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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Titus: Chapter 3)

3:1 {To be in subjection to rulers, to authorities, to be
(\archais exousiais hupotassesthai peitharchein\).
Remarkable double asyndeton, no \kai\ (and) between the two
substantives or the two verbs. \Peitharchein\ (to obey), old verb
(from \peithomai, archē\), in N.T. only here and Ac 27:21. {To
be ready unto every good work}
(\pros pan ergon agathon hetoimous
. Pauline phrase (2Co 9:8; 2Ti 2:21; 3:17), here
adjective \hetoimos\ (2Co 9:5), there verb.

3:2 {To speak evil} (\blasphēmein\). See Col 3:8; 1Ti 6:4. {Not
to be contentious}
(\amachous einai\). "To be non-fighters" (1Ti
, originally "invincible." {Gentle} (\epieikeis\). See 1Ti
3:3. {Meekness} (\prautēta\). \Praotēta\. See Col 3:12.

3:3 {Aforetime} (\pote\). "Once" in our unconverted state as in
Eph 2:3. {Foolish} (\anoētoi\). See Ro 1:14,21. {Disobedient}
(\apeitheis\). See Ro 1:30. {Deceived} (\planōmenoi\). Present
passive participle of \planaō\ though the middle is possible.
{Divers lusts} (\hēdonais poikilais\). "Pleasures" (\hēdonais\
from \hēdomai\, old word, in N.T. only here, Lu 8:14; Jas 4:1,3;
2Pe 2:13)
. \Poikilais\ (old word) is many-coloured as in Mr
1:34; Jas 1:2; 2Ti 3:6, etc. {Living} (\diagontes\). See 1Ti
3:6 (supply \bion\). {In malice} (\en kakiāi\). See Ro 1:29.
{Envy} (\phthonōi\). See Ro 1:29. {Hateful} (\stugētoi\). Late
passive verbal from \stugeō\, to hate. In Philo, only here in
N.T. {Hating one another} (\misountes allēlous\). Active sense
and natural result of being "hateful."

3:4 {The kindness} (\hē chrēstotēs\). See Ro 2:4 for this very
word used of God as here. {His love toward man} (\hē
. "The philanthrophy of God our Saviour." Old word
from \philanthrōpos\, for love of mankind, in N.T. only here and
Ac 28:2. {Appeared} (\epephanē\). See 2:11 and here as there
the Incarnation of Christ. See 1Ti 1:1 for \sōtēr\ with \theos\

3:5 {Done} (not in the Greek, only the article \tōn\), "not as a
result of works those in righteousness which we did." Same idea
as in Ro 3:20f. {According to his mercy he saved us} (\kata to
autou eleos esōsen\)
. See Ps 109:26; 1Pe 1:3; Eph 2:4.
Effective aorist active indicative of \sōzō\. {Through the
washing of regeneration}
(\dia loutrou palingenesias\). Late and
common word with the Stoics (Dibelius) and in the
Mystery-religions (Angus), also in the papyri and Philo. Only
twice in the N.T. (Mt 19:28 with which compare \apokatastasia\
in Ac 3:21, and here in personal sense of new birth)
. For
\loutron\, see Eph 5:26, here as there the laver or the bath.
Probably in both cases there is a reference to baptism, but, as
in Ro 6:3-6, the immersion is the picture or the symbol of the
new birth, not the means of securing it. {And renewing of the
Holy Spirit}
(\kai anakainōseōs pneumatos hagiou\). "And renewal
by the Holy Spirit" (subjective genitive). For the late word
\anakainōsis\, see Ro 12:2. Here, as often, Paul has put the
objective symbol before the reality. The Holy Spirit does the
renewing, man submits to the baptism after the new birth to
picture it forth to men.

3:6 {Which} (\hou\). Genitive case by attraction from \ho\
(grammatical gender) to the case of \pneumatos hagiou\. We do not
have grammatical gender (only natural) in English. Hence here we
should say "whom," even if it does not go smoothly with
\execheen\ (he poured out, second aorist active indicative of
. The reference is to the great Pentecost (Ac 2:33) as
foretold by Joel (Joe 2:28). {Richly} (\plousiōs\). Then and to
each one in his own experience. See Ro 10:12; 1Ti 6:17.

