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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Titus: Chapter 2)

2:1 {But speak thou} (\su de lalei\). In contrast to these
Pharisaic Gnostics in Crete. {Befit} (\prepei\). Old verb to be
becoming, seemly. See 1Ti 2:10; Eph 5:3. With dative case
\didaskaliāi\. {Sound} (\hugiainousēi\). Healthful as in 1:13;
2:2; 1Ti 1:10, common word in the Pastorals.

2:2 {Aged men} (\presbutas\). See Phm 1:9 for this word. For
discussion of family life see also Co 3:18-4:1; Eph 5:22-6:9;
1Ti 5:1-6:2. For the adjectives here see 1Ti 3:2,8; for the
substantives see 1Ti 6:11.

2:3 {Aged women} (\presbutidas\). Old word, feminine of
\presbutēs\, only here in N.T. See \presbuteras\ in 1Ti 5:2.
{Reverent} (\hieroprepeis\). Old word (\heiros, prepei\). Only
here in N.T. Same idea in 1Ti 2:10. Like people engaged in
sacred duties (Lock). {In demeanour} (\en katastēmati\). Late and
rare word (inscriptions) from \kathistēmi\, deportment, only here
in N.T. {Not slanderers} (\mē diabolous\). See 1Ti 3:11; 2Ti
3:3. {Nor enslaved to much wine} (\mēde oinōi pollōi
. Perfect passive participle of \douloō\, with
dative case \oinōi\. See 1Ti 3:8. "It is proved by experience
that the reclamation of a woman drunkard is almost impossible"
(White). But God can do the "impossible." {Teachers of that which
is good}
(\kalodidaskalous\). Compound word found here alone,
_bona docentes_ (teaching good and beautiful things). A sorely
needed mission.

2:4 {That they may train} (\hina sōphronizōsin\). Purpose clause,
\hina\ and present active subjunctive of \sōphronizō\, old verb
(from \sōphrōn\, sound in mind, \saos, phrēn\, as in this verse),
to make sane, to restore to one's senses, to discipline, only
here in N.T. {To love their husbands} (\philandrous einai\).
Predicate accusative with \einai\ of old adjective \philandros\
(\philos, anēr\, fond of one's husband), only here in N.T. \Anēr\
means man, of course, as well as husband, but only husband here,
not "fond of men" (other men than their own). {To love their
(\philoteknous\). Another old compound, here only in
N.T. This exhortation is still needed where some married women
prefer poodle-dogs to children.

2:5 {Workers at home} (\oikourgous\). So the oldest MSS. (from
\oikos, ergou\)
instead of \oikourous\, keepers at home (from
\koiso, ouros\, keeper)
. Rare word, found in Soranus, a medical
writer, Field says. Cf. 1Ti 5:13. "Keepers at home" are usually
"workers at home." {Kind} (\agathas\). See Ro 5:7. See Col
3:18; Eph 5:22 for the same use of \hupotassomai\, to be in
subjection. Note \idiois\ (their own). See 1Ti 6:1 for the same
negative purpose clause (\hina mē blasphēmētai\).

2:6 {The younger men} (\tous neōterous\). Just one item, besides
"likewise" (\hosautōs\ as in 3; 1Ti 2,9), "to be soberminded"
(\sōphronein\, old verb as in Rom 12:3). It is possible to take
"in all things" (\peri panta\) with \sōphronein\, though the
editors take it with verse 7.

2:7 {Shewing thyself} (\seauton parechomenos\). Present middle
(redundant middle) participle of \parechō\ with the reflexive
pronoun \seauton\ as if the active voice \parechōn\. The _Koinē_
shows an increasing number of such constructions (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 811)
. See active in 1Ti 1:4. {An ensample}
(\tupon\). For this word see 2Th 3:9; Php 3:17. {Uncorruptness}
(\aphthorian\). Only example, from late adjective \aphthoros\
(\a\ privative and \phtheirō\).

2:8 {Sound} (\hugiē\, Attic usually \hugiā\ in accusative
, elsewhere in Pastorals participle \hugianōn\ (verse
. {That cannot be condemned} (\akatagnōston\). Only N.T.
example (verbal, \a\ privative and \katagnōstos\) and in IV Macc.
4:47. Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 200) quotes it from an
inscription and the adverb from a papyrus. {He that is of the
contrary part}
(\ho ex enantias\). "The one on the opposite side"
(your opponent). Cf. verse 9; 1Ti 5:14. {May be ashamed} (\hina
. Final clause with \hina\ and second aorist passive
subjunctive of \entrepō\, to turn, in middle and passive to turn
one on himself and so be ashamed (to blush) as in 2Th 3:14; 1Co
4:14. This sense in the papyri. {Evil} (\phaulon\). Old word,
easy (easy morals), worthless; bad, as in 2Co 5:10.

