That is, he shall be restored to the favour of God, which is the life of the soul."
31 Make you a new heart - Suffer me to do it in you.
32 I have no pleasure - Sinners displease God when they undo themselves; they please him when they return.

Chapter XIX

The kingdom of Judah and house of David is compared to a lioness, and their princes to lions taken in nets, ver. 1 - 9. The kingdom and house are compared to a vine, and these princes to branches, now broken off and burnt, ver. 10 - 14.

1 For the princes - Jehoahaz, Jehoiachim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah.
2 What - What resemblance shall I use to set out the nature, deportment, and state of the mother of these princes? Thy - One of whom was upon the throne at once, and therefore the prophet speaks to one at a time. Mother - The land of Judea, and Jerusalem, the chief city of it, the royal family of David. Lioness - Tho' chosen of God to execute justice; yet they soon degenerated into the fierce and ravening nature of the lioness. Lay down - Associated, and grew familiar with neighbour kings, called here lions; fierce and bloody. Her whelps - Her sons, successors to the crown. Young lions - Either foreign princes and kings, or some of the fierce, unjust, tyrannizing princes at home.
3 Brought up - Advanced, caused him to take the throne after the slaughter of Josiah. One - Jehoahaz the second son of Josiah. Became - Soon shewed his fierce, cruel, and bloody disposition.
4 The nations - The Egyptians heard what he did.
5 Made him - King, and infused the lion - like maxims into him.
6 He - Jehoiachim. Went up - He continued eleven years on the throne; whereas Jehoahaz was taken as soon as he first ventured out. The lions - Heathen kings, with whom he entered into leagues. He became - Fierce, ravenous, unsatiable.
7 He knew - By taking them, he came to know their places, which are here called, what he made them, desolate. Roaring - By the perpetual violent threats of this cruel king.
8 The nations - Which were tributary to Nebuchadnezzar. Set against - By order of the king of Babylon. The provinces - Which belonged to the Babylonish kingdom.
10 Thy mother - O thou prince of Israel. By the waters - In a very fruitful soil. Full of branches - Full of children; when Josiah died, he left four behind him, beside other branches of the royal line.
11 Strong rods - Many excellent persons endowed with qualifications befitting kings, that they might sway the scepter. Exalted - Above the ordinary majesty of other kingdoms. Thick branches - This kingdom equalled, if not excelled, the greatest neighbour - kingdoms, and her kings exceeded all their neighbouring kings, in riches and power.
12 The east wind - God raised up the king of Babylon to pull up this sinful kingdom. Dried up - Blasted all her fruit, deposed her king, captivated him, his family, and the whole kingdom. Strong rods - All the choice men.
13 She - A few of the branches of the last pruning. In the wilderness - Tho' Babylon was in a very fruitful place, yet the cruelty of the Babylonians, made it to the Jews as terrible as a wilderness.
14 Fire - The fire of rebellion, kindled by Zedekiah, who is of the blood - royal. No strong rod - The regal dignity is ceased.

Chapter XX

The prophet consulted by the elders, signifies God's displeasure against them, ver. 1 - 3. Gives them a history of God's dealings with their fathers, and their treacherous dealings with God in Egypt, ver. 4 - 9. In the wilderness, ver. 10 - 26. In Canaan, ver. 27 - 32. Judgments denounced against them, ver. 33 - 36. Mercy promised to a remnant, ver. 37 - 44. A word dropt toward Jerusalem, ver. 45 - 49.

1 The seventh year - Of Zedekiah's reign, two years and five months before Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem. Came - Yet resolved before - hand what they would do.
3 Are ye come - Are ye in good earnest?
4 Wilt thou - Wilt thou not convince and reprove them? And denounce my judgments against them? The abominations - What their fathers have done, they approve, and have outdone; by that let them know what to expect.
5 When I chose - When I shewed that I had chosen them. The history of the rebellions of the children of Israel, begins as early, as their beginning. So does the history of man's apostasy from his Maker. No sooner have we read the story of his creation, but we meet with that of his rebellion. So we see here, it was with Israel; a people designed to represent the body of mankind, both in their dealings with God, and in God's dealing with them. Lifted up my hand - Or stretched out and made bare my arm; that is, magnified my power for their deliverance. When I lifted up mine hand - Shewed my power in performing my oath, and assuring them of doing what was farther promised.
6 I had espied - God speaks after the manner of men. Milk and honey - Literally milk and honey in abundance were in the land of Canaan. Proverbially it speaks the plenty and abundance of all the blessings of life.
7 Of his eyes - To which you have looked for help.
8 To accomplish - To make an end of them.
9 For my name's sake - For the glory of my mercy and faithfulness. Polluted - Reproached and blasphemed.
12 A sign - Of their being peculiarly my people.
13 In the wilderness - Where they most needed my care and favour; where the preserving their life from destruction by the noxious creatures, and from famine by the barrenness of the wilderness, was a continued miracle.
15 I lifted up my hand - I sware. Them - So all the murmuring, disobedient, unbelieving generation was excluded, and their children were brought in.
18 Walk ye not - Live not as your fathers did.
20 Hallow - Remember to keep them holy.
22 I withdrew - God seems to take the posture of one that was just going to smite, yet draws back that he might spare.
23 I lifted - I sware.
25 Wherefore - Because they rejected my good laws and judgments. I gave them - Not by enjoining, but by permitting them to make such for themselves. Not good - That were pernicious to the users.
26 Polluted - I permitted them to pollute themselves. Might know - Be forced to own, that the Lord is a mighty king in punishing those that would not have him a gracious king in governing them.
29 What - What mean you that you go to the high place? What do you find so inviting there, that you will leave God's altar, where he requires your attendance, to frequent such places as he has forbidden you to worship in? Bamah - That is, the high place.
31 Shall I be enquired of - Are you fit to ask counsel of me, whom you have so obstinately forsaken and reproached?
32 And that - God to convince them, tells them what they think and have purposed. Shall not be - Shall be quite frustrated. We will be - Will unite with them in marriages, commerce, and religion too; and then we shall be safe among them.
34 The people - Sidonians, Ammonites, Moabites, or whoever they were, to whom the apostate Jews betook themselves, where they thought to lurk, God will bring them thence into Babylonish captivity.
35 Bring you - Drive you. The wilderness - Into the most horrid parts of the world; into the mountainous parts of Media, Hyrcania, Iberia, Caspia, Albania, and Scythia. Plead with you - Pass sentence, and execute it on you.
36 Your fathers - Who died there, and never entered Canaan.
37 I will cause - I will bring you out by number, so that you shall either own my scepter, or by a conquered subjection, yield to my sword and power. Under the rod - Referring to the manner of shepherds in that country, who did tell their sheep in, and out of the fold. Bring you - The voluntary and obedient into covenant with myself.
38 The rebels - The stubborn sinners.
39 But pollute - But while ye are such idolaters, forbear to take my name into your lips.
40 Mine holy mountain - Sion, God's holy hill, Psa 2:6. Holy by designation, and God's own appointing it for his temple and presence. Of the height - Sion, tho' lower than many other hills, yet was above them all for God's peculiar presence. In the land - Their own land. Your offerings - When I have brought you into the land, then I will require your offerings as formerly: you shall see my temple built, Jerusalem filled with inhabitants, and my worship restored.
41 Sanctified - Magnified and praised for the good I do to my people.
43 Remember - Review your former ways with sorrow: remember, and grieve.
46 The south - Look toward Jerusalem, and the land of Canaan. Drop thy word - Let thy word distil, begin with softer words, before thou shower down with the vehemency of a storm. The forest - Jerusalem, which was become like a forest.
47 Every green tree - All that flourish, and all that are poor. All faces - All persons and orders of men, from one end of the land to the other.
49 Parables - So absolutely, that we cannot understand him.

Chapter XXI

An explication of the prophecy in the close of the last chapter, with directions to the prophet upon it, ver. 1 - 7. A prediction of the sword that was coming on the land, ver. 8 - 17. A prospect given of the king of Babylon's coming to Jerusalem, to which he was determined by divination, ver. 18 - 24. Sentence passed on Zedekiah, ver. 25 - 27. The destruction of the Ammonites, ver. 28 - 32.

2 The holy places - The temple and all parts of it.
3 The righteous - It is no unusual thing, that in publick calamities, those who are indeed righteous should be involved with others.
4 All flesh - All the Jews that dwell in the land.
5 Shall not return - It shall not return into the scabbard 'till it hath done full execution.
6 Sigh therefore - Thereby express deep sorrow. Breaking of thy loins - Like a woman in travail.
7 Because - The saddest news you ever heard is coming.
9 Furbished - Made clean and bright.
10 Of my son - To whom God saith, Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron, Psa 2:9. This sword is that rod of iron, which despiseth every tree, and will bear it down.
12 It - The devouring sword. Upon thy thigh - In token of thy sense of what they must suffer.
13 If - But if the king and kingdom of Judah despise this trial, both shall be destroyed and be no more.
14 And smite - In token of amazement and sorrow. Of the slain - Wherewith many shall be slain. Privy chambers - Where they were hidden in hope to escape.
15 All their gates - Both of cities, of palaces, and of private houses. Wrapt up - And hath been carefully kept in the scabbard, that it might not be blunted.
16 Go - O sword, take thy own course.
17 Smite my hands - In token of my approbation.
19 Appoint - Paint, or describe them on a tile. One land - That is, Babylon. Chuse - Pitch on some convenient place, where thou mayest place Nebuchadnezzar's army, consulting where this one way divides into two, which was on the edge of the desert of Arabia. At the head - Where each way runs, toward either Rabbath, or Jerusalem; for there Nebuchadnezzar will cast lots.
20 To Judah - The Jews.
21 Stood - The prophet speaks of what shall be, as if it were already. To use - To consult with his gods, and to cast lots. Arrows - Writing on them the names of the cities, then putting them into a quiver, and thence drawing them out and concluding, according to the name which was drawn. He consulted - Perhaps by a divine permission, the devil gave them answers from those images. In the liver - They judged of future events, by the entrails, and more especially by the liver.
22 The divination - The divination which concerned Jerusalem, was managed on his right hand.
23 Them - The Jews. That have sworn - Zedekiah, his princes, and nobles, who swore allegiance to the king of Babylon, these perjured persons will contemn all predictions of the prophet. He - Nebuchadnezzar. The iniquity - The wickedness of their perjury and rebellion. They - Zedekiah, and the Jews with him
24 Your transgressions - Against God, and against the king of Babylon. Discovered - To all in court, city, and country. With the hand - As birds, or beasts in the net, are taken with the hands, so shall you, and be carried into Babylon.
25 And thou - Zedekiah. Whose day - The day of sorrows, and sufferings, and punishment is at hand. Shall have an end - Shall bring the ruin of king and kingdom, and with the overthrow of your state, the means of sinning shall end too.
26 The diadem - The royal attire of the head, which the king daily wore. Shall not be the same - The kingdom shall never be what it hath been. Him that is low - Jeconiah. The advance of this captive king, came to pass in the thirty - seventh year of his captivity.
27 Shall be no more - Never recover its former glory, 'till the scepter be quite taken away from Judah, and way be made for the Messiah. He hath an incontestable right to the dominion both in the church and in the world. And in due time he shall have the possession of it, all adverse power being overturned.
28 Their reproach - Wherewith they reproached Israel in the day of Israel's afflictions.
29 While - While thy astrologers, and soothsayers, deceive thee with fair, but false divinations. To bring thee - To bring thee under the sword of the Chaldeans, and destroy thee as the Jews; to make thee stumble and fall on their necks, as men that fall among a multitude of slain.
30 Shall I cause it - God will by no means suffer the sword to be sheathed. Judge thee - Condemn, and execute.
31 I will blow - As those who melt down metals blow upon the metal in the fire, that the fire may burn the fiercer.

