I. Life.
II. Writings.
General Character ($ 1).
Chronology and Contents ($ 2).
III. Theology.
General Character ($ 1).
Specific Teachings ($ 2).
IV. Moral Principles.

I. Life:

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian, the first great writer of Latin Christianity and one of the grandest and most original characters of the ancient Church, was born at Carthage about 150 or 160, and died there between 220 and 240. Of his life very little is known, and that little is based upon passing references in his own writings, and upon Eusebius, Hist. eccl., II, ii. 4 (Eng. transl. in NPNF, 2 ser., i. 106, with the notes of A. C. McGiffert), and Jerome, De vir. ill., liii. (Eng. transl. in NPNF, 2 ser., iii. 373). His father held a position (centurio proconsularis, " aide-de-camp ") in the Roman army in Africa, and Tertullian's Punic blood palpably pulsates in his style, with its archaisms or provincialisms, its glowing imagery, its passionate temper. He was a scholar, having received an excellent education. He wrote at least three books in Greek, to which he himself refers; but none of these are extant. His principal study was jurisprudence, and his methods of reasoning reveal striking marks of his juridical training. He shone among the advocates of Rome, as Eusebius reports. His conversion to Christianity took place about 197-198 (so Harnack, Bonwetsch, and others), but its immediate antecedents are unknown except as they are conjectured from his writings. The event must have been sudden and decisive, transforming at once his own personality; he himself said that he could not imagine a truly Christian life without such a conscious breach, a radical act of conversion: " Christians are made, not born " (Apol, xviii.; ANF, iii. 33). In the church of Carthage he was ordained a presbyter, though he was married-- a fact which is well established by his two books to his wife. In middle life (about 207) he broke with the Catholic Church and became the leader and the passionate and brilliant exponent of Montanism (see MONTANUS, MONTANISM), that is, he became a schismatic. The statement of Augustine (Haer., lxxxvi.) that before his death Tertullian returned to the bosom of the Catholic Church is very improbable. His party, the Tertullianists, still had in the times of Augustine a basilica in Carthage, but in that same period passed into the orthodox Church. Jerome says that Tertullian lived to a great age. In spite of his schism, Tertullian continued to fight heresy, especially Gnosticism; and by the doctrinal works thus produced he became the teacher of Cyprian, the predecessor of Augustine, and the chief founder of Latin theology.

II. Writings

1. General Character.

These number thirty-seven, and several Latin tracts are lost (cf. ANF, iii. 12-13) as well as those written in Greek. Tertullian's writings cover the whole theological field of the time-- apologetics against paganism and Judaism, polemics, polity, discipline, and morals, or the whole reorganization of human life on a Christian basis; they give a picture of the religious life and thought of the time which is of the greatest interest to the church historian. Their general temper is austere, their purpose practical; they are full of life and freshness. In his endeavors to make the Latin language a vehicle for his somewhat tumultuous ideas, the author now and then becomes strained and obscure; but, as a rule, he is quick, precise, and pointed. He is always powerful and intrepid, commanding, not begging, the attention of the reader; with reference to earlier literature and customs he is a master of wit and sarcasm and is always original. He has been likened to a fresh mountain torrent, tumultuous, and making its own path.

