W A L D E N S T R O E M, vdl'den-str8m, PAUL PETER: Swedish theologian and educator; b. at Lulea (106 m. n.e. of Stockholm), Sweden, July 20, 1838. He pursued post-graduate studies at the Uni versity of Upsala, 18572 (Candidate in Philos ophy, 1862; Ph.D., 1863); in 1864 he was ordained and was appointed lector in theology, Greek, and Hebrew at the gymnasium at Umea. Financially aided by the State, he traveled, in 1867, in Prussia and Wiirttemberg, Germany, for the purpose of studying the German school system. In 1873-74 he studied at the University of Upsala the symbolical books of the Lutheran Church, publishing the re sults in De justifeeatione quid statuant libri symbolici ecclesice lutherante (Upsala, 1874). In the spring of 1874 he was appointed lector in theology and He brew at the gymnasium in Gefle. He has contribu ted numerous articles on pedagogy to Pedagogisk Lidsskrift (1866-73); after the death of Rosenius (q.v.), in 1868, he became the editor of Pietisten, in

which most of his religious beliefs have found expression; in 1877-80 he was coeditor of Vittnet, a monthly periodical; and is the editor of the annual Calendar Ansgarius. He is prominent in politics, having been repeatedly elected a representative at the State diet, second chamber.

It is in the ecclesiastical field that he has exerted most of his influence. He is one of the foremost leaders of the Free Church movement in Sweden, and the father of a theological movement the supporters of which; found both in Sweden and in America, are called Waldenstromianere, though they prefer to be known as Missionsvanner. In a sermon, published in Pietisten, 1872, he gave impetus to the theological movement with which he is identified by proclaiming his novel idea of the atonement. He holds that the reconciliation through Christ is of us to God, not of God to us: not through grace on account of Christ, but on account of grace through Christ. The subject is God, the Father of Christ; the source is the love of God; the object is the whole world; the mediator is Christ, the only begotten God (Waldenstrom accepts and defends the reading d tCOVOyev~s 9a6g in John i. 18), the Son of God; the end is the restitution of men to God, not the reconciliation of God to men, which latter teaching, according to Waldenstrom, ,finds no support in Scripture.

This sermon called forth a storm of controversy. He then published (1873) Om forsoningens betydelse, which was combated by theologians but met with the favor of many lay people who were opposed to State religion, the nucleus of his subsequent constituency.

Within the ranks of Evangeliska Fosterlandsstiftelsen (a society for foreign and home missions, founded 1856 as the result of the evangelical work of Carl Olof Rosenius; q.v.), the adherents of Waldenstr8m soon brought matters to a schism. They submitted in 1875 a motion to annul the confessional basis of Fosterlandsstiftelsen by making adherence to the Augsburg Confession no longer obligatory for missionary workers. The motion failed to pass. The Waldenstromians consequently left the Fosterlandsstiftelsen and organized, Aug., 1878, Svenska Missionsforbundet, now consisting of 1,144 congregations with 91,000 members. In 1904, Waldenstrom became president of Missionsforbundet. Waldenstrom held his clerical position in the State church till 1882, when he resigned. His conflicts with the church authorities were caused by his manner of accommodating his idea of the Church to circumstances rather than by his doctrine of the atonement. When he once was called to serve a group of "believers " by administering the Lord's Supper, the authorities refused him the use of the church. This furnished him the opportunity of attacking the Church for refusing to believing ministers the opportunity to serve people who for the sake of their conscience could not partake of the Lord's Supper except with believers.

For almost a generation Waldenstrom has been a leader of the Free Church movement in Sweden. His influence has also been felt in America, where his adherents number about 33,000. He visited America in 1889 and several times subsequently, the last


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separatistic administration of the sacraments, but it was determined to reach a decision by a final debate, in which the cause of the Anabaptists was defeated, according to the opinion of the dominant element. Watt, to whom Zwingli had sent his treatise, Yom Tauf, Wiedertauf and Kindertauf, in 1524, was the center of this controversy and contributed a comprehensive work against the Anabaptists, which has been lost.