Chapter XXII

A catalogue of the sins of Jerusalem, ver. 1 - 12. Punishment threatened, ver. 13 - 16. They are condemned as dross to the fire, ver. 17 - 22. All orders of men having contributed to the national guilt, must share in the punishment of it, ver. 23 - 31.

2 Judge - The question is doubled, to awaken the prophet more fully, and to quicken him to his work.
3 Her time - The time of ripeness in her sins, and of execution of judgments on her. To defile - For this does more defile them, and provoke God to wrath against them.
4 Thy days - The days of thy sorrows, and punishment. Art come - Thou art grown up to the eldest years in sin, beyond which thou art not to go.
5 Much vexed - Afflicted, impoverished, and ruined.
6 Every one - Not one to be found of a more merciful temper. To their power - According to their ability.
7 In thee - In Jerusalem.
8 Thou - O Jerusalem. Mine holy things - All mine institutions, temple, sacrifices, feasts.
9 Carry tales - Informers, or persons that for money, give in false witness against the innocent. They eat - Offer sacrifice on the mountains and feast there, in honour of their idols.
10 Discovered - Defiled their fathers bed.
13 Smitten mine hand - In testimony of my abhorrence.
14 Endure - Withstand the evils that are coming, or bear them when come.
16 In thyself - Whereas I was thine inheritance so long as thou wert a holy, obedient people; now be an inheritance to thyself, if thou canst.
18 Dross - Utterly degenerate, and base metal. The furnace - The afflictions I have laid upon them have not bettered them. The dross - While they loved mercy, did justly, walked humbly with their God, they were as silver; now they are but dross.
19 Gather you - From all parts. I will, by a secret over - ruling providence, bring you into Jerusalem, as into a furnace, where you may be consumed.
23 Her - The land of Israel. Not cleansed - Though God's judgments have been as violent floods; and as hottest fires. Nor rained upon - Yet neither thy filth hath been carried away, nor thy dross melted out of thee. Therefore thou shalt be deprived of the rain, that should cool thy thirsty land.
25 A conspiracy - A contrivance, to speak all alike, smooth words, and give out promises of peace and safety. Thereof - Of the land. The treasure - As a reward of their lies. Made her - By persuading Zedekiah to hold out the war, which filled Jerusalem with dead husbands, and forlorn widows.
26 My holy things - Sacrifices, and oblations. Put no difference - Neither have they in their practice, differenced holy and profane, nor in their teaching acquainted the people with the difference, nor in the exercise of their authority, separated the profane from the holy, either persons, or things. Hid their eyes - Despised, and would not see the holiness of the sabbaths. Profaned - Contemned, dishonoured, disobeyed.
27 Destroy souls - Ruin families; cutting off the fathers, and impoverishing the widow, and fatherless.
28 Daubed them - Flattered them, in their ways of sin. Untempered mortar - With promises that like ill - tempered mortar, will deceive them, though all seems at present smooth and safe.
30 I sought - God speaks after the manner of men. A man - Any one, among princes, prophets, priests, or people, to repair the breach. And stand - Interpose between a sinful people, and their offended God, and intreat for mercy. But - All were corrupted.

Chapter XXIII

The apostacy of Israel and Samaria from God, ver. 1 - 8. Their ruin, ver. 9, 10. The apostacy of Judah and Jerusalem from God, ver. 11 - 21. Their ruin, ver. 22 - 35. The joint wickedness of them both, ver. 36 - 44. And their joint ruin, ver. 45 - 49.

2 Two women - Judah, and Israel, two kingdoms.
3 Whoredoms - Idolatry.
4 Aholah - That is, his own tabernacle; for Israel falling off from the house of David, fell off from the tabernacle, or temple of God; so that all the temple they had was of their own making. The elder - Greater for number of tribes, and for power, wealth, and for multitudes of people. Aholibah - That is, my tabernacle in her: the two tribes had the temple of God with them. Mine - By solemn marriage - covenant. Bare sons - Were fruitful and brought forth children to me; they increased in numbers of people; and among these, some there were that were children of God by faith, love, and obedience.
5 Played the harlot - United in idolatry, with the Assyrians. Mine - When under my government, and protection.
6 Horsemen - Skillful in riding, and well furnished with choice horses.
7 With all - Other nations, with whom she had commerce.
10 Discovered - Stript her naked, and exposed her to shame. Took her sons - Captives. Slew her - The kingdom of Israel, under Hoshea, was by Salmanesar utterly destroyed. They - The Assyrians, had executed God's just displeasure upon her.
15 Girded - With soldiers belts, which includes the rest of the habit of soldiers. In dyed attire - Both rich, comely, large, and of divers colours. Princes - Of princely aspect and majesty.
17 Alienated - She grew weary of the Chaldeans.
18 Discovered - Made it appear to all, far and near.
19 By - Remembering her idolatries in Egypt, her alliance with it in days past, which she now resolved to act over again.
20 Paramours - The nations, that were confederate with the Egyptians.
23 Pekod - Pekod is the province between Tigris, and Lycus; in this was old Nineveh. Shoa - Either Sia in Armenia, or the Sohia, among which were the Adiabeni, and this contained the middle part of the kingdom of Babylon. Koa - This bordered upon Media, the inhabitants were called Kohai, and dwelt about Arbela. And all - All subjects of the Assyrian monarchy.
24 And wheels - Lest in their march the carriage wheels should break, a store of these were provided. An assembly - A mighty confluence of people. I will set - Give them a power in right of conquest over their rebels, as well as mine, and I will give them a spirit of judgment to discern the greatness of this people's sins. Judge - Condemn, and execute sentence upon thee. According - To their will, power, wrath, and custom, against rebels; for these are their rules of judgment.
25 I will set my jealousy - As a jealous provoked husband, I will be as much against thee as they are. Thy residue - Either the people, who hid themselves in vaults and cellars, or what the Chaldeans cannot carry away, all this shall be devoured by fire.
29 Take away - Deprive thee of the comfortable use of all thy labour, which they will exact of thee in captivity.
32 It - Is large, and contains what will last many years, even 'till the seventy years be expired.
34 Thou - Shalt stagger with sorrows, that shall intoxicate, and astonish. Suck it out - The dregs shalt thou drink, and multiply thine own sorrows. Break the sheards - To suck out what remains. And pluck - Revenging thyself upon thyself.
35 Bear thou - The guilt, I will impute it, the punishment, I will not pardon it.
38 In the same day - When they had newly polluted themselves with idolatry and murder, they thrust into the temple.
39 My house - Nay, these things have been in my house.
40 Wash thyself - After the manner of harlots.
41 Sattest - Prepared to feast them. A stately bed - A magnificent bed, on which women sat to feast, when men leaned on their sides. Incense - Offered to their idols.
42 A voice - A shout for joy, that there was a treaty of peace between the Jews, and the Chaldeans.
45 Righteous men - Men that keep the law of their God.
46 Upon them - Against the Jews, the children of this Aholibah.
47 The company - The Babylonian army.
48 Lewdness - Idolatry. And indeed we do not read of any after their return out of this captivity.
49 They - The Babylonians. The sins - The guilt of worshipping idols; and you shall bear the punishment of idolaters.

Chapter XXIV

By the sign of flesh boiling in a pot are shewed, the miseries of Jerusalem during the siege, ver. 1 - 14. By the sign of Ezekiel's not mourning for his wife is shewed, that the approaching calamities would be to great to be lamented, ver. 15 - 27.

1 In the ninth year - Of Zedekiah's reign. Came unto me - The prophet was now in Babylon.
2 Set himself - Sat down to besiege.
4 Every good piece - All the chief of the inhabitants of the land, the wealthiest, who will fly from their country - houses to live in safety in Jerusalem: the most war - like, who will betake themselves to Jerusalem for its defence. Fill it - With those pieces that are biggest, fullest of marrow, and which are divided according to the bones; these are the principal members of the state, the king, princes, priests, magistrates, and the most wealthy citizens.
5 The bones - Not of the pieces to be boiled, but of the many innocents murdered in Jerusalem; for their blood crieth for vengeance, and their bones scattered on the face of the earth, will both make and maintain this fire.
6 The bloody city - Jerusalem. Whose scum - Her wickedness is still within her. Piece by piece - One piece after another 'till all be consumed. No lot - Lots are for saving some, but here shall be no sparing any.
7 The blood - Innocent blood which she hath shed. The top of a rock - Where it might be long seen. To cover it - These butchers of innocent ones leave their blood uncovered.
8 I have set - I will openly punish, and in such a manner as shall not be soon forgotten.
10 And spice it well - To express this justice, that is acceptable to God and men. The bones - The greatest, strongest, and firmest of the Jews shall perish in this fiery indignation.
11 The filthiness - A type of the unreformed sinfulness of the city. Molten - That their wickedness may be taken away with their persons, and city.
12 She - Jerusalem. With lies - Her allies, their promises, their forces, and their idols, all prove a lie to the house of Judah. Her scum - Her unrepented sins shall be punished in the fire that burns their city.
13 Lewdness - Or obstinacy and boldness. Purged thee - Used all means to purge thee.
16 With a stroke - A sudden stroke, by my own immediate hand. We know not how soon the desire of our eyes may be removed from us. Death is a stroke, which the most pious, the most useful, the most amiable are not exempted from.
17 Bind the tire - Adorn thy head, as thou wast used to do; go not bare - headed as a mourner. Thy shoes - ln great mournings the Jews went bare - footed. Cover not thy lips - It was a custom among them to cover the upper lip. Eat not - Of thy neighbours and friends, who were wont to visit their mourning friends, and send in choice provision to their houses.
18 I spake - Told them what I expected would be.
21 Profane - Cast off, and put into the hands of Heathens. The excellency of your strength - So it was while God's presence was there. The desire - As much your desire, as my wife was mine; most dear to you.
22 Ye shall do - When you are in captivity, where you may not use your own customs.
23 Pine away - You shall languish with secret sorrow, when you shall not dare to shew it openly.
25 Their strength - Their walls and fortifications. The joy - All their public and private joys and hopes shall be destroyed in the destruction of the kingdom, and their children.
26 To hear it - To give thee a narrative of all he had seen.
27 No more dumb - From this prophecy for eighteen months during the siege, he does not prophesy of Israel, but of other nations. Thou shalt be a sign - Until the event shall convince the Jews, thou shalt by sign, signify to them, what is coming.

Chapter XXV

A prophesy against the Ammonites, ver. 1 - 7. The Moabites, ver. 8 - 11. The Edomites, ver. 12 - 14. And the Philistines, ver. 15 - 17.

3 Aha - When thou shouldest have pitied, thou didst proudly insult over my people.
4 The men of the east - The Arabians, associates of Nebuchadnezzar, who recompensed their service, with giving them this country when it was conquered, as it was five years after the desolation of Jerusalem.
5 Rabbah - The royal city, called since Philadelphia from the king of Egypt who built it. The Ammonites - The land they dwelt in.
7 Know - Thus God will bring those that were strangers to him into an acquaintance with him, and it will be a blessed effect of their calamities. How much better is it, to be poor and know God, than to be rich, and ignorant of him?
8 Seir - The seed of Esau, the Edomites. Seir was the mountain where they first planted themselves. Is like - Are no more a select people than others.
9 The side - That part of his country which was best fortified. Bethjeshimoth - An ancient city; it was a fortress toward the desert, which watched lest any should make an inroad on the country.
10 With the Ammonites - As I have given Ammon, so I will with them give Moab to the Chaldeans, who will give it to the Arabians.
13 Teman - A country in the southern coast of Edom. Dedan - Adjoining to Edom.
15 It - Israel.
16 The Cherethim - The bowmen, the strength of Philistia. The remnant - Who had escaped the sword of Samuel, David, Hezekiah, and of Psammetichus king of Egypt.

