THEODORE AND THEOPHANES (GRAPTOI): Illustrious martyrs of the iconoclastic controversies (see IMAGES AND IMAGE-WORSHIP).
1. Theodore was born at Jerusalem, 775 (?), and died in prison near Chalcedon (7 m. s.e. of Constantinople) in Asia Minor, Dec. 27, 840 (?). With his father Jonas and his brother Theophanes, he entered the Sabaite monastery and came to Constantinople most probably under Michael Rhangaba, where the brothers contended and suffered in behalf of the images under Leo the Armenian. Under Michael Balbus they dwelt at Soothenion on the Bosporus. Theophilus banished them to the island of Aphusia. On July 18, 836, they had their foreheads branded with twelve iambic verses (whence the name graptoi). Theodore died in prison. The logoi of Theodore on the image-cult, mentioned by biographers as kunolukes, have not been recovered. Several writings belonging to the Patriarch Nicephorus have been erroneously attributed to him, also a biography of Nicephorus (q.v.).
2. Theophanes, brother of Theodore, was born at Jerusalem, 778; and died at Nicaea, Oct. 11, 845 or 851 (?). He survived the restitution of orthodoxy under Theodora and was made archbishop of Nicaea. His remains were interred in the Chora cloister. Theophanes was one of the most prolific and famous religious poets of the Church. W. Christ counts among the menaea (menaeon: a book containing the troparia or short hymns for the immovable feasts of the month the name of which stands on the title-page) in print 151 canones (groups of nine odes each) of Theophanes. The authenticity of most of them awaits critical investigation. One of them is to his brother to be sung on his day.
(E. VON DOBSCHUTZ.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources for a life are two biographies, one by Simeon Metaphrastes and another by Theodora Cantacuzena Palaiologina, ed. A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, in Analecta lerosoluraitikes, iv. 185-223, cf. v. 397-399. Leip sic, 1897; cf. MPG, cxvi. 653-684; the writings of Michael Syncellus in MPG, iv. 617-668, xcvii. 1504-21, and two lives of him, ed. T. Schmidt, Kahri Djami, 1906; Acta sanctorum Davidis, Symeonis, et Georgii, ed. Delehaye, in Analecta Bollandiana, xviii. 239 sqq.; E. von Dobschutz, in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, xviii (1908), 54-92. Consult: Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheca Graeca, xi. 186 sqq., Hamburg, 1808; Krumbacher, Geschichte, pp. 73, 166, 586, 677, 707; S. Vailhe, in Revue de L'orient chretien, vi (1901), 313-322, 610-642.
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