Watt now reorganized the church of St. Gall by measures which included the submission of the clergy to the city council. When Watt finally was elected chief magistrate of the city in 1526, the victory of the St. Gall Reformation seemed assured. The success of the disputation of Bern (1528), in which Watt was moderator, gave occasion for the enforcement of the Reformation in the country region subject to the abbey. Wearied by the disputes growing out of the question of disposal of this abbey, Watt gradually became less prominent in controversial issues. He now devoted his interests to the study of the history of his native city and the abbey to which the city owed its existence. After the battle of Kappel, in which Zwingli fell, 1531, Watt witnessed the restoration of Roman Catholicism in the abbey, and political derangement in the city. He continued his work for the welfare of the church for twenty years. To bring about an agreement concerning the views of the Eucharist, he wrote his Aphorismorum de considerations eucharistiae libri VI (Zurich, 1535). In his writings Pro veritate carnis triumphantis Christi and Epistola ad Zuiccium, together with the Antilogia ad Gasparis Schwenkfeldii argumenta conscripta (1540), directed against Schwenkfeld, he again defended the Swiss Christology. But the study of the historical past was of more interest to him than theological analysis. His Grosse Chronik der Aebte des Klosters St. Gallen (3 vols., St. Gall, 1575-79), a historical justification of the Reformation, may be considered one of the most important controversial works on the history of the Swiss and the German reformation.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The German historical writings by Watt were edited by E. Götzinger, 3 vols., St. Gall, 1875-79; the Ferrago is in M. Goldast, Rerum Alamannicarum scriptores, iii. 1-80, ed. H. C. Senkenberg, Frankfort, 1730. His letters were collected by E. Arbenz, for the Historischer Verein of St. Gall, Mitteilungen, vols. xxiv.-xxv., xxvii.-xxix. Other sources are Johann Kessler's Vita, revised at St. Gall, 1865, and his Sabbata, ed. E. Götzinger, for the St. Gall Verein, 1866-1868, and in a new ed., St. Gall, 1901. Consult: T. Pressel, Joachim Vadian, Elberfeld, 1861; R. Stähelin, in Beiträge zur vaterländischen Geschichte, xi. 191-262, Basel, 1882; E. Arbenz, in Neujahrsblätter des historischen Vereins, St. Gall, 1886, 1895, 1905; E. Egli, Die St. Gallen Täufer, Zurich, 1887; K. Dändliker, Geschichte der Schweiz, ii. 424 sqq., Zurich, 1894; idem, Short Hist. of Switzerland, pp. 137, 154, 156, London, 1899; E. Götzinger, in Schriften des Vereins für Reformationsgeschichte, 1 (1895); W. D. McCrackan, Rise of the Swiss Republic, pp. 93, 264, 2d ed., New York, 1901; S. M. Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli, passim, 2d ed., New York, 1903.


Founder of English hymnody; b. at Southampton, England, July 17, 1674; d. at Stoke Newington (4 m. n.e. of Charing Cross, London) Nov. 25, 1748. He obtained an excellent education at Southampton grammar-school, then, join ing the dissenters, he studied at an academy at Stoke Newington, where he acquired his accuracy of thought and habit of laborious analysis; leaving the academy in 1694, he spent two years at home, beginning his hymn-writing. He was private tutor, 1696-1701; became assistant pastor in the chapel at Mark Lane, 1699, and sole pastor, 1702; because of frequent attacks of illness, Samuel Price had assisted him from 1703 and was chosen copastor 1713; his illness increased with time, but the congregation refused to part with one who had become so famous and beloved. Watts was one of the most popular writers of his time; the Horae Lyricae (London, 1706) won him fame as a poet, but it was his hymns that so distinguished him. His poetry by giving utterance to the spiritual emotions made hymn-singing an earnest devotional power; the success of his hymns was tremendous, the two staple volumes were the Hymns (1707) and the Psalms of David (1719). The various pieces numbered about 600, of which quite a number are still in general use. His best pieces rank among the finest hymns in English. Watts was also the founder of children's hymnology, writing the Divine Songs (1715). For an estimate of his place in hymnody, see HYMNOLOGY, IX., § 3. He was opposed in 1719 to the imposition of the doctrine of the Trinity on independent ministers. He held a theory which he hoped might close the breach between Arianism and the faith of the Church; he maintained that the human soul of Christ, created before the world, had been united to the divine principle in the Godhead known as the Sophia or Logos, and that the personality of the Holy Ghost was figurative rather than literal. He held liberal views on education, and his learning and piety attracted a great many. His works, outside his hymns, embrace The Knowledge of the Heavens and the Earth Made Easy (London, 1726); An Essay towards the Encouragement of Charity Schools (I728); Reliquiae Juveniles (1734); Philosophical Essays (3d ed., 2 pts., 1742). His Works appeared ed. D. Jennings and P. Doddridge (6 vols., London, 1753; with Memoirs by G. Burder, 6 vols., 1810-11; 9 vols., Leeds, 1810-11); and Posthumous Works (2 vols., London, 1779).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lives have been written by T. Gibbons, London, 1780; S. Johnson, London, 1785, 2d ed., 1791; T. Milner, London, 1834; E. Paxton Hood, London, 1875. Consult further: Walter Wilson, Hist. and Antiquities of the Dissenting Churches, 4 vols., London, 1808-1814; R. E. A. Willmott, Lives of the Sacred Poets, London, 1838; F. Saunders, Evenings with the Sacred Poets, London, 1870; S. W. Duffield, English Hymns, pp. 61-64, New York, Chicago, 1901; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 349-350, 920, 1236-1241; DNB, lx, 67-70.


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