Chapter XXVI

The sin of Tyre, ver. 1, 2. The utter destruction of it, ver. 3 - 14. The astonishment of the neighbouring nations, ver. 15 - 21.

1 In the eleventh year - Of Jechoniah's captivity, the year wherein Jerusalem was taken. The month - That month which followed the taking of Jerusalem.
2 Because - Probably God revealed this to the prophet as soon as these insulting Tyrians spoke it. The gates - The great mart of nations, people from all parts. She is turned - The trading interest will turn to me.
4 Scrape - I will leave thee nothing; thou shalt be scraped, and swept, that not so much as dust shall remain in thee. Like - As bare as was the rock on which thy city is built.
6 Her daughters - The lesser cities. In the field - On the firm land.
11 Garrisons - Bastions, or forts, or triumphal arches.
12 Shall lay - It had been a quicker way, to have burnt all; but the greedy soldier might dream of treasures hid in walls, or under the timber, and therefore take the pains to pull all down, and throw it into the sea.
14 No more - Tho' there was a city of that name built, yet it was built on the continent; and in propriety of speech, was another city.
15 The isles - Isles which are places freest from danger of invasions, will shake with fear, when they learn that Tyre is fallen.
16 The princes - Who were lords of the islands of that sea. Come down - In token of condolence. Trembling - They shall be afraid of their own concerns, and astonished in the midst of their fears.
18 In the sea - At a great distance, and farther from land. Departure - Leaving thy ancient dwelling, to go into captivity.
19 The deep - Nebuchadnezzar's army. Great waters - Great afflictions.
20 Bring thee down - When I shall slay thee, and throw thee into the grave. With the people - Who are long since dead, and gone to eternity. The low parts - Another description of the grave, from the situation and solitude of it. Set glory - Then I will restore the beauty, strength, and wealth of Israel, and bring them back to Jerusalem. In the land - In the land of Judea, called, land of the living, because a land, where God will bless, and give life by his word, ordinances, and spirit: thus different shall Tyre's captivity and Jerusalem's be.
21 A terror - To all that hear of thee.

Chapter XXVII

A large account of the wealth, splendor and trade of Tyre, ver. 1 - 25. Its utter ruin, and the consternation of its neighbours, ver. 26 - 36.

2 A lamentation - We ought to mourn for the miseries of other nations, as well as of our own, out of an affection for mankind in general; yea, tho' they have brought them upon themselves.
3 At the entry - Heb. Entrances. She was about four furlongs, or half an English mile from the continent, as it were in the very door of the sea.
5 They - The shipwrights. Shipboards - The planks and benches, or transoms for their ships. Fir - trees - Of the best and finest fir - trees. Lebanon - Whose cedars excelled others.
6 With box - From the isles, and parts about the Ionian, Aegean, and other seas of the Mediterranean, where box - tree is a native, and of great growth and firmness, fit to saw into boards for benches; they were conveyed to Tyre, where their artists inlaid these box boards with ivory, and made them beautiful seats in their ships.
7 The isles of Elishah - Probably the sea - coast of Aeolis in the lesser Asia, the inhabitants whereof were excellent in the skill of dying wool. Which covered - He speaks of the coverings they used in their ships or galleys: their tilts, as our boat - men call them.
8 Zidon - An ancient town and haven of Phoenicia, not far from Tyre. Arvad - Or Aradus, an island belonging to Phoenicia, twenty furlongs from the continent. Mariners - Rowers in thy galleys; the rich Tyrians would not employ their own in such servile works, they hired strangers. Wise men - Thy learned men: for navigation was the great study of the Tyrians.
9 The ancients - Old experienced workmen. Gebal - A town of Phoenicia near the sea. The wise men - Skilful in their trades. Were in thee - Who dwelt in Tyre for gain. All the ships - Ships from all parts of the sea, full of mariners, not only to manage the ships at sea, but to offer their service to the Tyrians for bringing in, or carrying out their wares.
10 Lud - Lydians, not those Cresus was king over, but those that dwelt in Egypt about the lake Maraeolis. Phut - Lybians, a people of Africa; these were their hired soldiers. Hanged the shield - In time of peace. They set forth - These stout, expert, well armed guards, were an honour to thee.
11 With - Mixed with other hired soldiers. The Gammadim - Probably men of Gammade, a town of Phoenicia.
13 Javan - The Grecians, particularly the Ionians. Tubal - The Asiatic Iberians, and the Albanians toward the Caspian sea. Meshech - The Cappadocians. They traded - Brought men to sell for slaves.
14 Of the house - Of the country. Togarmah - Armenia the lesser, Phrygia, Galatia, or Cappadocia. Horsemen - It is likely they might sell grooms, as best able to manage, and keep those horses.
15 Isles - In the Indian seas, and in the Red - sea traded with thee. Horns - Elk's horns, or wild goats. Ebony - Is a very solid, heavy, shining, black wood, fit for many choice works.
16 The multitude - The abundance of the Tyrian manufactures.
17 Minnith - The name of an excellent wheat country. Pannag - Some obscure place, which now is forgotten.
19 Javan - In the isle of Meroe, in Egypt.
20 Dedan - The posterity of Abraham by Keturah, who dwelt in Arabia, and were sheep - masters. Clothes - With which they lined their chariots.
22 Sheba - A country in Arabia Felix. Raamah - Another people of the same Arabia.
23 Haran - In Mesopotamia, where Abraham dwelt. Canneh - This is supposed to be the same with Calneh, Gen 10:10, afterwards Ctesiphon, a pleasant city on Tigris. Ashur - Assyria. Chilmad - A country between Assyria and Parthia.
25 The ships - The ships from all parts of the sea. Did sing - Had their songs to commend thy state.
26 Thy rowers - Thy governors and counsellors. Great waters - Dangers and difficulties. The east wind - The king of Babylon with his army. Hath broken - As surely will, as if he had already done it. In the midst - Where thou thoughtest thyself impregnable.
27 All thy company - All that are men fit for war, in the multitudes of people that are in thee. Shall fall - These all shall fall together.
28 The suburbs - The suburbs, which are nearest the sea, shall first hear the out - cries of pilots, and mariners.
29 Shall come down - ln the allegory of a miserable shipwreck, the prophet sets forth the fall of Tyre; and in this verse he represents them all shifting out of the sinking ship, in great confusion.
30 Wallow themselves in ashes - As men use to do in their greatest mournings.
32 In the sea - Alas! what was once her safeguard, is now her grave.
33 Went forth - Were landed. Thou filledst - There was enough to supply to the full.
34 By the seas - The Babylonians, that like seas shall swell, roar, and break in upon thee.
35 Troubled - They shall not be able to conceal the discomposure of their mind, but will shew it in their countenance.
36 Shall hiss - Will mock at thy fall.

Chapter XXVIII

A prediction of the ruin of the king of Tyre, ver. 1 - 10. A lamentation for him, ver. 11 - 19. A prediction of the destruction of Zidon, ver. 20 - 23. The restoration of Israel, ver. 24 - 26.

2 Hast said - In thy heart. In the seat of God - Safe and impregnable as heaven itself. A man - Subject to casualties, sorrows, and distresses. Set thine heart - Thou hast entertained thoughts, which become none but God.
3 Wiser - In thy own thoughts. Daniel - Who was then famous for his wisdom.
7 The beauty - Those beautiful things, in which thy wisdom appeared.
10 The deaths - Temporal and eternal. Of the uncircumcised - Of the wicked, an accursed death.
12 Thou sealest up - Thou fanciest that fulness of wisdom, and perfection of beauty are in thee.
13 In Eden - In the midst of all delights. The workmanship - Now the prophet notes their joys, musick, and songs, both to loud, and to softer musick, as the lute, and tabret in the day of their kings coronation, and all this on instruments of most exquisite make, and of their own artists work; in this they exceeded as in the other. Created - King: in the day of thy coronation.
14 Cherub - For thy wisdom, power, and excellency, like a cherub, or angel; for the sacredness of thy person, and office, as the anointed of God; for the exercise of thy power, as a shield, as a protector of the weak. And I - I, whom thou forgetest have made thee so. Thou wast - Thou wast advanced to kingly dignity, (which David calls a mountain, Psa 30:7,) a sacred office, and of divine institution. In the midst - Surrounded with stones, that sparkle like fire.
15 Thou wast perfect - Is not this an irony?
16 I will cast - Out thy kingly dignity.
17 Corrupted - Depraved, or lost thy wisdom. Behold thee - That thou mayst be a spectacle, and warning to them.
18 I will bring thee - Thou shalt be burnt to ashes, and trampled under feet.
19 All - All that have formerly known thy riches, power, allies, and wisdom.
22 Zidon - A city, north - west from Canaan, a king's seat of old, and from which Tyre descended. I will be glorified - When my judgments make my justice, power and truth appear, both you, and others shall confess my glory. Sanctified - Owned as holy, reverenced as just, obeyed as sovereign.
23 And blood - Bloody war by an enemy, that shall bring the war to the gates, nay into the streets of Zidon. Judged - Be punished in the midst of the city. The sword - By the sword of her enemies.
24 A pricking briar - By these two metaphors the prophet points out the troublesome neighbours of the Jews, such as Moab, Ammon, Edom, Tyre, and Zidon. This never had a full accomplishment yet. But it will, for the scripture cannot be broken.
25 Sanctified - I was dishonoured by the Jews in the sight of the heathen, and I will be honoured by the Jews in their sight.

Chapter XXIX

A prediction of the destruction of Pharaoh, for his treacherous dealing with Israel, ver. 1 - 7. A prediction of the desolation of Egypt, ver. 8 - 12. A promise of the restoration thereof in part, ver. 13 - 16. A prediction of Nebuchadrezzar's passing it, ver. 17 - 20. A promise of mercy to Israel, ver. 21.

1 The tenth year - Of Jeconiah's captivity.
3 The great dragon - The crocodile; our prophet, as well as Isaiah, compares the Egyptian king to that devouring serpent, or dragon. That lieth - Not only at rest, but waiting for prey. My river - My kingdom, power, riches, and forces, all the strength and glory of Egypt.
4 Put hooks - The Allegory is continued. The fish - The people of Egypt. To stick - To adhere to their king.
5 Leave thee - When thus brought out, I will leave thee. The wilderness - The deserts of Libya and Syene. All the fish - The whole army of the Egyptians. The open fields - There was this king and his army ruined. Gathered - These were not buried, but left in the wilderness, a prey to wild beasts, and birds.
7 Rent - Didst them much mischief instead of benefiting them, as thou hast promised, Jer 37:7.
10 Syene - Boundary between Ethiopia and Egypt; that is, all Egypt from north - east to south - west.
11 Forty years - These forty years began about the thirtieth year of Jeconiah's captivity, and end with the seventieth year of the captivity, which was the first of Cyrus.
14 Pathros - The southern part of Egypt, in which was the famous city Thebae, known for its hundred gates. Their habitation - The ancient habitation of their fathers. A base - A low, tributary, dependent kingdom.
15 No more rule - Though in the times of the Ptolemeys, it was considerable, yet then, even then it did not rule the nations about her.
16 Which - Which sinful reliance on the arm of flesh provoked God to call to mind their other iniquities. When - When they forgot God, and respected Egypt. They - The house of Israel.
17 In the seven and twentieth year - Of Jeconiah's captivity, the year after the conquest of Tyre.
18 Caused - The army, and commanders were weary of the siege, but the immovable resolution of the king kept them on. A great service - It was service to the justice of God. It was great service both for hardness of work, heaviness of burdens, and length of the siege, thirteen years together. Made bald - Through age, or sicknesses, or continued wearing of helmets. Peeled - Galled with carrying burdens. No wages - For though Tyre was very rich, when first besieged, much wealth was carried away during the siege, much spent and wasted in the siege, and what was left, preserved by articles of surrender.
19 Her multitude - Common people, who shall be made captives, and servants or slaves. Her prey - What she had before taken from others. The wages - God will be behind - hand with none, who do any service for him; one way or other he will recompence them. None shall kindle a fire at his altar for nought.
20 They - The Babylonians. For me - God's work was doing by them, tho' they thought nothing less.
21 The horn - Jehoiakim, who was then advanced by Evil - Merodach. The opening of the mouth - Thou shalt have liberty, to open thy mouth in comforting the good among them, and to give praise to God.

