H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar (First Edition)

Part 2, 408-411

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explanation of the perfect and pluperfect forms

408. The periphrastic third plural is used instead of the forms derived directly from the union of the stem with the ending.

Thus, γεγραμμένοι εἰσί is used for γεγραφ-νται which would become γεγράφαται by 35 b, ν between consonants passing into α.  The periphrastic form is also used in verbs adding ς to their stems, as τετελε-σ-μένοι εἰσί for τετελε-σ-νται.  Stems in ν that drop ν in the perfect system form their perfect and pluperfect regularly; thus, κρί̄νω (κριν-) judge has κέκρινται, ἐκέκριντο.

N. On the retention of -αται, -ατο see 465 f.

409. Euphonic Changes. For the euphonic changes in these forms see 82-87, 103.

a. Labial Stems. λέλειμ-μαι is for λελειπ-μαι, λέλειφ-θον is for λελειπ-σθον, λέλειφθε is for λελειπ-σθε (103).  In the same manner are inflected other labial stems, as τρί̄βω (τρῑβ-) rub, ῥί̄πτω (ῥῑπ-) throwτέτρῑμ-μαι for τετρῑβ-μαι, τέτρῑψαι for τετρῑβ-σαι, etc.  Stems ending in μπ drop π before μ, but retain it before other consonants. Thus,












πέπεμφθε (103)




b. Dental Stems. πέπεισ-ται is for πεπειθ-ται (83), πέπεισ-θον is for πεπειθθον (83), πέπεισθε is for πεπειθ-(σ)θε (83, 103).  The σ thus produced was trans-


ferred to the first persons πέπεισμαι, πεπείσμεθα (86, 87). Like πέπεισμαι, etc., are formed and inflected ἔψευσμαι from ψεύδω (ψευδ-) deceive, πέφρασμαι from φράζω (φραδ-) declare, ἔσπεισμαι (100) from σπένδω (σπενδ-) pour a libation.

c. Palatal Stems. πέπρᾱξαι is for πεπρᾱγ-σαι (97), πέπρᾱκται is for πεπρᾱγται (82 a), πέπρᾱχθε is for πεπρᾱγ-σθε (103). Like πέπρᾱγμαι are inflected πλέκω (πλεκ-) weave πέπλεγ-μαι, ἄγω (ἀγ-) lead ἦγμαι, ἀλλάττω (ἀλλαγ-) exchange ἤλλαγμαι, ταράττω (ταραχ-) confuse τετάραγμαι.  Stems in -γχ change χ before μ to γ and drop one γ (as in ἐλήλεγ-μαι for ἐληλεγγ-μαι, 85 and 85 b), but keep the second palatal before other consonants (as in ἐλήλεγξαι for ἐληλεγχ-σαι, 97; ἐλήλεγκ-ται for ἐληλεγχ-ται, 82). On the reduplication see 446.

d. Liquid and Nasal Stems. Stems in λ or ρ are inflected like ἤγγελμαι, as στέλλω (στελ-, σταλ-) send ἔσταλμαι, αἴρω (ἀρ-) raise ἦρμαι, ἐγείρω (ἐγερ-) wake ἐγήγερμαι (446). Stems in ν retaining the nasal are inflected like πέφασμαι, as σημαίνω (σημαν-) signify σεσήμασμαι.  (For -σμαι see 94 a and b.) Stems in ν dropping the nasal (559 a) are inflected like λέλυμαι, as κρί̄νω (κριν-) judge κέκριμαι.

e. Vowel Stems adding σ. Here the stem ends in a vowel except before μ and τ; thus, τετέλε-σαι, τετέλε-σθον, τετέλε-σθε:  but τετέλε-σ-μαι, τετελέ-σ-μεθα, τετέλε-σ-ται.

N. Since the stem of τελέω is properly τελεσ- (τελεσ-ι ̯ω, 624), the original inflection is τετελεσ-σαι, whence τετέλε-σαι (107); τετέλεσ-ται; τετελεσ-σθον, τετελεσ-σθε, whence τετέλεσθον, τετέλεσθε (103). τετέλεσμαι and τετελέσμεθα are due to the analogy of the other forms.

410. The forms πέφανσαι, ἐπέφανσο, and πέφανσο are not attested. Cp. 707 a.

411. The principal parts of the verbs in 406-407 are as follows:

ἀγγέλλω announce (ἀγγελ-), ἀγγελῶ, ἤγγειλα, ἤγγελκα, ἤγγελμαι, ἠγγέλθην.

persuaded, 2 perf. πέποιθα I trust, πέπεισμαι, ἐπείσθην.

γράφω write (γραφ-), γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, 2 aor. pass. ἐγράφην.

πρά̄ττω do (πρᾱγ-), πρά̄ξω, ἐπρᾱξα, 2 perf. πέπρᾱγα I have fared and I have done, πέπρᾱγμαι, ἐπρά̄χθην.

ἐλέγχω confute (ἐλεγχ-), ἐλέγξω, ἤλεγξα, ἐλήλεγμαι, ἠλέγχθην.

τελέω finish (τελε-σ-), τελῶ, ἐτέλεσα, τετέλεκα, τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην.

λείπω leave (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-), λείψω, 2 perf. λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην, 2 a. ἔλιπον.

φαίνω show (φαν-), φανῶ, ἔφηνα, 1 perf. πέφαγκα I have shown, 2 perf. πέφηνα I have appeared, πέφασμαι, ἐφάνθην I was shown, 2 aor. pass. ἐφάνην I appeared.

πείθω persuade (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-), πείσω, ἔπεισα, 1 perf. πέπεικα I have

πείθωrc persuade (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-), πείσω, ἔπεισα, 1 perf. πέπεικα I have

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