BERNARDIN OF SIENNA: Franciscan; b. of noble parents at Massa (33 m. s.w. of Sienna) Sept. 8, 1350; d. at Aquila (58 m. n.e. of Rome) May 20, 1444. He entered the Franciscan order 1402; became its vicar-general 1437, and effected many reforms in discipline and government. He was the most famous preacher of his time and spoke to great crowds in all parts of Italy with wonderful effect. Three times he refused the offer of a bishopric. He was canonized by Nicholas V in 1450 and his day is May 20. His writings were first printed at Lyons (1501), afterward at Paris (4 vols., 1636; 5 vols., 1650) and at Venice (4 vols., 1745). The first volume contains his life by his scholar, St. John of Capistrano. Bernardin's writings are for the most part tractatus seu sermones, which are not so much sermons according to the modern view as formal treatises upon morals, asceticism, and mysticism.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The older accounts of his life are collected in ASB, 20 May, vi, 262-318. Consult: P. Thureau-Dangin, Un Prédicateur populaire . . . St. Bernardin de Sienne (1380-1444), Paris, 1896, Eng. transl., London, 1906; Berthaumier, Histoire de S. Bernardin de Sienne, Paris, 1862; J. P. Toussaint, Leben des heiligen Bernardin, Regensburg, 1873; F. Apollinaire, La vie et les œurres de S. Bernardin, Poitiers, 1882; E. C. Dargan, Hist. of Preaching, pp. 317 sqq., New York, 1905.


BERNICE, ber-nai'sę or ber'nis (for BERENICE): Eldest daughter of Herod Aprippa I. See HEROD AND HIS FAMILY.

BERNO (BERN, BERNARD) OF REICHENAU: Abbot of Reichenau (Benedictine abbey on as island in the Untersee of Lake Constance, 4 m. w.n.w. of Constance) 1008 till his death, June 7, 1048. He was monk in a monastery at Prüm near Treves when appointed abbot; under his rule Reichenau regained its prosperity, which had been lost under his predecessor, the abbot Immo; the library was enriched, scholars were attracted to the school, and the church of St. Mark was rebuilt. He was renowned personally as scholar, as poet, and, above all, as musician; he accompanied the emperor, Henry II, to Rome in 1014 for his coronation and after his return introduced reforms in German church music. Besides lives of saints and theological and liturgical treatises he left a number of letters and works upon music, which are published in Gerbert, Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra, ii (St. Blaise, 1784). His writings are in MPL, cxliii.



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