Chapter XXX

The steps by which Nebuchadrezzar would destroy Egypt, ver. 1 - 19. A repetition of a former prophecy against it, ver. 20 - 26.

2 Ye - Inhabitants of Egypt.
3 A cloudy day - So times of trouble are called. Of the heathen - The time when God will reckon with the Heathens.
4 Ethiopia - The neighbour and ally to Egypt. Take away - Into miserable captivity. Her foundations - Their government, laws, and strong holds.
5 Lydia - Not the Asiatic, but the Africans placed between some part of Cyrene and Egypt. The mingled people - The hired soldiers from all parts, a confused mixture of nations. And Chub - The inhabitants of the inmost Libya; perhaps they may be the Nubians at this day. The men - All the allies of Egypt. With them - With the Egyptians.
6 Upheld - Those that favour and help her. The pride - The glory of all her strength.
7 They - All those before mentioned.
8 Destroyed - The fire that consumes nations is of God's kindling: and when he sets fire to a kingdom, all they that go about to quench the fire, shall be consumed by it.
9 Messengers - Such as having escaped the sword, shall tell the news. From me - By my permission and providence. In ship's - Messengers by ships might carry the news to both the Ethiopian, Asian, and African, by the Red - sea. As in the day - During the mighty havock made by the Chaldeans. It - A like storm.
11 His people - His own subjects, not hired soldiers.
12 The rivers dry - Probably the Chaldeans diverted them, and so their fortified towns wanted one great defence. Sell - Give it up entirely.
13 Noph - Memphis, now Grand Cairo, the chief city of the country. A prince - Either an Egyptian born, or independent, and over all Egypt. A fear - Consternation and cowardice.
14 In Zoan - Zoan shall be burnt down to ashes. In No - A great and populous city situate on one of the mouths of the Nile.
15 Sin - Pelusium, which was the key of Egypt, and therefore always well fortified, and strongly garrisoned.
16 Shall be rent - Her walls, and towers, and fortresses broken through by the violence of engines, and by the assaults of the soldiers.
17 Young men - 'Tis probable these might be a body of valiant youths, collected out of these ten cities. Aven - Bethshemesh, or Heliopolis, an idolatrous city, in which was a stately temple of the sun: an hundred and fifty furlongs, that is six miles and three quarters in compass. Phibeseth - Bubastus, sometimes called Hoephestus, not far from Aven.
18 Tehaphnehes - A great and goodly city of Egypt; Tachapanes, Tachpanes, Tahapanes, Tahpanes, Chanes, and Hanes, are names given it, and this from a queen of Egypt of that name in Solomon's time. It stood not far from Sin, or Pelusium. Darkened - A night shall come upon it. Break - I shall break the kingdom of Egypt, that it no more oppress with yokes, that is, burdens. Her daughters - Her towns and villages.
20 The eleventh year - Of Jeconiah's captivity, three months and two days before Jerusalem was taken, about the time that the Egyptians attempted to raise the siege of Jerusalem.
21 Have broken - Partly by the victory of the Chaldeans over Pharaoh - necho, partly by the victory of the Cyreneans over Pharaoh - hophra. The sword - None can heal the wounds that God gives but himself. They whom he disables, cannot again hold the sword.
22 His arms - Both his arms. The strong - That part of his kingdom which remains entire. Broken - That which was shattered before.
25 Will strengthen - As judges on the bench like Pilate, so generals in the field, like Nebuchadrezzar, have no power but what is given them from above.

Chapter XXXI

The greatness and power of the king of Assyria, ver. 1 - 9. His security and destruction, ver. 10 - 17. This applied to Pharaoh, ver. 18.

2 His multitude - His numerous subjects.
3 A cedar - Like the most goodly cedar for strength and beauty.
4 The waters - Cedars grow great by the water - courses. The deep - The sea sent out her waters, which gave being to the rivers, that watered him. His plants - The provinces of this mighty kingdom, that were like plants about a great tree. All the trees - To all his subjects.
5 All the fowls - All kind of men, nobles, merchants, husbandmen. Made their nests - Settled their habitations. In his boughs - In his kingdom, in the cities and towns of it. All great nations - No nation that was great at that time, but, sought the friendship of this kingdom.
8 The cedars - The greatest kings. Garden of God - In the most fruitful gardens. Hide - Could not ever top, and shade him. The fir - trees - Lesser kings, and kingdoms, were not equal to his boughs. Nor any tree - All summed up, none like him in all the kingdoms of the world.
11 Him - The proud king of Assyria, Sardanapalus. The mighty one - Arbaces, who first struck at the root of this Cedar, might well be styled the mighty one of the heathen, since he could bring together four hundred thousand of Medes, Persians, Babylonians, and Arabians.
12 Strangers - Foreigners.
14 To the end - All this is designed to be a warning to mortals. All the trees - The emperors, kings, or flourishing states. By the waters - Planted most commodiously, and furnished most abundantly with power and wealth. The children of men - As common men, of no quality or distinction.
15 He - The king of Assyria. A mourning - There was much lamentation. Fainted - Probably there were portentous signs in the sea, and great waters, and the rivers, and among the trees.
16 Shake - All that heard the noise of his fall, trembled at it. Cast him down - Brought the king and kingdom, as a dead man to the grave among them, that before were dead and buried. All the trees - All kings, and particularly the greatest. All that drink water - Enjoyed great power, riches, and glory. Comforted - He speaks to the dead with allusion to the manner of the living, who rejoice to see the proud brought low.
17 They also - His neighbouring kings. Hell - Perished with him, and went to those whom God had slain for their pride and wickedness. They that were his arm - His loyal and faithful subjects and friends, on whom he relied, and by whom he acted.
18 Yet - Thou shalt be like them in thy fall. Thou shalt lie - As unclean, despised, loathsome and under a curse. This is - This will be their end.

Chapter XXXII

The destruction of Egypt is represented under the similitude of killing a lion and a crocodile, ver. 1 - 16. Under that of the funeral of a great general, ver. 17 - 30.

1 Twelfth year - Of the captivity of Jeconiah.
2 Like a young lion - Spoiling all thou canst. Crocodile - The crocodiles lay in the rivers, though sometimes they went down the river to the sea. With thy rivers - Raisedst mighty armies, and didst lead them out against thy neighbours. The waters - The people, and kings near thee. Thy feet - With thy soldiers. Fouledst - Didst spoil all the conveniences of thy neighbours.
3 With a company - In the countries, where these creatures were hunted, they went in mighty companies.
4 Leave thee - This was literally fulfilled in the deserts of Lybia, where the slain of Hophra's army, were left to be devoured by fowls and beasts.
5 With thy height - With the carcasses of thy princes.
6 Even to the mountains - Blood shall be poured forth, as if it were to rise to the very mountains. Full of thee - O thy blood, and of thy carcasses cast into them.
7 Put thee out - As a torch is extinguished. Cover the sun - Probably some unusual darkness was seen in the heavens, and on the earth, about that time.
9 Thy destruction - The fame of it. Not known - Such as were strangers to Egypt, shall be troubled with apprehension of what mischief may come upon the world from so mighty a conqueror.
10 Shall tremble - Be greatly afraid, lest Nebuchadnezzar, who is God's sword, should smite them. Every man - Every one of the kings, whose kingdoms are near to Egypt.
13 All the beasts - The sheep, and oxen devoured, or driven away: the horses taken up to mount the horsemen, whose own horses were tired, or spoiled. Great waters - The pasture lying along the river side. Trouble them - There shall be so few men left in Egypt, that they shall not as formerly, disturb the waters by digging, swimming, or rowing on them. Nor the hoofs - So few horses or cows, that they shall not at watering - times, or in the heat of the day, foul the waters.
14 Like oil - A figurative expression, signifying, there shall be such an universal sadness and heaviness upon the whole nation, that the very rivers which used to flow briskly, shall grow deep, and slow, and heavy.
15 Of that - Men and women, cattle, wealth, and peace.
16 This is the lamentation - This mournful account, which the prophet has given of Egypt.
18 Wail - Prepare the funeral ceremonies at the burial of Egypt. The daughters - And celebrate the funerals of other cities and kingdoms that lie buried in their own ruins. The nether parts of the earth - A well known description of the state of the dead. The pit - The Egyptians affected to be buried in the Pyramids, and their kings, and great ones, would be laid by themselves; but Ezekiel provides them their grave among common people, being buried just where they fall.
19 Whom - Art thou better than others that thou shouldest not die, and be laid in the dust, as well as they. Go - Go down like others. With the uncircumcised - Among profane and loathed carcasses, such the uncircumcised were in the opinion of the circumcised, as were the Egyptians.
20 They - The Egyptians. She - The whole Egyptian kingdom. Draw - And throw them together into the pit.
21 Him - The king of Egypt. The grave - Where they lie without strength, as dead mortals, tho' while they lived, they bore themselves, as gods. That help - His helpers, dead before him, shall speak to him. Gone down - To the grave. They lie - Neglected, and forgotten.
22 Ashur - The famous, warlike, king of Assyria. Is there - In the state of the dead, in the land of darkness and oblivion. Her company - Princes, soldiers, subjects, and confederates. Are about him - They are about him, who were slain with him.
23 Whose graves - Here is supposed a spacious vault, in the midst whereof the king of Ashur lies, and round the vault, his familiar captains and commanders. Her company - The common subjects of the Assyrian empire, all buried undistinguished about her. Her grave - The ruins of an empire are its grave. In the land - While they were in the land of the living.
24 Elam - The Persians, and their famous kings, who lived in former days. Their shame - God, and man poured contempt upon them, and turned their glory into shame.
25 A bed - The Persians had their coffins, in which with balms and spices, the dead were kept, in the midst of places provided for them; in such is the king of Elam here placed with his slaughtered captains about him. All the honour he can now pretend to, is to be buried in the chief sepulchre.
26 Her multitude - With the Cappadocians and Albanians, the Scythians may be included, many of whom were next neighbors to them.
27 They - The leaders of these Scythians were not buried with a pomp like that of Ashur, or Elan, but surprised by Halyattes and Cyaxares, were cut off with all their multitude, and tumbled into pits with the rabble. With their weapons - A ceremony observed in pompous funerals of great captains, to have their weapons, and their armour carried before the hearse. Laid their swords - In their graves, as if they could sleep the sweeter there, when they laid their heads on such a pillow: These barbarous Scythians were not so buried. Their iniquity - The exemplary punishment of their iniquity shall be seen upon their bones unburied.
28 Thou - Chief of Mesech, and Tubal. Shalt be broken - Shalt be killed with the rest of thy wicked followers. Shalt lie - Without regard, hurled into the pit with common soldiers.
29 With the uncircumcised - The Edomites retained circumcision, being of the seed of Abraham. But that shall stand them in no stead: they shall lie with the uncircumcised.
30 Of the north - Tyrians, Assyrians, and Syrians, who lay northward from Judea, now swallowed up by the Babylonian. Of their might - When it appeared too weak to resist the enemy. Uncircumcised - Scorned, and cast out as profane and loathsome.
31 Comforted - Poor comfort! Yet all that he will find!
32 My terror - These tyrants were a terror to the world by their cruelty; and God hath made them a terror by his just punishments; and so, saith God, will I do with Pharaoh. Come and see the calamitous state of human life! See what a dying world this is! The strong die, the mighty die; Pharaoh and all his multitude! But here is likewise an allusion to the final and everlasting death of impenitent sinners. Those that are uncircumcised in heart, are slain by the sword of Divine Justice. Their iniquity is upon them, and they bear their shame for ever.

