CASTLE, NICHOLAS: United Brethren; b. at Bristol, Ind., Oct. 4, 1837; entered the ministry, 1857; elected bishop, 1877; emeritus, 1905.
CASTOR, SAINT: According to legend, a companion of St. Maximin of Treves, who had an influential career as a missionary and ascetic on the lower Moselle. His relics are said to have been miraculously discovered under Bishop Weomad (d. 791). They were first placed at Carden on the Moselle; but in 836 a part of them was translated to Coblenz (of which city Castor has since been known as the patron) by Archbishop Hetti of Treves, and preserved in the minster founded there by him.
CASUISTRY: The name of a special form of discipline, or branch of ethics, constituting a somewhat elaborated scheme of doctrine concerning proper moral action in single and concrete instances. The evaluation of this kind of activity evolves itself generally as consequence of a lawful and rightful apprehension of the moral walk, whereby we accentuate external conduct according to definite prescriptive rules. Coordinately with a fundamental moral cede for this action, certain ethical norms with legal adjuncts were in practical operation so far back as the Jewish "scribes and Pharisees."
But even early in the postapostolic age, the tendency set in, coordinately with a one-sided intellectualizing conception of the faith, to regulate by outward legalism the moral life as thus robbed of its religious mainspring; and the same tendency involved the casuistical treatment of ethics. Still further was this disposition fostered in Western theology through the influence of Stoicism, and in part through the legalizing development of ecclesiastical doctrine. It shows itself even in Augustine, despite his obliteration of ethics, and continued to be characteristic of the entire Western Catholic ethical system. What ministered still more widely to the development of casuistry was the very early and momentously elaborated ecclesiastical institution of penance, with the infliction of ecclesiastical penalties for individual sins. The appertaining customary rules of the ancient forms of procedure and the relevantly codified decrees of separate synods were brought together, supplemented, and arranged by the compilers. There thus arose the definite manuals on penance for the use of confessors; among which the best known were those attributed to Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury (d. 690) and the Venerable Bede (d. 735). A still greater amplification of casuistry was promoted by the entire method of the scholastic ethics, with its subtle disputations; by the influence of the canonical repetition; and by the universally obligatory institution of auricular confession (1215). Under such influences there arose a distinctive systematic discipline, which in contradistinction to the philosophic and legal came to be designated as theological casuistry. The scholars who cultivated the same constituted, under the name of casuists or schemists, both in the Middle Ages and at Roman Catholic universities much later still, a special class of teachers, notably so as against the canonists. The writings which embodied this discipline were the so-called "summ of cases of conscience " (summ casuum conscienti). Of these the most ancient was compiled in the thirteenth century by Raymond of Peñaforte (printed at Lyons, 1719). There then followed a good many such writings while scholasticism was approaching the term of its decay through the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The most renowned of these summ, which are usually designated in brief by the author's name or birthplace, are the following: the Astesana (printed 1468, and often); Pisanella (written 1338; printed, Paris, 1470); Pacifica (written c. 1470; printed, Venice, 1576); Rosella; Angelica; and lastly the one usually known as summa summarum; properly the compilation
As the Reformers revived the Pauline idea of a free motive power in faith, casuistry proper was fundamentally set aside, and they even occasionally declared themselves expressly opposed to it (Calvin, "Institutes," IV. x. 1 sqq.; Luther, Resol. i. concl. Ecc., ii.). Existing conditions nevertheless gave rise to a certain evangelical counterpart to the Roman Catholic casuistry. The Reformatory movement introduced a multitude of new problems in morality. So in difficult contingencies people frequently appealed for enlightenment to the Reformers and other persons of esteem, or in turn to the theological faculties. In this way the collected letters of Luther and Calvin, as well as Melanchthon's counsels (Berathschlagungen, etc., issued by Petzel, 1601), have furnished copious illustrations at large in the matter of evangelical resolutions of conscience. The systematic collections of faculty decisions (Thesaurus consiliorum, etc., by Dedekenn; Gerhard's In richtigerer Ordnung, 1676) even early denote the transition to a distinctive evangelical casuistry. The more legalizing spirit of the post-Reformation era became thus practically effective. Even here, however, the various particular moral transactions were not viewed, in their development, as in the Roman Catholic casuistry, but as fruits of faith, of knowledge in part, and of the life according to the spirit of Christ. The Reformed theology took precedence in the elaboration of casuistry. The first treatise of this kind is that of the Cambridge professor William Perkins (d. 1602; see PERKINS, WILLIAM), A Case of Conscience (originally in English; Latin by Meyer, 1603), of a strict Puritan tone. A similar book of kindred thought was written by his pupil the Scotchman William Ames (De conscientia, Amsterdam, 1630). Somewhat prior to this, the German theologian Alstedt had published a work on casuistry (Theologia casuum, Hanover, 1621). But although he represented casuistry as a singularly important science, there were in the Reformed Church only a few English theologians that still espoused casuistry. The first Lutheran work on casuistry grew out of lectures delivered by Professor Baldwin at Wittenberg in opposition to the Roman Catholic casuistry, and with the design of systematically setting forth the import of the faculty's opinions. His manuscript was published after his death by the Wittenberg Theological Faculty (Tractatus de casibus conscient, Frankfort, 1659). Of the remaining Lutheran writings of this nature; there should still be noted the works of Dannhauer (1679), Bechmann (1692), and Johannes Olearius (1699). Pietism, although Spener's views on moral questions (Theologische Bedenken, 1700; Letzte theologische Bedenken, 1711) have a casuistical tone, still contributed not a little to the shelving of casuistry, in that it deepened the understanding with reference to the interdependency of the Christian's total transactions with his religious-moral basic intuitions. After Buddeus in his moral theology had shown casuistry to be superfluous, only isolated works on the subject appeared in the Lutheran Church.
In the Roman Catholic Church, on the contrary, the ethics of the Jesuits came to be out and out casuistical. And even apart from them, in that quarter, casuistry was cultivated (cf. P. Lambertini, Casus conscienti, Augsburg, 1763; S. Sobiech, Compendium theologi moralis, Breslau, 1822).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. D. Maurice, The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry, London, 1872; K. F. Stäudlin, Geschichte der christlichen Moral, Göttingen, 1808; W. M. L. de Wette, Christliche Sittenlehre, vol. ii., part 2, Berlin, 1821; S. Pike and S. Hayward, Religious Cases of Conscience, new ed., Philadelphia, 1859; C. Beard, Port Royal, pp. 262-291, London, 1861; J. Cook, The Conscience, Boston, 1879; W. Gass, Geschichte der christlichen Ethik, i., ii., parts 1-2, Berlin, 1881-87; W. T. Davison, The Christian Conscience, a Contribution to Ethics, London 1888; C. E. Luthardt, Geschichte der christlichen Ethik, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1888-93. Many of the treatises on ethics deal with the subject of casuistry.
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