2:9 {Servants} (\doulous\). "Slaves." Supply "exhort"
(\parakalei\). See 1Ti 6:1 for "masters" (\despotais\).
{Well-pleasing} (\euarestous\). See on ¯2Co 5:9. {Not
(\mē antilegontas\). "Not answer back." See Ro

2:10 {Not purloining} (\mē nosphizomenous\). Present middle
participle of \nosphizō\, old verb (from \nosphi\, apart), in
middle to set apart for oneself, to embezzle, in N.T. only here
and Ac 5:2f. {Fidelity} (\pistin\). See Ga 5:22; 1Ti 5:12 for
\pistis\ in the sense of faithfulness. Nowhere else in the N.T.
do we have \agathē\ with \pistis\ as here, but an Oxyr. papyrus
(iii. 494, 9) has this very phrase (\pāsan pistin
. Westcott and Hort put \agapēn\ in the margin.
See 3:2. {That they may adorn} (\hina kosmōsin\). Final clause
with \hina\ and present active subjunctive. See 1Ti 2:9 for
\kosmeō\. Paul shows slaves how they may "adorn" the teaching of

2:11 {Hath appeared} (\epephanē\). "Did appear," the first
Epiphany (the Incarnation). Second aorist passive indicative of
\epiphainō\, old verb, in N.T. here, 3:4; Lu 1:79; Ac 27:20.
{Bringing salvation} (\sōtērios\). Old adjective from \sōtēr\
(Saviour), here alone in N.T. except \to sōtērion\ (salvation,
"the saving act")
in Lu 2:30; 3:6; Eph 6:17. {Instructing}
(\paideuousa\). See 1Ti 1:20. {Ungodliness} (\asebeian\). See
Ro 1:18. {Worldly lusts} (\tas kosmikas epithumias\). Aristotle
and Plutarch use \kosmikos\ (from \kosmos\) about the universe as
in Heb 9:1 about the earthly. Here it has alone in N.T. the
sense of evil "in this present age" as with \kosmos\ in 1Jo
2:16. The three adverbs set off the opposite (soberly
\sōphronōs\, righteously \dikaiōs\, godly \eusebōs\)

2:13 {Looking for} (\prosdechomenoi\). Present middle participle
of \prosdechomai\, old verb, the one used of Simeon (Lu 2:25)
and others (Lu 2:38) who were looking for the Messiah. {The
blessed hope and appearing of the glory}
(\tēn makarian elpida
kai epiphaneian tēs doxēs\)
. The word \epiphaneia\ (used by the
Greeks of the appearance of the gods, from \epiphanēs,
occurs in 2Ti 1:10 of the Incarnation of Christ,
the first Epiphany (like the verb \epephanē\, Tit 2:11), but
here of the second Epiphany of Christ or the second coming as in
1Ti 6:14; 2Ti 4:1,8. In 2Th 2:8 both \epiphaneia\ and
\parousia\ (the usual word) occur together of the second coming.
{Of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ} (\tou megalou theou
kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou\)
. This is the necessary meaning of
the one article with \theou\ and \sōtēros\ just as in 2Pe
1:1,11. See Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 786. Westcott and Hort read
\Christou Iēsou\.

2:14 {Who gave himself for us} (\hos edōken heauton huper
. Paul's great doctrine (Ga 1:4; 2:20; 1Ti 2:6). {That
he might redeem us}
(\hina lutrōsētai\). Final clause, \hina\ and
the aorist middle subjunctive of \lutroō\, old verb from \lutron\
(ransom), in N.T. only here, Lu 24:21; 1Pe 1:18. {Purify to
(\katharisēi heautōi\). Final clause with first aorist
active subjunctive of \katharizō\, for which verb see Eph 5:26.
{Lawlessness} (\anomias\). See 2Th 2:3. {A people for his own
(\laon periousion\). A late word (from \perieimi\, to
be over and above, in papyri as well as \periousia\)
, only in LXX
and here, apparently made by the LXX, one's possession, and so
God's chosen people. See 1Pe 2:9 (\laos eis peripoiēsin\).
{Zealous of good works} (\zēlōtēn kalōn ergōn\). "A zealot for
good works." Substantive for which see 1Co 14:12; Ga 1:14.
Objective genitive \ergōn\.

2:15 {With all authority} (\meta pasēs epitagēs\). See 1Co 7:6;
2Co 8:8. Assertion of authority is sometimes necessary. {Let no
man despise thee}
(\mēdeis sou periphroneitō\). Present active
imperative in prohibition of \periphroneō\, old verb, only here
in N.T., to think around (on all sides). Literally, "let no man
think around thee" (and so despise thee). In 1Ti 4:12 it is
\kataphroneitō\ (think down on), a stronger word of scorn, but
this one implies the possibility of one making mental circles
around one and so "out-thinking" him. The best way for the modern
minister to command respect for his "authority" is to do thinking
that will deserve it.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Titus: Chapter 2)