Chapter XXXIII

The duty of a spiritual watchman, ver. 1 - 9. A declaration of the safety of penitents, and the destruction of apostates, ver. 10 - 20. A message to those who flattered themselves with hopes of safety, tho' they repented not, ver. 21 - 29. A reproof of those who approved the word of God, but did not practise it, ver. 30 - 33.

6 Is taken away - Punished by the Lord for his sin.
10 Our sins - The unpardoned guilt, and the unsupportable punishment of our sins, in the wasting of our country, burning our city, abolishing the publick worship of God; we shall pine away, 'tis too late to hope. How - How can it be better with us?
21 Smitten - Taken and plundered.
22 Opened my mouth - Not that the prophet was utterly dumb before, for he had prophesied against many nations, only he was forbidden to say anything of the Jews, But now the spirit moved him to speak, and continued his motion, 'till the messenger came, and ever after.
24 They - Who were left behind, now come out of their holes, or returned from neighbouring countries, or permitted by the conqueror to stay and plant vineyards. Wastes - Places once fruitful and abounding with people, but now, made a desolate wilderness. He inherited - Our father had a right to all this land, when but one; we his children though diminished, are many, and the divine goodness will surely continue to us both right and possession. Is given - It was given by promise to us, the seed, as well as to our progenitor; nay more, 'tis given us in possession, whereas Abraham had not one foot of it.
26 Ye stand - You trust to your sword; you do all with violence. Abominations - Idolatry.
30 The children - Captives in Babylon.
31 They come - As if they were really the people of God. They sit - So we find the elders of Judah, chap.8:1, so the disciples of the rabbis sat at their feet.

Chapter XXXIV

A charge against the shepherds of Israel, ver. 1 - 6. Their dismission from their trust, ver. 7 - 10. A promise, that God would take care of his flock, ver. 11 - 16. Another charge against the strong of the flock, for their injuring the weak, ver. 17 - 22. A promise of the Messiah, the great and good shepherd, ver. 23 - 31.

2 The shepherds - The rulers of the people kings, magistrates, and princes; as also priests, and prophets. Of Israel - The two tribes, and the few out of the ten that adhere to the house of David. That feed - Contrive their own ease, advantage, and honour.
3 Ye kill - You contrive methods, to take first the life, and next the estate of the well - fed, the rich and wealthy. But - You take care to lead, protect, provide for, and watch over them.
4 The diseased - The weak and languishing. Bound up - Oppressors in the state, or church, broke many then, but these shepherds bound them not up.
5 No shepherd - No vigilant, faithful shepherd. Became meat - Were made a prey of, and devoured by all their neighbours.
12 In the cloudy and dark day - In the time of general distress.
16 The fat - The powerful and rich. I will feed - I will judge and punish them.
17 I judge - Between men and men, between the smaller and weaker, and the greater and stronger, as their different state requires I will do. The rams - Rulers, who also shalt be dealt with according to their behaviour.
18 But ye must tread down - You great ones, eat the fat, and sweet; and what you cannot eat, you waste and spoil. The deep waters - Which are sufficient for all.
20 I will judge - I will vindicate the poor. The fat cattle - The rich. The lean - The poor.
23 One shepherd - Christ, the great good, chief, only shepherd, that laid down his life for his sheep. My servant David - The seed of David, the beloved one, who was typified by David, and is in other places called by his name, as Jer 30:9 Eze 37:24 Isa 37:35 Hos 3:5. He shall feed - Do all the office of a good and faithful shepherd, and that for ever.
24 My servant - Christ was in this great work his fathers servant, Isa 42:1.
25 A covenant - A covenant of promises, which contain, and shall bring peace, that is all good.
26 Them - My returned captives, The places - All the country. My hill - Jerusalem.
29 A plant - The Messiah. The shame - The reproach.
30 Their God - By covenant, from their forefathers. Am with them - Present with them, and reconciled to them.

Chapter XXXV

A prophecy against Edom for their hatred to Israel, ver. 1 - 13. Their ruin shall be perpetual, ver. 14, 15.

2 Mount Seir - The Edomites, who inhabited it.
5 Their iniquity - When their iniquity was punished on them, which brought them to final ruin.
6 And blood - Thy guilt, and my just revenge of innocent blood. Hast not hated - Thou hast loved, rather than hated, blood - shed; therefore vengeance for it follows thee.
7 That passeth out - All travellers that go to or from Edom.
9 Return - To their former glory.
10 Though - Though God was with Israel.
11 Judged - Punished thee.
14 The whole earth - The inhabitants of all the countries round about thee. Rejoiceth - Is in peace and plenty.

Chapter XXXVI

A promise of the restoration of Israel, from their present deplorable condition, ver. 1 - 15. They are reminded of their former sins, and God's judgments, ver. 16 - 20. A promise of pardon, ver, 21 - 24. And sanctification, 25 - 38

1 The mountains - The inhabitants being in captivity, speak to the mountains, that is, the land of Judah, and Israel, which was a country full of mountains.
2 Because the enemy - Many were the enemies of God's people; but they so conspired in one design, that the prophet speaks of them as one, and particularly of Edom.
3 Swallowed - Devoured you, as hungry beasts devour their prey. Ye are taken up - You are the subject of all their discourse. An infamy - Ever branding you as infamous.
7 Lifted up mine hand - Sworn in my wrath. The heathen - The Moabites, Ammonites, and Idumeans.
8 At hand - The time is near, when my people shall come out of Babylon to settle in their own land.
12 And thou - O land of Canaan. Bereave - Consume thine inhabitants.
13 They - The heathen round about.
14 Therefore - I will so bless thee, O land, that thou shalt bring forth and breed up many sons and daughters, and this reproach shall cease for ever.
17 By their doings - By their carriage, and whole conversation. As the uncleanness - Or as one cut off from the congregation, because of some great sin.
20 Entered - When they were come into Babylon. Profaned - They sinned. They - Their heathen neighbours. Them - The profane Jews. These - These profane slaves, call themselves the people of the Lord and say, he gave them the land out of which they are driven.
21 But I had pity - For these sins I had just cause to cut them off; but I had pity, for the glory of my name: had I destroyed them, the heathen would have concluded against my omnipotence, and my truth.
23 I will sanctify my great name - They gave the heathen occasion to think meanly of me, but I will shew I am as great as good. When God performs what he hath sworn by his holiness, then he sanctifies his name.
25 Sprinkle - "This signifies both the blood of Christ sprinkled upon their conscience, to take away their guilt, as the water of purification was sprinkled, to take away their ceremonial uncleanness and the grace of the spirit sprinkled on the whole soul, to purify it from all corrupt inclinations and dispositions."
26 A new heart - A new frame of soul, a mind changed, from sinful to holy, from carnal to spiritual. A heart in which the law of God is written, Jer 31:33. A sanctified heart, in which the almighty grace of God is victorious, and turns it from all sin to God. A new spirit - A new, holy frame in the spirit of man; which is given to him, not wrought by his own power. The stony - The senseless unfeeling. Out of your flesh - Out of you. Of flesh - That is, quite of another temper, hearkening to God's law, trembling at his threats, moulded into a compliance with his whole will; to forbear, do, be, or suffer what God will, receiving the impress of God, as soft wax receives the impress of the seal.
27 My spirit - The holy spirit of God, which is given to, and dwelleth in all true believers. And cause you - Sweetly, powerfully, yet without compulsion; for our spirits, framed by God's spirit to a disposition suitable to his holiness, readily concurs. Ye shall keep - Be willing; and able to keep the judgments, and to walk in the statutes of God, which is, to live in all holiness.
28 Ye shall dwell - Observe: then, and not before, are these promises to be fulfilled to the house of Israel. And I will be your God - This is the foundation of the top - stone of a believer's happiness.
29 I will also save you - I will continue to save you. From all your uncleannesses - Salvation from all uncleannessess, includes justification, entire sanctification, and meetness for glory. The corn - All necessaries comprised in one.
35 And they - Strangers, or foreigners.
37 Enquired of - Though I have repeated so often my promise to do this, yet it is their duty to intreat it, to wait on me, and then I will do it.
38 As the holy flock - Flocks designed to holy uses. In her solemn feasts - These flocks were for quality, the best of all; and for numbers, very great, on the solemn feasts. Thus shall men multiply, and fill the cities of replanted Judea. And the increase of the numbers of men is then honourable, when they are all dedicated to God as a holy flock, to be presented to him for living sacrifices. Crowds are a lovely sight in God's temple.

Chapter XXXVII

The vision of the resurrection of the dry bones, ver. 1 - 10. The explication of it, ver. 11 - 14 A type of the happy coalition which would be between Israel and Judah, ver. 15 - 22. A prediction of the kingdom of Christ, and of the glories and graces of that kingdom, ver. 23 - 28.

1 And set me down - So it seemed to me in the vision. Which is a lively representation of a threefold resurrection:
  1. Of the resurrection of souls, from the death of sin, to the life of righteousness:
  2. The resurrection of the church from an afflicted state, to liberty and peace:
  3. The resurrection of the body at the great day, especially the bodies of believers to life eternal.
3 And he - The Lord.
7 Prophesied - Declared these promises. As I prophesied - While I was prophesying. A noise - A rattling of the bones in their motion. A shaking - A trembling or commotion among the bones, enough to manifest a divine presence, working among them. Came together - Glided nearer and nearer, 'till each bone met the bone to which it was to be joined. Of all the bones of all those numerous slain, not one was missing, not one missed its way, not one missed its place, but each knew and found its fellow. Thus in the resurrection of the dead, the scattered atoms shall be arranged in their proper place and order, and every bone come to his bone, by the same wisdom and power by which they were first formed in the womb of her that is with child.
8 Came up - Gradually spreading itself.
9 Prophesy - Declare what my will is. O breath - The soul, whose emblem here is wind; which, as it gently blew upon these lifeless creatures, each was inspired with its own soul or spirit.
10 And the breath - The spirit of life, or the soul, Gen 2:7.
11 The whole house - The emblem of the house of Israel. Are dried - Our state is as hopeless, as far from recovery, as dried bones are from life.
12 I will open - Though your captivity be as death, your persons close as the grave, yet I will open those graves.
16 One stick - A writing tablet or a tally, such as is fit to be written upon. His companions - Benjamin and part of Levi, who kept with the tribe of Judah. Ephraim - Ephraim was the most considerable tribe in the kingdom of Israel, when divided from the other two. The house of Israel - The other nine tribes, who continued with Ephraim.
19 In mine hand - Under my government, care, and blessing. God will make the two kingdoms one in his hand, as I make these two sticks one in my hand.
22 One nation - They were one in David's time, who was a type of the Messiah, and continued so to the end of Solomon's time, whose name includes peace. So when the Beloved, the Peace - maker, the Messiah shall be king, they shall be one again. And one king - The Messiah.
23 I will save - I will bring them safe out of them. And will cleanse - Both justify and sanctify them.
24 David - The son of David. One shepherd - This king shall be their one chief shepherd, others that feed and rule the flock, are so by commission from him.
25 For ever - 'Till Christ's coming to judgment, the Jews converted to Christ, shall inherit Canaan.
26 My sanctuary - I will set up a spiritual glorious temple, and worship among you. For evermore - Never to be altered or abolished on earth, but to be consummated in heaven.
27 My tabernacle - The tabernacle wherein I will shew my presence among them. Their fathers had a tabernacle, but the Messiah shall bring with him a better, a spiritual, and an heavenly. They shall be my people - By my grace I will make them holy, as the people of a holy God; and I will make them happy, as the people of the ever blessed God.