3:7 {Being justified by his grace} (\dikaiōthentes tēi ekeinou
. First aorist passive participle of \dikaioō\ and
instrumental case of \charis\ as in Ro 3:24; 5:1. {That we
might be made heirs}
(\hina klēronomoi genēthōmen\). Purpose with
\hina\ and first aorist passive of \ginomai\. See Ro 4:13;

3:8 {The saying} (\ho logos\). In verses 4-7. {I will}
(\boulomai\). See 1Ti 2:8. {That thou affirm confidently} (\se
. Indirect command. For the verb see 1Ti 1:7.
{That they may be careful} (\hina phrontizōsin\). Sub-final use
of \hina\ with present active subjunctive of \phrontizō\, old
verb, only here in N.T. {To maintain good works} (\kalōn ergōn
. Present middle infinitive of \proistēmi\,
intransitive use, to stand before, to take the lead in, to care
for. Paul is anxious that "believers" may take the lead in good

3:9 {Fightings about the law} (\machas nomikas\). "Legal
battles." See 1Ti 6:4; 2Ti 2:23. Wordy fights about Mosaic and
Pharisaic and Gnostic regulations. {Shun} (\periistaso\). Present
middle imperative of \periistēmi\, intransitive, step around,
stand aside (2Ti 2:16). Common in this sense in the literary
_Koinē_. {Unprofitable} (\anōpheleis\). Old compound adjective
(\a\ privative and \ophelos\), in N.T. only here and Heb 7:18.

3:10 {Heretical} (\hairetikon\). Old adjective from \hairesis\
(\haireomai\, to choose), a choosing of a party (sect, Ac 5:17)
or of teaching (2Pe 2:1). Possibly a schism had been started
here in Crete. {Refuse} (\paraitou\). Present middle imperative
of \paraiteō\, to ask from, to beg off from. See same form in
1Ti 4:7; 5:11. Possibly an allusion here to Christ's directions
in Mt 18:15-17.

3:11 {Is perverted} (\exestraptai\). Perfect passive indicative
of \ekstrephō\, old word to turn inside out, to twist, to
pervert. Only here in N.T. {Self-condemned} (\autokatakritos\).
Only known example of this double compound verbal adjective
(\autos, kata, krinō\).

3:12 {When I shall send} (\hotan pempsō\). Indefinite temporal
clause with \hotan\ and the first aorist active subjunctive (or
future indicative)
of \pempō\ (same form). {Artemas} (\Artemān\).
Perhaps abbreviation of Artemidorus. Nothing more is known of
him. {Or Tychicus} (\ē Tuchikon\). Paul's well-known disciple
(Col 4:7; Eph 6:21; 2Ti 4:12). {To Nicopolis} (\eis
. Probably in Epirus, a good place for work in
Dalmatia (2Ti 4:10). {I have determined} (\kekrika\). Perfect
active indicative. I have decided. {To winter there} (\ekei
. First aorist active infinitive of
\paracheimazō\, a literary _Koinē_ word for which see Ac 27:12;
1Co 16:6.

3:13 {Zenas the lawyer} (\Zēnān ton nomikon\). Possibly
abbreviation of Zenodorus and may be one of the bearers of the
Epistle with Apollos. Probably an expert in the Mosaic law as the
word means in the Gospels. A converted Jewish lawyer. The Latin
term is _jurisconsultum_ for \nomikon\. {Apollos} (\Apollōn\).
Paul's friend (Ac 18:24-19:1; 1Co 1:12ff.). {Set forward}
(\propempson\). First aorist active imperative of \propempō\, old
verb, to send on ahead (1Co 16:6,11; Ro 15:24). {That nothing
be wanting unto them}
(\hina mēden autois leipēi\). Purpose with
\hina\ and present (or second aorist \lipēi\, some MSS.)
subjunctive of \leipō\, old verb to leave, to remain, to lack.
With dative case here (\autois\).

3:14 {Our people} (\hoi hēmeteroi\). "Our folks." The Cretan
converts, not just Paul's friends. {Let learn} (\manthanetōsan\).
Present active imperative, keep on learning how. {To maintain}
(\pro‹stasthai\). See verse 8. {For necessary uses} (\eis
anagkaias chreias\)
. "For necessary wants." No idlers wanted. See
1Th 4:12; 2Th 3:10f. {Unfruitful} (\akarpoi\). See 1Co 14:14;
Eph 5:11.

3:15 {That love us} (\tous philountas hēmās\). Paul craved the
love of his friends as opposed to 2:8.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Titus: Chapter 3)