BERNOLD: German ecclesiastical author; b. probably in southern Swabia c. 1054; d. at Schaffhausen Sep. 16, 1100. He was educated at Constance under Bernard, with whom he continued in close relations. He began writing early, and was present in Rome at the great synod of


1079 when Berengar was condemned. The next certain date is his ordination by the cardinal-legate Otto of Ostia at Constance in 1084. From 1086 to 1091 he was certainly an inmate of the monastery of St. Blaise in the Black Fort; in the latter year he migrated to Schaffhausen, where he remained (though not without interruption, as his presence at the battle of Pleichfeld shows) until his death. He was a versatile author. His Chronicon (ed. G. Waitz, in MGH, Script., v, 1844, 385-467) is a valuable source for his own lifetime, though colored by his partizan support of Gregory VII. His treatise De Berengarii hœresiarchœ damnatione multiplici is interesting for the light which it throws on the attitude of German theology before the beginning of the strictly scholastic period. Most of his extant works, however, are of a practical nature, dealing with the vexed questions of the church life of his time. Though a zealous upholder of the reforming papacy, he was not a fanatic.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Mirbt, Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII, Leipsic, 1894; A. Ussermann, Germaniœ sacrœ prodromus, ii, 432-437, Freiburg, 1792; E. Strelau, Leben und Werks des Mönches Bernold von St. Blasien, Jena, 1889; G. Meyer von Knonau, Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter Heinrich IV und Heinrich V, Leipsic, 1890-1904.

BERNWARD: Bishop of Hildesheim 993-1022. He came of a noble Saxon family, being the grandson of the count palatine Adalbero and the nephew of Bishop Folkmar of Utrecht. He was educated at the cathedral school of Hildesheim by Thangmar, later his biographer, and ordained by Willigis of Mainz. In 987 he became chaplain at the imperial court and tutor to the young Otto III. On Jan. 15, 993, he was consecrated bishop of Hildesheim. He protected his diocese vigorously from the attacks of the Normans, and only once took a wrong step as a temporal magnate–when, at the accession of Henry II, he took the side of Margrave Ekkehart, whose death, however, saved him from the consequences of his mistake. He rendered great services to literature and art. He died Nov. 20, 1022, a few weeks after the consecration of the magnificent church of St. Michael which he had built. Celestine III canonized him in 1193.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita by Thangmar is in MGH, Script., iv, 754-782, the Miracula, ib. pp. 782-786, Hanover, 1841; the continuation of the Vita by Wolfherius, ib. xi, 165-167, 1854. Consult: A. Schultz, Der heilige Bernward . . . und seine Verdienste, Leipsic, 1879; W. A. Neumann, Bernward von Hildesheim und seine Zeit, in Mittheilungen des kaiserlichen österreichischen Museums für Kunst, v, 73-80, 97-104, 124-130, 141-152, 168-173, Vienna, 1890; B. Sievers, Der heilige Bernward, in Studien und Mittheilungen aus dem Benedict- und dem Cisterz.-0rden, xiv (1893), 398-420; Wattenbach, DGQ, i (1893), 318, 346-350, ii, 25, 360, 511; S. Beissel, Der heilige Bernward von Hildesheim, Hildesheim, 1895.


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