The attempt of Gog and Magog on the land of Israel, ver. 1 - 13. The terror occasioned thereby, ver. 14 - 20. Their defeat by the immediate hand of God, ver. 21 - 23.

1 Saying - God now forewarns the Jews, what enemies and troubles would interpose, before he would fully deliver them.
2 Gog - This cannot be one single person, or prince, though perhaps it points out some one, by whom the troubles foretold were begun. Some believe the time is still to come, wherein this prophecy is to be fulfilled. And that it must intend those enemies of God's church who descended from the Scythians, and are now masters of Cappadocia, Iberia, Armenia, or are in confederacy with the Tartars, and those northern heathens. But others think, all the enemies of Israel in all quarters, both open and secret are here intended, and that the Antichristian forces and combination, are what the prophet foretells. Magog - Magog is, at least, part of Scythia, and comprehends Syria, in which was Hierapolis. taken by the Scythians, and called of them Scythopolis. It is that country, which now is in subjection to the Turks, and may be extended thro' Asia minor, the countries of Sarmatia, and many others, under more than one in succession of time. And in the last time under some one active and daring prince, all their power will be stirred up against Christians.
4 Handling swords - That is, very ready, expert and strong in using the sword.
6 Gomer - Inhabitants of Galatia. Togarmah - Paphlagonia, and Cappadocia. The north quarters - The more northern people, the numerous Tartars.
7 Be thou prepared - God and the church deride this mighty preparation.
8 After many days - In the latter days of the Messiah's kingdom among men. In the later years - These must be cotemporary with the many days already mentioned. Thou - Gog with all thy numbers. The land - The land of the Jews, a people recovered from captivity, into which the sword of their enemy had brought them. Always waste - It is already two thousand four hundred years since the ten tribes were carried away by Salmanezer. But it - The land of Canaan, that is, the people of it.
11 Unwalled - Weak, and without any considerable defences.
13 Sheba - This Sheba was southward, and contains all of that coast which assisted Gog. Dedan - By these are noted, the eastern nations that assisted. Tarshish - The inhabitants of the sea - coast westward, and Magog north. The young lions - Young men thirsty of blood, but more of spoil, resolve to join, if they may rob and spoil for themselves. Art thou come - This repeated enquiry seems to be an agreement to come to his assistance, on condition they might have, possess, and carry away what they seize.
14 Know it - Thou wilt be informed of it.
15 The north parts - From Scythia, from the Euxine and Caspian seas, and countries thereabouts.
16 I will bring - I will permit thee to come. Sanctified - Confessed to be a great God over all, a gracious and faithful God to his people, and a dreadful enemy and avenger against the wicked. Before - ln the sight of all the heathen that are with Gog, and much more in the sight of God's own people.
17 Spoken - All these enterprises I have spoken of, and will as well defeat as I did foretel them.
19 For - For my own people, and for mine own glory. Have I spoken - Against mine enemies Gog, and all his herd. A great shaking - A great disturbance and tumult, like an earthquake.
21 Sword - Israel. Throughout - From all parts of the land, which was full of mountains. Every man's sword - As it was in Jehoshaphat's time; and these swords may be meant by the sword God will call for through all, for they ranged all over his mountains.
23 Magnify - Undeniably prove that I am the mighty, just, faithful, wise, holy, and merciful God. Sanctify - Declare I am holy, and true to my word.

Chapter XXXIX

A prediction of the utter destruction of Gog and Magog, ver. 1 - 7. An illustration of the vastness of that destruction, ver. 8 - 22. God's mercy to his people, ver. 23 - 29.

2 The sixth part - I will leave in thy country but one in six.
3 Thy bow - What is said of the bow rendered useless, is to be understood of all other weapons of war; this is one kind, the bow, being most in use with the Scythians, is mentioned for all the rest.
8 It is come - As sure as if already come. The day - That notable day of recompences against the last great enemies of the church.
9 The weapons - The warlike provision, instruments, engines, carriages and wagons. Shall burn - It may be wondered why they burn these weapons, which might be of use to them for defence; but it was done in testimony that God was their defence, on whom only they relied. With fire - In such a country where the need of fire is much less than with us, it will not seem incredible, that the warlike utensils of so numerous an army might be enough to furnish them with fuel for many years.
11 Gog - And to many of those with him; but many were given to the birds and beasts to be devoured. Graves - Gog came to take possession; and so he shall, but not as he purposed and hoped. He shall possess his house of darkness in that land which he invaded. The valley of the passengers - So called from the frequent travels of passengers through it from Egypt and Arabia Felix, into the more northern parts, and from these again into Egypt and Arabia. The sea - The Dead Sea. Hamon Gog - That is, the multitude of Gog.
13 Glorified - The day of my being glorified shall be a renown to Israel.
14 They - The rulers of Israel. Sever - Chuse out men who shall make it their work. Passing - To go up and down over the whole land; for many of Gog's wounded, flying soldiers, died in thickets, and corners into which they crept. The passengers - Whose assistance they would desire of courtesy. Remain - Unburied by the public labour of the house of Israel during the seven months.
16 The city - That is, the multitude: the city which is next to this common tomb of Gog.
17 I do sacrifice - The punishment of these God calls a sacrifice, which he offers to his own justice. Upon the mountains - Where more thousands are offered at once, than ever were at any time offered; 'tis a sacrifice so great, that none ever was, or will be like it.
18 Ye shall eat - In these two and the following verses, God takes on him the person of one that makes a feast, invites his guests, and promises to satisfy them. Of the two former, the first is an Enigmatical invitation, or an invitation in a riddle; the latter is the key to this character. The mighty - Who had great authority, great courage and strength, the giant - like ones, commanders of great note in the army. Princes - Many princes came with their country men and subjects to assist in this war. Rams - These are compared to rams which lead the flock. Lambs - Lambs are the more ordinary in the army. Goats - Goats signify the more lascivious, and impetuous among them. Bullocks - Bullocks, such as though more slow, were of great strength. Fatlings - Well fed. Bashan - A mountain of most rich, and sweet soil.
20 At my table - In the field where Gog, his princes, and army, are slain, compared to a table. Horses - Horsemen, not common foot soldiers. Chariots - The men that ride in them.
21 All the heathen - In the countries to which the news shall come.
26 Their shame - Reproach for their sins.

Chapter XL

In this and the following chapter, under the type of a temple and altar, priests and sacrifices, is fore shewed, the spiritual worship which should be performed in Gospel times, and that perfected at last in the kingdom of glory: yea probably, in an happy and glorious state of the church on this side heaven: in this chapter we have, a general account of the temple and city, ver. 1 - 4. A particular account of the east - gate, north - gate and south - gate, ver. 5 - 31. Of the inner court, ver. 32 - 38. Of the tables, ver. 39 - 43. Of the lodgings for the singers and the priests, ver. 44 - 47. Of the porch, ver. 48, 49.

1 Of our captivity - Of those that were carried away into captivity with Jeconiah eleven years before Jerusalem was burnt. And this falls in with the three thousand three hundred and seventy fourth year of the world, about five hundred and seventy four years before Christ's incarnation. The beginning - In the month Nisan. The tenth day - The day that the paschal lamb was to be taken up in order to the feast on the tenth day. Brought me - To Jerusalem, the place where it did stand.
2 In the visions of God - By this it appears it was not a corporeal transportation of the prophet. The frame - The portrait of a city. On the south - On the south of the mountain, where the prophet was set.
3 A man - The same no doubt that appeared to the prophet, chap.1:26, whose name is the branch, and who builds the temple, Zech 6:12,13, whose colour was like burnished brass; Rev 1:15, which speaks glory and strength. A line - A plumb - line, a mason's line to discover the rectitude of the building, or its defects. In the gate - In the north gate, next toward the east.
5 A wall - This was that outmost wall, that compassed the whole mount Sion, upon whose top the temple stood. The man's hand - Christ, hath, and keeps the reed in his own hand, as the only fit person to take the measures of all. A measuring reed - Or cane, for this measuring rod was of those canes growing in that country, long, and light, which architects made use of. Six cubits long - Each cubit consisting of eighteen inches in our common account. An hand breadth - Added to each six cubits. The breadth - The thickness of the walls, which were one reed, and one hand's breadth, or three yards, and three inches thick. Height - And the height equal, taking the measure from the floor on the inside of the wall.
6 The east - Either of one of the inner walls, or of the temple itself. Went up - 'Till he was got up, he could not measure the threshold, which was at the top of the stairs, and these were ten, if the measurer be supposed in the gate of the house; or eight, if in the gate of the court of the priests; or seven, if in the court of Israel; and each stair was half a cubit in height, too high for him to take the measure of the threshold, if he did not go up the stairs. The threshold - It is probable he measured the lower threshold first, as next at hand. The other threshold - The upper threshold, or lintel of the gate, which was of equal dimensions with the lower, three yards and three inches broad, or thick.
7 Chamber - Along the wall of the porch were chambers, three on one side, and three on the other, each one reed square. Five cubits - A space of two yards and one half between each chamber, either filled with some neat posts or pillars, or it may be quite void. Within - The inward and outward threshold, were of the same measures, and curiously arched over head from side to side, and end to end, which was from east to west.
8 The porch - The posts which were joined together at the top by an arch, and so made the portico.
9 The porch - Probably another porch, or another gate distinct from that, ver. 6. The posts - These were half columns, that from the floor to the height of the wall jetted out, as if one half of the column were in the wall, and the other without, and the protuberance of this half column, was one cubit.
10 Chambers - These chambers were for the priests and Levites to lodge in during their ministration.
11 Of the entry - It is meant of the whole length of the entry, or walk through the porch, to which they ascended by stairs of a semicircular form.
12 The space - The rails, which were set up at a cubit distance from the front of these little chambers, on the outside for convenient placing of benches for the priests to sit on. The space - Between the rails, and the chambers.
13 From the roof - From the extremity of one little chamber on the north side of the gate, to the extremity of the opposite chamber on the south side, and so one cubit and half for the back wall of one chamber, and as much for the back wall of the other chamber, with the length of the chambers, six cubits each, and ten for the breadth of the gate, amounts to twenty five cubits. Door against door - It seems the doors of the chambers were two in each chamber in the east and west parts, and so exactly set, that the doors being all open you had a clear prospect through all the chambers to the temple.
14 He made - Measured, and thereby shewed what kind of posts they should be. Threescore cubits - Probably this refers to the height of this gate built up two stories above the arch, and the posts in their height are only mentioned, but imply all the rest of the building over the east gate. Unto the post - These high columns, on the inner front of this gate were so disposed, that the last on each side was very near the first post, or pillar of the court on either side of the gate, and so the posts and buildings laid on those posts joined on each side of this gate.
15 And - This verse seems to sum up all the dimensions; this gate, its porch, and thickness of its walls, and so sum the cubits, six in the thickness of the outer wall, eighteen in the three chambers, twenty in the spaces between the chambers, and six cubits in the thickness in the inner wall of the porch.
16 Narrow windows - Windows narrowed inward to the middle. Their posts - The upper lintel of each door over which was a window. To the arches - Windows under the arches between post and post, to give light to the five cubits space between chamber and chamber. Round about - These were on both sides of the porch within the gate, exactly alike.
17 The outward court - So called in regard of the more inward court, between that where he was, and the temple itself; this court, was the second about the temple. Chambers - Not only lodging rooms for the priests, but also store - houses for tithes and offerings. A pavement - A beautiful floor laid with checker works. The whole floor of this court was thus paved. Thirty chambers - That is, fifteen on the south side of the gate, and fifteen on the north side, built over the pavement.
18 The pavement - That mentioned, ver.17. By the side - That part which lay on each side of the gate, and from thence spread itself toward the chambers, leaving a space of pavement of equal breadth with the porch, or gate in the middle. The length - The length was measured fifty cubits. The inner pavement - The side pavement was laid somewhat lower than this middle pavement, not only for state, but for the more convenient, keeping it clean; so the middle pavement rose with a little convex surface.
19 The breadth - Of the whole ground between the inner front of one gate and porch, to the outer front of the next gate more inward to the temple. The lower gate - Called so in respect to the next gate, which was on the higher ground. The forefront - To the outside front of the gate of the priests court, which was next to this gate now measured, that is from the west front of the lower to the east front of the upper gate. The inner court - This court from the west front of the lower gate, was one hundred cubits in length to the east front of the gate of the inner court. East - ward and north - ward - And so was the space from the south front of the court to the north front. So the court was exactly square. Divers courts are here spoken of, which may put us in mind, of the diversity of gifts, graces and offices in the church: as also of the several degrees of glory in the courts and mansions of heaven.
22 Before them - Within the steps or gate.
23 Toward the east - The east gate of the inner court was directly over against the east gate of the outer court, and equally distant from each other.
26 To it - The floor, or square court.
28 Brought me - From the south - gate of the outer court through the porch, and over the hundred cubit pavement, to the south - gate of the inner court.
32 The inner court - The court of the priests, which was next to the temple.
43 Within - Within the porch, where these tables stood. Hooks - Hooks on which the slaughtered sacrifice might be hanged, while they prepared it farther. Fastened - To walls no doubt, near these tables.
45 The keepers - While, according to their courses, they had the charge of the house of God, and attended on the service of it.
46 The keepers - To preserve the fire perpetually on the altar.
48 The breadth - The whole breadth was eleven cubits, but the breadth of each leaf of this folding - gate was three cubits, and they met, or shut on an upright post, set in the middle of the gate space, and this was one cubit broad. And each leaf hung on posts two cubits thick, which amount to eleven cubits.

