CASTELL, EDMUND: English Orientalist; b. at East Hatley (12 m. s.w. of Cambridge), Cambridgeshire, 1606; d. at Higham Gobion (10 m. s.s.e. of Bedford), Bedfordshire, 1685. He studied at Emmanuel and St. John's colleges, Cambridge (B.A., 1625; M.A., 1628; B.D., 1635; D.D., 1661). He assisted Walton on his Polyglot (1657), contributing the editions of the Samaritan, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions, and other (unacknowledged) portions, and also spent freely of his own fortune for the work. In 1669 he brought out in two volumes, folio, at London, his Lexicon Heptaglotton, Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum, Samaritanum, Æthiopicum, Arabicum, conjunctim; et Persicum separatim, specially prepared to supplement the Polyglot. This work was the result of eighteen years of the most unremitting labor, cost the author £12,000, and left him ruined in fortune and health. His work was enthusiastically received on the Continent, but neglected in England. Late in life he received some favor from the king, was appointed chaplain in ordinary in 1666, prebendary of Canterbury and professor of Arabic at Cambridge 1667, and was successively vicar of Hatfield Peverell, Essex; rector of Wodeham Walter, Essex; and rector of Higham Gobion.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. à Wood, Athenœ Oxonienses, ed. P. Bliss, iii. 883, 4 vols., London, 1813-20; twenty-three of his letters appear in J. Lightfoot, Whole Works, ed. J. R. Pitman, 13 vols., London, 1822-25. Consult DNB, ix, 271-272.

CASTELLIO(N), SEBASTIANUS (SEBASTIEN CHÂTEILLON): French Reformer; b. at Saint-Martin du Fresne (30 m. w. of Geneva) 1515; d. at Basel Dec. 29, 1563. He pursued his studies under difficult circumstances until he became tutor to three young noblemen. In 1540 he went to Strasburg, lived in Calvin's house, and accompanied him to Geneva, where on Calvin's recommendation he became rector of the high school. But disagreement soon arose between him and the great Reformer, Castellio holding views of his own concerning election and Christ's descent into hell, and regarding the Song of Solomon as an erotic poem which should be excluded from the canon. He left Geneva in 1544 and settled in Basel, where he lived in great poverty till 1552, when he was appointed professor of Greek literature. His first publication was Dialogi sacri (Geneva, 1543; Eng. transl., The History of the Bible, collected into 119 dialogues, London, 1715; again under the title, Youth's Scripture Remembrancer, 1743), much used as a school-book. In 1551 he published in Basel his chief work, an elegant annotated Latin translation of the Bible, which he dedicated to Edward VI. of England (12th ed., Leipsic, 1778). The notes gave offense, as they betrayed skepticism as to the attainability of religious truth, and the dedication, a noble plea for religious toleration, was unacceptable to the age. In 1555 he published at Basel a complete French translation of the Bible,


with a dedication to Henry II. of France. He was violently attacked by Calvin and Beza because of his criticism of their conduct in burning Servetus, but defended himself vigorously in his De hœreticis (Basel, 1554); and in Contra libellum Calvini, in quo ostendere conatur hœreticos jure gladii coercendos esse. Calvin's influence suppressed the latter, and it was not published till 1612.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Buisson, Séb. Castellion, sa vie et son œuvre, 2 vols., Paris. 1892 (i., p. xvii. gives literature concerning him; ii. 341 sqq. gives list of his writings); C. Jarrin, Deux oubliés; Séb. Castellion, Léonard Racle, Paris, 1895.


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