CARAFFA, ca-raf'fa, GIOVANNI PIETRO. See PAUL IV., Pope.
CARCHEMISH, car'che-mish (modern Jerabis): A city situated on the right bank of the Euphrates in the upper part of its course. In the cuneiform inscriptions the name denotes either a Hittite state or the capital of that state, which long maintained itself against the Assyrians. Its earlier identification with Circesium, at the confluence of the Chebar with the Euphrates, is obsolete. The earliest mention dates from Ammi-zaduga (about 2200 B.C.), which speaks of the weight (measure) of Carchemish, a mention which agrees with a later Assyrian note of the "Mina of Carchemish," and with the city's location on one of the most important routes of commerce. It appears first in Assyrian annals in the accounts of Tiglath-Pileser I. about 1110 B.C. The Hittite power was at that early date already breaking under the pressure of the northern immigrations then going on, and was completed later by the Aramean migrations. King Sangara paid tribute to Asshurnasirpal (about 880 B.C.), was worsted in a conflict with Shalmaneser II., and was compelled again to pay heavy tribute and to send his daughter to the Assyrian's harem. Its last king, Pisiris, was taken prisoner by Sargon II., 717 B.C., and under Sennacherib the region was made an Assyrian province. Near it was fought the battle between Nebuchadrezzar and Necho which decided the fate of western Asia.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Maspéro, De Carchemis oppidi situ, Leipsic, 1872; idem, Struggle of the Nations, pp. 144-145, London 1896; J. Menant, Kar-Kamis, sa position, an appendix to the Fr. transl. of A. H. Sayce's Hittites, Paris, 1891; W. M. Müller, Asien und Europa nach altägyptischen Denkmälern, p. 263, Leipsic, 1893; DB, i. 353; EB, i. 702-703.
CARDALE, JOHN BATE: Apostle of the Catholic Apostolic Church; b. in London Nov. 2, 1802; d. at Albury (26 m. s.w. of London), Surrey, July 18, 1877. After his schooling at Rugby he was admitted to the bar in 1822, became head of a London firm of solicitors, and retired with a competency in 1834. He had already become interested in the religious movement, originating in Scotland, known as the "Catholic Apostolic Church", whose distinguishing feature is its belief in the revival of the ministries and gifts seen in the apostolic age of the Church, especially of the ministries of apostles and prophets. Mr. Cardale was the first called of the twelve "apostles" of the Church, Henry Drummond being the second. This was in 1832, although it was not until July 14, 1835, when the number was completed, that the twelve were formally set apart to their work as an Apostolic College. Mr. Cardale was the author of a number of anonymous religious publications, the most noteworthy of which was Reagdins upon the Liturgy, London, vol. i., 1849-51, vol. ii., 1852-78. G. C. Boase, in the Dictionary of National Biography, says of him: "His strength of will, calmness and clearness of judgment, and kindness of heart and manner, added to the prestige of his long rule, made him a tower of strength. He was indefatigable in labour, of which he accomplished a vast amount; besides Latin and Greek, he was a good French and German scholar, and late in life learned Danish."
BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, ix. 38-38.
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