2. Chronology and Contents

The chronology of these writings is in part determined by the Montanistic views that are set forth in some of them, by the author's own allusions to this writing or that as ante-dating others (cf. Harnack, Litteratur, ii. 260-262), and by definite historic data (e.g., the reference to the death of Septimius Severus, Ad Scapulam, iv.). In his work against Marcion, which he calls his third composition on the Marcionite heresy, he gives its date as the fifteenth year of Severus' reign (Adv. Marcionem, i. 1, 15). The writings may be divided with reference to the two periods of Tertullian's Christian activity, the Catholic and the Montanist (cf. Harnack, ut sup., ii. 262 sqq.), or according to their subject-matter. The object of the former mode of division is to show, if possible, the change of views Tertullian's mind underwent. Following the latter mode, which is of a more practical interest, the writings fall into two groups: (1) apologetic and polemic, e.g., Apologeticus, De testimonio animae, Adv. Judaeos, Adv. Marcionem, Adv. Praxeam, Adv. Hermogenem, De praescriptione hereticorum, Scorpiace, to counteract the sting of Gnosticism, etc.; (2) practical and disciplinary, e.g., De monogamia, Ad uxorem, De virginibus velandis, De cultu feminarum, De patientia, De pudicitia, De oratione, Ad martyras, etc. Among the apologetic writings the Apologeticus, addressed to the Roman magistrates, is the most pungent defense of Christianity and the Christians ever written against the reproaches of the pagans, and one of the most magnificent legacies of the ancient Church, full of enthusiasm, courage, and vigor. It first clearly proclaims the principle of religious liberty as an in alienable right of man, and demands a fair trial for the Christians before they are condemned to death. Tertullian was the first to break the force of such


charges as that the Christians sacrificed infants at the celebration of the Lord's Supper and committed incest; he pointed to the commission of such crimes in the pagan world, and then proved by the testimony of Pliny that Christians pledged themselves not to commit murder, adultery, or other crimes; he adduced also the inhumanity of pagan customs, such as feeding the flesh of gladiators to beasts. The gods have no existence, and thus there is no pagan religion against which Christians may offend. Christians do not engage in the foolish worship of the emperors; they do better, they pray for them. Christians can afford to be put to torture and to death, and the more they are cast down the more they grow; " the blood of Christians is seed " (chap. l.). In the De Praescriptione he develops as its fundamental idea that, in a dispute between the Church and a separating party, the whole burden of proof lies with the latter, as the Church, in possession of the unbroken tradition, is by its very existence a guaranty of its truth. The five books against Marcion, written 207 or 208, are the most comprehensive and elaborate of his polemical works, invaluable for the understanding of Gnosticism. Of the moral and ascetic treatises, the De patientia and De spectaculis are among the most interesting, and the De pudicitia and De virginibus velandis among the most characteristic.

III. Theology

1. General Character

Though thoroughly conversant with the Greek theology, Tertullian was independent of its metaphysical speculation. He had learned from the Greek apologies, and forms a direct contrast to Origen. Origen pushed his idealism in the direction of Gnostic spiritualism. Tertullian, the prince of realists and practical theologian, carried his realism to the verge of materialism. This is evident from his ascription to God of corporeity and his acceptance of the traducian theory of the origin of the soul. He despised Greek philosophy, and, far from looking at Plato, Aristotle, and other Greek thinkers whom he quotes as forerunners of Christ and the Gospel, he pronounces them the patriarchal forefathers of the heretics (De anima, iii.). He held up to scorn their inconsistency when he referred to the fact that Socrates in dying ordered a cock to be sacrificed to AEsculapius (De anima, i.). Tertullian always wrote under stress of a felt necessity. He was never so happy as when he had opponents like Marcion and Praxeas, and, however abstract the ideas may be which he treated, he was always moved by practical considerations to make his case clear and irresistible. It was partly this element which gave to his writings a formative influence upon the theology of the post-Nicene period in the West and has rendered them fresh reading to this day. He was a born disputant, moved by the noblest impulses known in the Church. It is true that during the third century no mention is made of his name by other authors. Lactantius at the opening of the fourth century is the first to do this, but Augustine treats him openly with respect. Cyprian, Tertullian's North African compatriot, though he nowhere mentions his name, was well read in his writings, as Cyprian's secretary told Jerome.

