WACKERNAGEL, vae'ker-nä''gel, KARL EDUARD PHILIPP: Hymnologist and educator; b. in Berlin June 28, 1800; d. at Dresden June 20, 1877. He studied at Berlin and Breslau, devoting himself especially to mineralogy and crystallography. He also entered upon his hymnological studies. He became involved in the political troubles of the time, and had to leave Breslau for Halle and Halle for Nuremberg (in 1823), where he taught in a private school until it was closed for lack of support. In 1829 he obtained his doctor's degree and was called to Berlin as teacher in the Technical School. In 1839 he went to Stetten in Württemberg as teacher, in 1845 to Wiesbaden as professor in the Realgymnasium, and in 1849 to Elberfeld as director of the Realschule. In 1861 he resigned and lived thenceforth in retirement in Dresden, occupied with literary work and hymnological studies, so far as his strength permitted. He was one of the prominent founders of the German Evangelical Church Diet (see CHURCH DIET). Wackernagel's work and achievements in the domain of pedagogy, as well as in mathematics and the natural sciences, especially crystallography, were important. As an advocate of a Christian national education he opposed the rationalistic pedagogy, and published a series of "German Reading Books," which were much used, and a significant treatise, Ueber den Unterricht in der deutschen Muttersprache (Stuttgart, 1843), in support of his views. In like manner he held that in the field of the sciences everything is "spiritually ordered," and he had no sympathy with the empirical point of view which notes only sensuous phenomena. From his youth a deep interest in the poetry and song of the people led him to comprehensive studies in German history and literature. His religious bent forbade his passing over the pearls of German folk-songs--the hymns. In this field no one before him had made so far-reaching, thorough, and methodic investigation, and no one had brought greater natural gifts to the undertaking. The first ripe fruit of his labors was Das deutsche Kirchenlied von Martin Luther bis auf Nicolaus Herman und Ambrosius Blaurer (Stuttgart, 1841), a collection of 850 hymns from the oldest and best texts, and a treatise on the sources whence they were derived. In the preface a history of hymnology is attempted on broad lines, and the principles on which it should be studied and written are discussed. Further study brought so much new material to light that Wackernagel determined on a complete recasting of his work. After thirteen years' preparation he published Bibliographie zur Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes im 16. Jahrhundert (Frankfort, 1855), in which he described 1,148 song-books and sheets (against 187 in the first edition; the number was augmented by 620 more in a supplement in 1877). The second part, under the title Das Kirchenlied von der ältesten Zeit bis zu Anfang des 17. Jahrhunderts, mit Berücksichtigung der deutschen kirchlichen Liederdichtung im weiteren Sinne und der lateinischen von Hilarius bis Georg Fabricius und Wolfgang Ammonius, followed in five volumes (Leipsic,1864-77). It presents 6,783 hymns. Wackernagel also published Die Lieder Paul Gerhards (Stuttgart, 1843); a new edition of Luther's hymns (1848); Johann Hermanns geistliche Lieder (1856); Gesangbuch für Kirche, Schule, and Haus (1860); and Beiträge zur niederländischen Hymnologie (Frankfort, 1867).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Schulze, Philipp Wackernagel nach seinem Leben und Wirken, Leipsic, 1819; R. Wackernagel, Wilhelm Wackernagel Jugendjahre 1806-33, Basel, 1885; ADB, vol. xl.


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255 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Waldenses Waldenstroem to the Vaudois of Piedmont, London, 1855; P. Heber, Waldo, Kaiser Karla des Grrosaen yeiatlicher Rath, and die alteren Waldenser, Basel. 1858; D. Costello, Piedmont and Italy, 2 vole., London, 18591'; M. Young, The Life and Times of Aonio Paleario, 2 vols., London, 1880; P. Melia, The Origin, Persecutions, and Doctrines of the Wal denses, from Documents, many now the first time collected and edited, London, 1870; J. P. Maine, General Beckwith: his Life and Labours among the Waldenses of Piedmont, London, 1873; J. Goll, Quellen and Llnterauchungen zur Geschichte der bShmischen Briider, Prague, 1878-82; Jane L. Willyams, The Waldensian Church in the Valleys of Piedmont, from the Earliest Period to the Present Time, new ed., London, 1879; J. N. Worsfold, Peter Waldo, the Reformer of Lyons, London, 1880; J. A. Wylie, History of the Waldenses, London, 1880; W. Jones, Hist. of the Wal denaes, new ed., 2 vole., London, 1882; A. Deissmann, Wnldenaer in der GraJschaft Schaumburg, Wiesbaden, 1884; H. Meille, Recollections of Two Hundred Years ago in the Waldenaian Valleys, Edinburgh, 1888; E. Montet, Hial. Z%tteraire des Vaudois du Piemont, Geneva, 1886 (reprints early sources); K. Muller, Die Waldenser and ihre einzel nen Gruppe bis sum Anfang des 1.4. Jahrhunderts, Goths, 1888; L. Brunel, Les, Vaudois des Alps Jrangaises, Paris, 1888; D. K. Guthrie, Lecture on the Waldenses and their Glorious Return, Edinburgh, 1889; A. Thomson, Letters Written in Connection with the Bi-Centenary Commemora tion of the " Glorious Return " of the Waldenses to their Native Valleys. Edinburgh, 1889; J. W. Brown, Italian Campaign, London, 1890; J. Chevalier, Memoire his torique sur lee heresies du Dauphin, Valence, 1890; H. Haupt, Waldensertum and Inquisition, Freiburg, 1890 (re produces documents); A. Berard Les Vaudois . du l,. au 18. siecle, Paris, 1892; F. Rostan, The Waldensian Church and her Work of Evangelization in Italy, Torre Pel liee, 1894; T. Gay, The Waldenses, their Rise, Struggles, Persecutions, and Triumphs, London, 1895; Sofia V. Boni piani, A Short History of the Italian Waldenses who have inhabited the Valleys of the Cottdan Alps from Ancient Times to the Present, New York, 1897; C. Huck, Doymen historischer Beitray zur Geschichte der Waldenaer, Frei burg, 1897 W. B. Worsfold, The Valley of Light: Studies with Pen and Pencil in the Vaudois Valleys of Piedmont, London, 1899; G. Jalla, Compendia di storia valdese, Florence, 1902; J. Gibson, The Waldenses, their Home and History, Edinburgh (1903); H. C. Lea, Inquisition of the Middle Ages, 3 vole., New York, 1908, and in general works on the Inquisition; T. de Cauzons. Les Vaudois et l'inquisitian, 2 vole., Paris, 1907; Schaff, Christian Church, v. 1, pp. 493-507; KL, xii. 1185-95. On Waldensian literature: F. J. M. Itaynouard, Choix des poesies des troubadours, ii. 73-102, Paris, 1817; G. von Zezschwitz, Die Kateclaismen der Wa7denser and bBhmischen Bruder, Erlangen, 1863; H. Haupt, Die deutsche Bibel iibersetzung der mittelalterlichen Waldenser, W urzburg, 1885; F. Jostes, Die Waldenser and die vorlutheri3che deutsche Bibelubersetzunp,Munster, 1885; J. bliiller, in Monuments Germanize pa!dagogica, vol. iv., Berlin, 1887.


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