Chapter XLI

The dimensions of the house and various parts of it, ver. 1 - 13. An account of another building, ver. 14, 15. The manner of the building of the house, ver. 16, 17. The ornaments of the house, ver. 18 - 20. The altar of incense and the table, ver. 21, 22. The doors between the temple and the oracle, ver. 23 - 26.

1 The breadth - These walls in their thickness took up as much space as the whole breadth of Moses's tabernacle, Exod 26:16,22.
3 Went he - From the porch thro' the body of the temple, to the partition between the body of the temple and the holy of holies. Measured - Either the thickness of that partition wall, or of the pilasters, which stood one on the one side, and the other on the other side of the door. Of the door - Or entrance out of the temple into the oracle. And the door - This door was six cubits broad, and an upright bar or post on which the leaves met, and which was of one cubit's breadth, make out seven cubits.
4 Thereof - Of the holy of holies, which was an exact square. Before - Parallel with the breadth of the temple.
5 After - Having left the holy of holies, now he is come to take the measures of the outer wall. The house - The temple. Six cubits - Three yards thick was this wall from the ground to the first story of the side - chambers. Side - chamber - Of the lowest floor; for there were three stories of these, and they differed in their breadth, as the wall of the temple, on which they rested, abated of its thickness; for the middle chambers were broader than the lowest by a cubit, and the highest as much broader than the middle. Round about - On the north, south, and west parts, on each side of every one of these three gates.
6 They might - That the beams of the chambers might have good and firm resting - hold. Had not hold - The ends of the beams were not thrust into the main body of the wall of the temple.
7 An enlarging - Of the side chambers, so much of breadth added to the chamber, as was taken from the thickness of the wall; that is, two cubits in the uppermost, and one cubit in the middle - most, more than in the lowest chambers. A winding about - Winding stairs, which enlarged as the rooms did, and these run up between each two chambers from the bottom to the top; so there were two doors at the head of each pair of stairs, one door opening into one chamber, and the other into the opposite chamber. For the winding about - These stairs, as they rose in height, enlarged themselves too. Round about - On all sides of the house where these chambers were. The breadth - Of each chamber. Increased - Grew broader by one cubit in every upper chamber. From five in the lowest to six in the middle, and to seven in the highest chamber.
8 The foundations - The lowest chamber had properly a foundation laid on the earth, but the floor of the middle, and highest story must be accounted here a foundation; so from the ground to the ceiling of the first room, was six great cubits; from the first to the second, six great cubits; and from the third floor to the roof of the chamber, a like number; to which add we one cubit for thickness of each of the three floors, you have twenty - one cubits for height, ten yards and a half high.
9 The place - The walk and wall.
11 The doors - The doors of the lowest row opened into this void paved space.
12 The building - This is a new building not yet mentioned, but now measured by itself.
13 The house - The whole temple, oracle, sanctuary and porch, with the walls. The building - On both the north and south - side of the temple.
14 The breadth - The whole front of the house eastward.
18 Cherubim - Generally taken for the portrait of angels, or young men with wings: yet is the description of them very different in different places; in Ezekiel's vision, Eze 1:5 - 14 10:14, Isaiah's vision, Isa 6:2, John's vision, Rev 4:6 - 8, and in Solomon's temple, 1Kin 6:23 - 26.
19 Through all the house - And thus it was through the whole house round about.
21 The face - The door or gate of the temple was square, not arched. As the appearance - As was the form of the gate of the temple in its larger, so was the form of the gate of the oracle in its lesser dimensions.
22 The altar - Of incense. The corners - The horns framed out of the four posts at each angle on the top of the altar. The walls - The sides. Before the Lord - In the temple, not in the holy of holies.
23 Two doors - Each had one.
25 Them - The doors of both temple and oracle. The temple - Including the holy of holies also.

Chapter XLII

A description of the chambers that were about the courts, ver. 1 - 12. The uses of them, ver. 13 - 14. The whole compass of ground, which was taken up by the house and courts, ver. 15 - 20.

2 The length - The temple of one hundred cubits long, and of fifty broad, was on the south prospect of these chambers.
3 Against gallery - That is, a gallery on the south part toward the inner court, and a gallery toward the pavement north - ward, and between the backs of these galleries were chambers.
4 A way - Before the galleries probably, was a ledge of one cubit broad, running the whole length from east to west, called here a way, though not designed for any to walk on it.
5 Shorter - At first view it should seem to refer to the length, but indeed it refers to the height of the chambers, of which the lowest chamber was highest, the second lower pitched than the first, yet of greater height than the uppermost between the floor and ceiling.
6 As the pillars - So thick and strong as those were.
7 The wall - A wall at a distance from them, perhaps some wall that might keep up a terrace - walk.
11 The way - The walk. Was like - Exactly uniform with the fabrick on the north - side. All their goings - Every window and door. Were - Framed in the same manner. In all things exactly alike.
13 Shall they lay - In some of these chambers the holy things that might be eat, were laid up as in a store - house; and those which were not for present use, were reserved, 'till they were to be used.
14 Which are - Which common people may meddle with.
20 Five hundred broad - Each reed was above three yards and an half, so that it was about eight miles round. Thus large were the suburbs of this mystical temple, signifying the great extent of the church in gospel times. It is in part fulfilled already, by the accession of the Gentiles to the church: and will be throughly accomplished, when the fulness of the Gentiles shall come in, and all Israel shall be saved. A separation - To distinguish, and accordingly to exclude, or admit persons, for all might not go in.

Chapter XLIII

In this chapter and the next, the temple - service is described, but under the type of the Old Testament service. The glory of God first fills the temple, ver. 1 - 6. A promise of God's continuing with his people, if they obey him, ver. 7 - 12. A description of the altar of burnt offerings, ver. 13 - 17. Directions for the consecration of that altar, ver. 18 - 27.

2 Came - When the glory departed, it went eastward, and now it returns, it comes from the east. And his voice - Though by the voice of God, thunder is sometimes meant, yet here it was an articulate voice.
3 And it - This glory of the God of Israel. To destroy - To declare, that their sins would ruin their city, chap.9:3,4. I fell - Overwhelmed, and as it were swallowed up.
4 Came - The sins of Israel caused the glory of the Lord to go out of his house, now the repentance of Israel is blest with the return of this glory.
6 The man - Christ. Stood - To encourage, and strengthen him.
7 He - The glorious God of Israel. My throne - The throne of his grace is in his temple; in the dispensations of grace, God manifests himself a king. My feet - Speaking after the manner of men, and expressing his abode and rest, in his temple, as the type, in his church, as the antitype. In their high places - Perhaps some kings were buried in the temples of their idols, near the idols they worshipped.
8 Their threshold - The kings of Judah and Israel, built temples and altars for their idols, and these are called their thresholds. They erected these in the courts, or near the courts of the temple. Abominations - Idolatries, and wickednesses not to be named.
9 Far from me - From my temple.
10 Son of man - Ezekiel, who is called thus above eighty times in this book. Shew - Describe it to them in all the parts. To the house - To the rulers, prophets, and priests especially, not excluding others. Their iniquities - When they shall blush to see what glory their iniquities had ruined.
12 The law - This is the first comprehensive rule: holiness becomes God's house; and this relative holiness referred to personal and real holiness. The top - The whole circuit of this mountain shall be holy, but the top of it on which the temple stands, shall be most holy.
13 The altar - Of burnt - offerings. And an hand - breath - The sacred cubit, three inches longer than the common cubit. The bottom - The ledge or settle, fastened to the altar on all sides at the bottom, shall be a cubit in height. The breadth - From the edge of this bench on the outside to the edge where it joined the body of the altar, a cubit, and this the breadth, twenty one inches, broad enough for the priests to walk on. Border - A ledge going round on all the squares. The edge - On the outer edge of this settle a span high. The back - As the back bears burdens, so this was to bear the weight of the whole altar.
14 From the bottom - From the first ledge, which was a cubit broad, and a cubit high from the ground. To the lower - To the top of that square settle, which is called lower, because another settle is raised upon it. Two cubits - In height. The lesser - From the highest edge of the uppermost settle, down to the cubit broad ledge about the lower settle. The greater - So called, because it exceeded the upper settle a cubit in breadth. Four cubits - ln height.
15 Four cubits - In height. From the altar - From the top of the altar.
17 Stairs - Or steps, for such they needed, (probably each stair about one fourth of a cubit,) to carry them, up to the first and second settles.
19 Give - Direct, or command that it be given.
20 Shalt take - Appoint it to be taken.
21 He - The priest. In the appointed place - That is, in the court of the house, and on the altar appointed; this is the first day's sacrifice.
22 They - The priests in attendance.
23 Shalt offer - On the third day, and so on, through seven days.
24 Shalt offer - Direct them to offer. Salt - It may allude to the perpetuity of the covenant thus made by sacrifice.
26 They - The priests in course.
27 I will accept you - Those that give themselves to God, shall be accepted of God, their persons first, and then their performances, through the mediator.

