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Page 334


THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 384 rUesteden Florian parsonage garden at Kaiserawerth there still stands old gave him the position of keeper of. the records in the little summer-house, with one room of ten feet the church of Reims. In 751 he was entrusted with square, and an attic over it, which was the first a mission to King Otho I.; in 952 he was appointed refuge for released female prisoners and magdalen bishop of Tournay, but owing to unfavorable asylum, the humble cradle of all Fliedner's institu- conditions could not enter his new position. In tions. In 1849 Fliedner resigned his pastorate to 963 he retired into the monastery of St. Basle. devote all his time to his institutions. One of his During his stay at Rome Flodoard was induced last acts was to consecrate nineteen sisters, the to write a hexameter poem in three parts on the largest number up to that time to go out from " Triumphs of Christ and the Saints," which with Kaiserswerth in a single year. At his death the much show of learning and piety tells of the spread number of deaconesses connected with Kaisers- of Christianity and the history of the popes. He werth and its daughter institutions exceeded 400 compiled a chronicle (Annaks; in MGH, Script., (see DEACONESS, III., 2). Fliedner's most impor- iii., 1839, pp. 363-407; also, ed. P. Lauer, Paris, tant publications were several books descriptive of 1906) of his own time, from 919 to 966, which his travels and Des Buch der Mdrtyrer der even- is a source of valuable information for the history of gelischen Kirche (4 vols., Kaiserswerth, 1852-60). Lorraine and the relations between the French He founded the Christlicher Volkskalender, which and Germans of that time, and is indispensable for was widely popular. dates of numerous events. He also wrote a reliable (PHILIP ScaAFFt.) D. S. SCHAFF. and extensive Historia Remensis (in MGH, Script., BIBLIOGRAPHY: The chief "Life" is by his eon, G. Flied- xiii., 1882, pp. 40rr599) up to~ 948. ner, T. Fliedner, kurser Abrias seines Lebens and Wirkena, ~11 ILHELM ALTMANN. 3d ed., Kaiserswerth, 1892. Consult: P. Sehaff, Ger- BIBLIOGRAPHY: A3M, v. 325-332' Hoatoore LittEraore de la ,Bang, its Universities, Theolo~v, and Religion, chap. France, vi. 313 Paris. 1742 J. C. F BBhr, GeaaAddad der aaxund,Pheladelphia. 1857; Dr. T. Fliedner, eon Fharak- r6mischen Litteratur im karolingiaden Zeitalter, p· 274, ter- and ~eoensbtld, Barmen, 1885; Life of Pastor ~hedner Carleruhe, 1840; Wattenbaeh, DGQ, i (1885), 378-380, of ~aiearan t1°a7. from the Germ. by Catharine ii. 490, i (1893), 409-411; P. Scheffer-Boichoret in Mit worth, London, 1887; T. Schafer, Weobliche ~iakonie, 3 theilungen des Institute fur baterreich'Geachirhufor- vols., 2d ed., Stuttgart, 1887-94. s ,tp, 1887.Consult also R.


FLINT, ROBERT: Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Dumfries, Scotland, Mar. 14, 1838. He was educated at Glasgow University (1852-59) and was parish minister at East Church, Aberdeen (18591862), and at Kilconquhar (1862-64). He was professor of moral philosophy and political economy at St. Andrews University (1864-76) and professor of divinity at Edinburgh University (18761903). He was also Baird Lecturer (1876-77), Stone Lecturer at Princeton (1880) and Croall Lecturer at Edinburgh (1887-88). He has written: Christ's Kingdom on Earth (Edinburgh, 1865); Philosophy of History in Europe (1874); Theism (1877); Anti-Theistic Theories (1879); Vico (1884); Historical Philosophy in France, Belgium, and Switzerland (1894); Socialism (London, 1894); Sermons and Addresses (Edinburgh, 1899); Agnosticism (1903); Philosophy as Scientia Scientiarum and History of Classification of Science (1904); and On Theological, Biblical, and other Subjects (1905).

FLODOARD, flo"do"br', OF REIMS: French writer of the tenth century; b. at Apernay (17 m. s.s.e. of Reims) 893 or 894; d. 966. He studied in Reims, which in the tenth century formed the center of French politics and of the higher studies of Lorraine, and under Archbishop Herivaeus (90(1-922) became canon in the cathedral. Owing to political disturbances, he lost his position and joined Bishop Artold (932-961). The latter sent him in 936 to Rome where he was favorably received by Pope Leo VII. and consecrated priest. When Artold lost his bishopric, Flodoard fled with him to Archbishop Rotbert of Treves (931-956). Flodoard took part in the Synod of Ingelheim in 948, at which Artold was reinstated by Pope Agapetus II. As a recompense for his faithfulness Art-

chu viii. 423-430, Innsbruck, Ceillier. Auteura aacr_a, xii. 841-844. FLORENCE, COUNCIL OF., See FERRARA- FLORENCE, COUNCIL OF.

FLOREftSIANS (Ordo Florensis; Order of Flore): A Roman Catholic order established at Flore (the modern San Giovanni in Fiore, 90 m. s.w. of Taranto) by the Cistercian abbot and prophet Joachim (see JOACHIM of FIORE) about 1192, some three years after he had exchanged the administration of his monastery of Corazzo for the life of a hermit in Mount Sila. For the inmates of his monastery of St. John, Joachim formed rules which were similar to those of the Cistercians, although independent and constituting a stricter Benedictine reform. This rule received the sanction of Celestine III. on Aug. 25,1196, and there were also secular patrons, such as Henry VI. and his wife Conatantia. The order gradually received several monasteries in Naples and both Calabrias, although it was exposed to persecution, since its founder was suspected of heresy. The miracles believed to be wrought at the tomb of Joachim gave a speedy impetus to the Florenaians, so that they soon had thirty-four houses, including four nunneries, the most important at St. Helena near Amalfi. In 1227 Gregory IX. forbade the Cistercians to admit Florensiana into their order on account of the comparative laxity of the Cistercian rule, thus rousing the envy, and enmity of the monks of Cftesux. The Florensians maintained their high position, however, until the appointment of abbots in commendam, the first in 1470. The order then declined, and the majority of its monasteries, like the mother house in 1505, became incorporated with the Cistercians, although a few joined the Dominicans and Carthuaians. The habit of the Florenaiana was of coarse gray cloth and closely resembled that of the Cistercians. The monks went barefoot, and in choir

wore a cowl over their habit.(O. ZIICSLERt.)