2. Specific Teachings

Tertullian's main doctrinal teachings are as follows: (1) The soul was not preexistent, as Plato affirmed, nor addicted to metempsychosis, as the Pythagoreans held. In each individual it is a new product, proceeding equally with the body from the parents, and not created later and associated with the body (De anima, xxvii.). It is, however, a distinct entity and a certain corporeity and as such it may be tormented in Hades (De anima, lviii.). (2) The soul's sinfulness is easily explained by its traducian origin (De anima, xxxix.). It is in bondage to Satan (whose works it renounces in baptism), but has seeds of good (De anima, xli.), and when awakened, it passes to health and at once calls upon God (Apol., xvii.) and is naturally Christian. It exists in all men alike; it is a culprit and yet an unconscious witness by its impulse to worship, its fear of demons, and its musings on death to the power, benignity, and judgment of God as revealed in the Christian's Scriptures (De testimonio, v.-vi.). (3) God, who made the world out of nothing through his Son, the Word, has corporeity though he is a spirit (De praescriptione, vii.; Adv. Praxeam, vii.). In the statement of the Trinity, Tertullian was a forerunner of the Nicene doctrine, approaching the subject from the standpoint of the Logos doctrine, though he did not fully state the immanent Trinity. In his treatise against Praxeas, who taught patripassianism in Rome, he used the words, " Trinity and economy, persons and substance." The Son is distinct from the Father, and the Spirit from both the Father and the Son (Adv. Praxeam, xxv.). "These three are one substance, not one person; and it is said, ` I and my Father are one' in respect not of the singularity of number but the unity of the substance." The very names "Father" and "Son" indicate the distinction of personality. The Father is one, the Son is one, and the Spirit is one (Adv. Praxeam, ix.). The question whether the Son was coeternal with the Father Tertullian does not set forth in full clearness; and though he did not fully state the doctrine of the immanence of the Trinity, he went a long distance in the way of approach to it (B. B. Warfield, in Princeton Theological Review, 1906, pp. 56, 159). (4) In soteriology Tertullian does not dogmatize, he prefers to keep silence at the mystery of the cross (De Patientia, iii.). The sufferings of Christ's life as well as of the crucifixion are efficacious to redemption. In the water of baptism, which (upon a partial quotation of John iii. 5) is made necessary (De baptismate, vi.), we are born again; we do not receive the Holy Spirit in the water, but are prepared for the Holy Spirit. We little fishes, after the example of the ichthys, " fish," Jesus Christ (having reference to the formula Jesus Christus, theou uios soter, the initials of which make up the Greek word for " fish "), are born in water (De baptismate, i.). In discussing whether sins committed subsequent to baptism may be forgiven, he calls baptism and penance " two planks " on which the sinner may be saved from shipwreck-- language which he gave to the Church (De penitentia, xii.). (5) With reference to the rule of faith, it may be said that Tertullian is constantly using this expression and by it means


now the authoritative tradition handed down in the Church, now the Scriptures themselves, and perhaps also a definite doctrinal formula. While he nowhere gives a list of the books of Scripture, he divides them into two parts and calls them the instrumentum and testamentum (Adv. Marcionem, iv. 1). He distinguishes between the four Gospels and insists upon their apostolic origin as accrediting their authority (De praescriptione, xxxvi.; Adv. Marcionem, iv. 1-5); in trying to account for Marcion's treatment of the Lucan Gospel and the Pauline writings he sarcastically queries whether the "shipmaster from Pontus " (Marcion) had ever been guilty of taking on contraband goods or tampering with them after they were aboard (Adv. Marcionem, v. 1). The Scripture, the rule of faith, is for him fixed and authoritative (De corona, iii.-iv.). As opposed to the pagan writings they are divine (De testimonio animae, vi.). They contain all truth (De praescriptione, vii., xiv.) and from them the Church drinks (potat) her faith (Adv. Praxeam, xiii.). The prophets were older than the Greek philosophers and their authority is accredited by the fulfilment of their predictions (Apol., xix.-xx.). The Scriptures and the teachings of philosophy are incompatible. "What has Athens to do with Jerusalem?" he exclaims, "or the Academy with the Church?" (De praescriptione, vii.). Human philosophy is a work of demons (De anima, i.); the Scriptures contain the wisdom of heaven. The rule of faith, however, seems to be also applied by Tertullian to some distinct formula of doctrine, and he gives a succinct statement of the Christian faith under this term (De praescriptione, xiii.).