Chapter XLIV

The appropriating the east - gate of the temple to the prince, ver. 1 - 3. A reproof to Israel for their former profanations of the sanctuary, and a caution, ver. 4 - 9. The degrading of one part of the Levites, and establishing of the family of Zadock in the priesthood, ver. 10 - 16. Laws and ordinances concerning the priesthood, ver. 17 - 31.

2 Shall not be opened - Shall not ordinarily stand open. No man - None of the common people. The Lord - That glory which was the visible sign of his presence.
3 He - The king might sit before the Lord, others might not. Bread - That part of the sacrifice, which was allowed to the offerer.
4 He - Christ in the appearance of a man.
5 The entering - The persons who may, and who may not enter. The sanctuary - Taken here for the courts, rather than the house itself.
6 Let it suffice - Let the time you have spent on your sins suffice.
7 Bread - Either the meal - offering or first - fruits of corn and dough, and the shew - bread. They - The whole nation of the Jews.
8 Have not kept - You have not observed the laws I gave you for the keeping of my holy things, house, sacrifices, and worship. Have set - You have substituted others in your rooms.
10 Are gone away - By their idolatry.
11 Ministers - Servants employed in the lowest work. Sanctuary - Not the temple itself, but about the courts of it. Having charge - They shall be porters to open and shut, and sweep, and go on errands. To minister - To wait on the priests.
12 Iniquity - The punishment of it.
13 Shall bear their shame - They shall be dealt with according to their abominations, and bear the punishment thereof.
15 That kept the charge - Were constant, zealous, and faithful in their priestly office.
16 Into my sanctuary - Both to the altar, to the temple, and the high - priest into the holy of holies. Come near - To set the shew - bread on, and to take it off. To minister - To offer sacrifice at the altar, and incense in the house. God will put marks of honour upon those who are faithful to him in trying times, and will, employ those in his service, who have kept close to it, when others drew back.
17 And within - In the temple.
19 Shall not sanctify - By the law, common things, touching holy things, became consecrated, and no more fit for common use.
20 To grow long - Priding themselves in it, as Absalom. Shall only poll - When the hair is grown, they shall cut the ends of their hair, and keep it in moderate size.
21 Drink wine - Or any other strong liquor, when they go either to trim the lamps or set the shew - bread in order, or to offer incense in the temple, or when they go to the altar to offer a sacrifice, which stood in the inner court.
24 Shall judge - Shall determine the controversy. Assemblies - Publick congregations.
26 Cleansed - After for seven days he hath kept from the dead. They - The priests, who are about the house of God, shall appoint seven days more to this defiled person for his cleansing before he is admitted into the sanctuary.
28 It - The sin - offering: but under this one, all other offerings are couched. For an inheritance - Instead of lands and cities.
30 And the first - So soon as the first - fruits are ripe in the field, your vineyards, and olive yards. Every oblation - Whether free - will offering, or prescribed. The first of your dough - 'Tis conceived this was of every mass of dough they made, and of the first of the dough, which every year they first made of the new corn, as by the custom of the Jews at this day appears. That he - The priest may bless, and pray for thee.

Chapter XLV

The division of the holy land, ver. 1 - 8. The ordinances that were given both to the prince and to the people, ver. 9 - 12. The oblations to be offered, and the princes part therein, ver. 13 - 17. Particularly, in the beginning of the year, ver. 18 - 20. And in the passover, and feast of tabernacles, ver. 21 - 25.

2 Of this - Whole portion of twenty five thousand cubits long, or twelve miles and half, and ten thousand broad, or five miles and a little more. For the sanctuary - For a platform for the sanctuary, both house and court.
3 And in it - In the center of this.
6 The possession - Land to be a possession to the citizens of Jerusalem, and to be the content of the city. Broad - About two miles and half broad, and twelve miles and half long. Long - This must run along parallel in length with the holy portion, though but half its breadth. For the whole house - As the capital city, to which the tribe's resort, it must be large enough to entertain them.
7 The prince - The king. Our side - One half of the prince's portion lay on the west side of those three already set out. The other side - The other half lay on the east - side thereof, so the portion of the city, Levites and priests, lay in the middle. The holy portion - Of priests, and Levites, and sanctuary. Before - It lay parallel as broad as these three were broad, and so run on both sides in its breadth from north to south, and had its length as the other, from east to west. Over against - What is called now over - against, or by the side, is called before three times together. So now you have an exact square of twenty - five thousand cubits laid out for God, the Levites and city, which appears thus in the breadth.
10000 For the priests.
10000 For the Levites.
5000 For the city.
And the length of each, twenty - five thousand, that is twelve miles and half square.
9 Let it suffice - Be content, aim not at more.
11 Of one measure - One shall contain as much as the other, the ephah shall contain as many gallons of dry, as the bath of liquid things. An homer - Thirty bushels. So the ephah will be three bushels in dry things, and the bath eight gallons in liquid things.
12 Twenty gerahs - A gerah was one penny half - penny, the shekel then was two shillings and six - pence, twenty shekels was two pounds ten shillings, fifteen shekels was one pound seventeen shillings and six - pence, and twenty five was three pound two shillings and six - pence. Maneh - It seems there was the small, the middle, and the great Maneh.
13 Offer - In the daily service, the morning and evening sacrifice.
14 Bath - Which contained about twenty - four gallons. The cor - Or homer; these were two names of the same measure.
16 With the prince - By a common purse of prince and people.
18 Thou shalt take - Procure, this the prince must do.
20 For every one that erreth - For all the errors of all the house of Israel, through ignorance. For him that is simple - That is half - witted, or a fool. Reconcile - Cleanse, as ver.18, which legally was defiled by those errors done in the city, or courts of the house, whither these persons might come.
21 In the first month - Nisan, which is part of March, and part of April with us.
22 Upon that day - Upon the fourteenth day, on which the passover was slain.
24 An hin - This was about one gallon and three quarters of a pint.
25 In the seventh month - According to their ecclesiastical account, which is Tisri, and answers to part of our August and September. In the fifteenth day - On that day the feast of tabernacles began, and continued seven days. He - The prince. In the feast of the seven days - Hence we also may learn the necessity of frequently repeating the same religious exercises. Indeed the sacrifice of atonement was offered once for all. But the sacrifice of acknowledgement, that of a broken heart, that of a thankful heart, must be offered every day. And these spiritual sacrifices are always acceptable to God through Christ Jesus.

Chapter XLVI

Farther rules for the worship of the priests and the people, ver. 1 - 15. A rule, for the prince's disposal of his inheritance, ver. 16 - 18. A description of the places for the boiling and baking the offerings, ver. 19 - 24.

3 In the sabbaths - Both weekly and other holy days, which are called sabbaths.
9 Go forth over against it - Perhaps, only to prevent all jostling and confusion.
17 His inheritance - Whatever lands of the prince are given to servants, shall at the year of Jubilee revert to the sons of the prince. For them - And to theirs after them.
20 The outer court - Where the people were.
21 A court - A smaller court made up on the outer sides with the walls of the greater square, and on the inside made with two walls, the one forty cubits long, the other thirty cubits broad.
23 A row of building - A range of building on the inside of the walls of the lesser courts. Four - Four courts in the four corners.

Chapter XLVII

The vision of the holy waters, ver. 1 - 12. The borders of the land of Canaan, ver. 13 - 23.

1 Eastward - The fountain lay to the west, the conduit pipes were laid to bring the water to the temple, and so must run eastward, and perhaps one main pipe might be laid under the east - gate of the temple. The right side - On the south - side of the temple.
2 Out - Of the inmost court. The outer gate - The outmost north - gate in the wall that compassed the whole mountain of the Lord's house.
3 He measured - By the line in his hand. He brought me - Went before, and the prophet followed; all this was in vision.
8 The sea - The Dead - sea, or lake of Sodom. Shall be healed - The waters of the sea shall be healed, made wholesome. So where the grace of God from his temple and altar flows, it heals the corrupt nature of man, and renders barren terrible deserts, as a land of waters and gardens.
9 Shall live - Be preserved alive, and thrive, whereas no fish can live in the Dead - sea. For they - The poisonous waters of the Dead - sea shall be made wholesome for fish. Shall live - Thrive, and multiply in the virtue of the healing streams. Thus is the fruitfulness of the grace of God in the church set forth.
10 En - gedi - Which lay on the south - west of the lake of Sodom. En - eglaim - A city on the north - east of the Dead - sea. To spread forth nets - All along on the west - side of this sea to dry them.
12 Consumed - Never be consumed, never decay, there shall always be fruit, and enough. Their waters - Those that watered them. Issued out - And so carried a blessing with them.
13 The border - The utmost bounds of the whole land. Shall inherit - That is, shall divide for inheritance to the tribes of Israel. Joseph - That is, the two sons of Joseph, Ephraim, and Manasseh.
15 The great sea - The Mediterranean, which was the greatest sea the Jews knew.
18 The east sea - The Dead - sea, which lay on the east of Jerusalem. Thus a line drawn from Damascus through Auranitis, Gilead, the land of Israel beyond Jordan to the east - sea, made the eastern frontier.
19 The river - Called the river of Egypt, lay directly in the way to Egypt from Jerusalem. The great sea - To the south - west part of the Mediterranean sea near Gaza.
22 Children - Who from their birth should be invested with this right of inheriting.
23 His inheritance - This certainly looks at gospel times, when the partition - wall between Jew and Gentile was taken down, and both put on a level before God, both made one in Christ Jesus.

Chapter XLVIII

The portion of seven tribes, ver. 1 - 7. The allotment of land for the sanctuary, priests and Levites, ver. 8 - 14. For the city and prince, ver. 15 - 22. For the other five tribes, ver. 23 - 29. A plan of the city, its gates, and new name, ver. 30 - 35.

15 A profane place - A common, not consecrated place.
16 The measures thereof - The extent and proportions of the city, a square of four thousand five hundred shall be taken out of the middle of the twenty five thousand or the ground - plat of the city. So it shall be an equilateral square, every side exactly the same, north, south, east, and west, four thousand five hundred apiece, by which measures the whole content is visible eighteen thousand cubits not reeds.
18 For food - For the maintenance of the city - officers.
20 The possession - The land assigned for the city.
28 To the river - The river of Egypt.
35 Eighteen thousand cubits - About five miles in compass. From that day - From the day of the Lord's restoring this people, and rebuilding their city, and their thankful, holy, and pure worshipping of God there, from that day it shall be said of Jerusalem. The Lord is there - The Lord who as his name alone is Jehovah, so is the only true God, faithful to his promise, rich in mercy, glorious in majesty, righteous in his judgments, wise and holy in his government, whose presence makes us happy, whose withdrawing from us leaves us to misery. This God will by his favour and presence, bring the confluence of all good to persons, families, and cities; this God will be there to dwell, govern, defend, prosper, and crown. Such is to be the case of earthly Jerusalem, such shall be for ever the case of the heavenly Jerusalem. Such is the case of every true believer, who may, wherever he is, in his way of duty, still write Jehovah - Shammah, My God is here. And 'tis best to be where he is 'till he bring us within the gates of the glorious city, where inconceivable light and love from the immediate presence of God, give every one an eternal demonstration that God is here: to him be glory for ever.