CARDINAL. See CURIA, § 1.
CAREY, WILLIAM: Baptist missionary and Orientalist; b. at Paulerspury, Northamptonshire, Eng., Aug. 17, 1761; d. at Serampur, India, June 9, 1834. By baptism a member of the Established Church, he was early in life convinced of the Scriptural authority for the Baptist views, and joined this sect, in which he soon became a preacher. His congregations were very poor, and he supported himself and family by shoemaking. But his thirst for knowledge was strong; and he managed, notwithstanding the pressure of poverty, to acquire Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and a goodly amount of other useful learning, especially in natural history and botany. His attention was turned to the heathen, and he saw plainly his duty to go to them. On Oct. 2, 1792, largely through his exertions, the first Baptist missionary society was founded; and on June 13, 1793, he and his family sailed for India, accompanied by John Thomas, who had formerly lived in Bengal. On reaching Bengal early in 1794, Carey and his companion lost all their property in the Hugli; but, having received the charge of an indigo-factory at Malda, he cut off his pecuniary connection with the missionary society, and began in earnest what, instead of regular missionary labor, was to be the work of his life—the study of and translation both from and into the languages of India. In 1799 the factory was closed; and he went with Thomas to Kidderpur, where he had purchased a small indigo-plantation. Here, joined by Marshman and Ward, he started, under bright hopes a mission, but soon encountered the opposition of the Indian government, which forbade the mission's enlargement, and compelled its removal, at a great pecuniary loss, to Serampur, a Danish settlement (1800), where it took a fresh lease of life. For some time Carey and Thomas had been diligently at work upon a version of the New Testament in Bengali. In 1801 it was published by the press
BIBLIOGRAPHY: John Taylor, Biographical and Literary Notices of William Carey. Bibliographical Notices of Works . . . , Northampton, 1886; J. C. Marshman. Life and Times of Carey, Marshman and Ward, 2 vols., London, 1859; J. Culross, William Carey, New York, 1882; George Smith, Life of William Carey, London, 1887; H. O. Dwight, H. A. Tupper, and E. M. Bliss, Encyclopœdia of Missions, pp. 133-134, New York, 1904; DNB, ix. 77.
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