IV. Moral Principles:

Tertullian was a determined advocate of strict discipline and an austere code of practise, one of the leading representatives of the Puritanic element in the early Church. These views led him to adopt Montanism with its ascetic rigor and its belief in chiliasm and the continuance of the prophetic gifts. In his writings on public amusements, the veiling of virgins, the conduct of women, and the like, he gives expression to these views. On the principle that we should not look at or listen to what we have no right to practise, and that polluted things, seen and touched, pollute (De spectaculis, viii., xvii.), he declared a Christian should abstain from the theater and the amphitheater. There pagan religious rites were applied and the names of pagan divinities invoked; there the precepts of modesty, purity, and humanity were ignored or set aside, and there no place was offered to the onlookers for the cultivation of the Christian graces. Women should put aside gold and precious stones as ornaments (De cultu, v.-vi.), and virgins should conform to the law of St. Paul for women and keep themselves strictly veiled (De virginibus velandis). He praised the unmarried state as the highest (De monogamia, xvii.; Ad uxorem, i. 3), called upon Christians not to allow themselves to be excelled in the virtue of celibacy by vestal virgins and Egyptian priests, and he pronounced second marriage a species of adultery (De exhortations castitatis, ix.). If Tertullian went to an unhealthy extreme in his counsels of asceticism, he is easily forgiven when one recalls his own moral vigor and his great services as an ingenuous and intrepid defender of the Christian religion, which with him, as later with Luther, was first and chiefly an experience of his own heart. On account of his schism with the Church, he, like the great Alexandrian Father, Origen, has failed to receive the honor of canonization.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Editions of the works of Tertullian are numerous. The editio princeps by Beatus Rhenanus appeared at Basel, 1521, 3d ed., 1539. Others are by M. Mesnarts, Paris, 1545; S. Gelenius, Basel, 1550; R. L. de la Barre, Paris, 1580; J. von Wouwer, Frankfort, 1603 and 1612; J. Pamelius, Paris, 1608 and elsewhere later; J. A. Semler, Halle, 1770-76; E. F. Leopold, Leipsic, 1839-41; in MPL, vols. i.-ii.; one of the best is by F. Oehler, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1853-54; another is in the CSEL, Reifferscheid and G. Wissowa, Vienna, 1890 sqq., continued by A. Kroymann in new ed., 1906 sqq., who is also issuing editions of separate works, Tubingen, 1907 sqq.; cf. the latter's Quaestiones Tertullianae, Innsbruck, 1898. Eng. transl. of the " Works " in ANF, vols. iii.-iv. The editions of separate works are too numerous to give here.

Works dealing more or less closely with the life of Tertullian are: Grotemeyer, Ueber Tertullien's Leben und Schriften, Kempen, 1863-65; J. Kaye, The Ecclesiastical History of the Second and Third Centuries, new ed., Cambridge, 1889; G. Boissier, La Fin du paganisme, i. 259 sqq., Paris, 1891; H. Leclercq, L'Afrique chretienne, vol. i., Paris, 1904; W. Walker, Greatest Men of the Christian Church, Chicago, 1908; DCB, iv. 818-884 (by Pusey; elaborate); Schaff, Christian Church, ii. 818-833 et passim; Neander, Christian Church, vol. i., passim; and in general the works on the church history and history of doctrine of the period.

On his writings and doctrine consult: J. A. Nosselt, De vera aetate ac doctrina scriptorum Tertulliani, Halle, 1768; W. Munscher, Darstellung der moralischen Ideen des Clemens von Alexandrien und des Tertullian, Helmstedt, 1796; F. C. H. Schwegler, Der Montanismus, Tubingen, 1841; K. Hesselberg, Tertullian's Lehre entwickelt aus seinen Schriften, vol. 1, Leben und Schriften, Dorpat, 1848; J. A. W. Neander, Antignosticus oder Geist des Tertullian und Einleitung in dessen Schriften, Berlin, 2d ed., 1849; G. Uhlhorn, Fundamenta chronologiae Tertullianae, Gottingen, 1852; A. Cres, Les Idees de Tertullien sur la tradition ecclesiastique, Strasburg, 1855; P. Daures, Etude sur l'apologetique de Tertullien, Strasburg, 1855; F. A. Burekhardt, Die Seelenlehre des Tertullian, Budissin, 1857; C. Viala, Tertullien considere comme apologiste, Strasburg, 1857; H. Mauehon, Exposition critique des opinions de Tertullien sur l'origine et la nature du peche, Strasburg, 1559; V. Bordes, Expose critique des opinions de Tertullien sur la redemption, Strasburg, 1860; P. Gottwald, De montanismo Tertulliani, Breslau, 1862; J. Donaldson, Critical Hist. of Christian Literature and Doctrine, 3 vols., London, 1864-66; J. Pelet, Essai sur l'Apologeticus de Tertullien, Strasburg, 1868; C. A. H. Kellner, in TQ, lii (1870), 547-556, liii (1871), 585-609; K. Ronsch, Das neue Testament Tertullians aus den Schriften des Letzteren reconstruirt, Leipsic, 1871; C. E. Treppel, Tertullien, 2d ed., Paris, 1872; F. Boehringer, Die Kirche Christi, 2 vols., 2d ed., Zurich, 1873; K. Leimbaeh, Beitrage zur Abendmahlslehre Tertullians, Gotha, 1874; G. Caueanus, Tertullien et le montanisme, Geneve, 1876; G. N. Bonwetsch, Die Schriften Tertullians, Bonn, 1878; A. Harnack, in ZKG, ii (1878), 572-583; idem, Die griechische Uebersetzung des Apologeticus Tertullians, Leipsic, 1892; idem, Litteratur, i. 667-687, ii. 2 passim; F. Oehninger, Tertullian und seine Auferstehungslehre, Augsburg, 1878; J. de Soyres, Montanism and the Primitive Church, London, 1878: F. Nielsen, Tertullian's Ethik, Copenhagen, 1879; G. R. Hauschild, Die rationale Psychologie und Erkenntnistheorie Tertullians, Frankfort, 1880; G. N. Bonwetsch, Die Geschickte des Montanismus, Erlangen, 1881; W. Belck, Geschichte des Montanismus, Leipsic, 1883; G. Ludwig, Tertullian's Ethik, Leipsic, 1885; L. Atzberger, Geschichte der christlichen Eschatologie der vornicanischen Zeit, Freiburg, 1886; L. Lehanneur, Le Traite de Tertullien contre les Valentiniens, Caen, 1886; M. Klusamann, Curarum Tertullianearum particulae, Halls, 1887; T. Zahn, Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, i. 51 sqq., 105 sqq., 585 sqq., ii. 449 sqq., Leipsic, 1889-92; P. Corssen,


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strong. Theodore visited all parts of the island, introduced uniformity in worship and customs, filled vacant bishoprics, created new ones, and made Canterbury a center of learning. On Sept. 24, 673, he held at Hertford a synod, which is regarded as the first English national assembly; articles were then agreed upon for the government of the church. A second synod was held at Hatfield in 680. Theodore's character and ability are shown by the success of his plans, and his services to the English church and English learning can hardly be overestimated. He is supposed to have written a Penitential, but if so, it is not now known. A work by another hand, embodying his views, is in Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, iii. 173-213.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bede, Hist. eccl., iv. 1-3, 5, 6, 12, 17, 21, v. 3, 8; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, iii. 114-227; Will iam of Malmesbury, Gesta pontificum, book i,; Gervase of Canterbury, Acta pontificum, in Stubbs, ut sup.; ASB, Sept., vi. 55-82; ASM, ii. 955-993; W. F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, i. 145-175, London, 1860; J. R. Green, Making of England, 2 vols. passim, ib., 1897; J. H. Overton, The Church in England, i. 71-80 et passim, ib., 1897; W. Bright. Chapters in Early English Church History, pp. 251-262, 273-284, 318-321, 357-361, 394-396, 3d ed., ib. 1897; G. F. Browne, Theodore and WidJrilh, ib., 1897; W. Hunt, English Church . . . (697-1066), passim, ib. 1899; DNB, lvi. 122-126; DCB, iv. 926-932.


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