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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 13)

13:1 {Every soul} (\pāsa psuchē\). As in 2:9; Ac 2:43. A
Hebraism for \pās anthrōpos\ (every man). {To the higher powers}
(\exousiais huperechousais\). Abstract for concrete. See Mr
2:10 for \exousia\. \Huperechō\ is an old verb to have or hold
over, to be above or supreme, as in 1Pe 2:13. {Except by God}
(\ei mē hupo theou\). So the best MSS. rather than \apo theou\
(from God). God is the author of order, not anarchy. {The powers
that be}
(\hai ousai\). "The existing authorities" (supply
. Art ordained (\tetagmenai eisin\). Periphrastic
perfect passive indicative of \tassō\, "stand ordained by God."
Paul is not arguing for the divine right of kings or for any
special form of government, but for government and order. Nor
does he oppose here revolution for a change of government, but he
does oppose all lawlessness and disorder.

13:2 {He that resisteth} (\ho antitassomenos\). Present middle
articular participle of \antitassō\, old verb to range in battle
against as in Ac 18:6, "he that lines himself up against."
{Withstandeth} (\anthestēken\). Perfect active indicative of
\anthistēmi\ and intransitive, "has taken his stand against."
{The ordinance of God} (\tēi tou theou diatagēi\). Late word, but
common in papyri (Deissmann, _Light, etc._, p. 89), in N.T. only
here and Ac 7:53. Note repetition of root of \tassō\. {To
(\heautois\). Dative of disadvantage. See Mr 12:40
for "shall receive a judgment" (\krina lēmpsontai\). Future
middle of \lambanō\.

13:3 {A terror} (\phobos\). This meaning in Isa 8:13. Paul does
not approve all that rulers do, but he is speaking generally of
the ideal before rulers. Nero was Emperor at this time. {From the
(\ex autēs\). "From it" (\exousia\, personified in verse

13:4 {A minister of God} (\theou diakonos\). General sense of
\diakonos\. Of course even Nero was God's minister "to thee
(\soi\ ethical dative) for good (\eis to agathon\, for the
." That is the ideal, the goal. {Beareth} (\phorei\).
Present active indicative of \phoreō\, old frequentative form of
\pherō\, to bear, to wear. {But if thou do} (\ean de poiēis\).
Condition of third class, \ean\ and present active subjunctive of
\poieō\, "if thou continue to do." {Sword} (\machairan\). Symbol
of authority as to-day policemen carry clubs or pistols. "The
Emperor Trajan presented to a provincial governor on starting for
his province, a dagger, with the words, '_For me_. If I deserve
it, _in_ me'" (Vincent). {An avenger} (\ekdikos\). Old adjective
from \ek\ and \dikē\ (right), "outside of penalty," unjust, then
in later Greek "exacting penalty from one," in N.T. only here and
1Th 4:6.

13:5 {Ye must needs} (\anagkē\). "There is necessity," both
because of the law and because of conscience, because it is right
(2:15; 9:1).

13:6 {Ye pay} (\teleite\). Present active indicative (not
of \teleō\, to fulfil. {Tribute} (\phorous\). Old
word from \pherō\, to bring, especially the annual tax on lands,
etc. (Lu 20:22; 23:1). Paying taxes recognizes authority over
us. {Ministers of God's service} (\leitourgoi theou\). Late word
for public servant (unused \leitos\ from Attic \leōs\, people,
and \ergō\, to work)
. Often used of military servants, servants
of the king, and temple servants (Heb 8:2). Paul uses it also
of himself as Christ's \leitourgos\ (Ro 15:16) and of
Epaphroditus as a minister to him (Php 2:25). See \theou
diakonos\ in verse 4. {Attending continually}
(\proskarterountes\). Present active participle of the late verb
\proskartereō\ (\pros\ and \kartereō\ from \kartos\ or \kratos\,
to persevere. See on ¯Ac 2:42; 8:13.

13:7 {Dues} (\opheilas\). Debts, from \opheilō\, to owe. Often so
in the papyri, though not in Greek authors. In N.T. only here,
Mt 18:32; 1Co 7:3. Paying debts needs emphasis today, even for
ministers. {To whom tribute is due} (\tōi ton phoron\). We must
supply a participle with the article \tōi\ like \apaitounti\ ("to
the one asking tribute")
. So with the other words (to whom
custom, \tōi to telos apaitounti\; to whom fear, \tōi ton phobon
apaitounti\; to whom honour, \tōi tēn timēn apaitounti\)
\Phoros\ is the tribute paid to a subject nation (Lu 20:22),
while \telos\ is tax for support of civil government (Mt

13:8 {Save to love one another} (\ei mē to allēlous agapāin\).
"Except the loving one another." This articular infinitive is in
the accusative case the object of \opheilete\ and partitive
apposition with \mēden\ (nothing). This debt can never be paid
off, but we should keep the interest paid up. {His neighbour}
(\ton heteron\). "The other man," "the second man." "Just as in
the relations of man and God \pistis\ has been substituted for
\nomos\, so between man and man \agapē\ takes the place of
definite legal relations" (Sanday and Headlam). See Mt 22:37-40
for the words of Jesus on this subject. Love is the only solution
of our social relations and national problems.

13:9 {For this} (\to gar\). For the article (\to\) pointing to a
sentence see 8:26, here to the quotation. The order of the
commandments here is like that in Lu 18:20; Jas 2:11 and in B
for De 5, but different from that of the Hebrew in Ex 20; De
5. The use of \ou\ with the volitive future in prohibitions in
place of \mē\ and the imperative or subjunctive is a regular
Greek idiom. {And if there be any other} (\kai ei tis hetera\).
Paul does not attempt to give them all. {It is summed up}
(\anakephalaioutai\). Present passive indicative of
\anakephalaioō\, late literary word or "rhetorical term" (\ana,
kephalaion\, head or chief as in Heb 8:1)
. Not in the papyri,
but \kephalaion\, quite common for sum or summary. In N.T. only
here and Eph 1:10. {Namely} (\en tōi\). See \to gar\ at the
beginning of the verse, though omitted by B F. The quotation is
from Le 19:18. Quoted in Mt 5:43; 22:39; Mr 12:31; Lu 10:27;
Ga 5:14; Jas 2:8 it is called \basilikos nomos\ (royal law).
{Thy neighbour} (\ton plēsion sou\). \Plēsion\ is an adverb and
with the article it means "the one near thee." See on ¯Mt 5:43.

13:10 {The fulfilment of the law} (\plērōma nomou\). "The filling
up or complement of the law" like \peplērōken\ (perfect active
indicative of \plēroō\, stands filled up)
in verse 8. See 1Co
13 for the fuller exposition of this verse.

13:11 {And this} (\kai touto\). Either nominative absolute or
accusative of general reference, a common idiom for "and that
too" (1Co 6:6,8, etc.). {Knowing} (\eidotes\). Second perfect
active participle, nominative plural without a principal verb.
Either we must supply a verb like \poiēsōmen\ (let us do it) or
\poiēsate\ (do ye do it) or treat it as an independent participle
as in 12:10f. {The season} (\ton kairon\). The critical period,
not \chronos\ (time in general). {High time} (\hōra\). Like our
the "hour" has come, etc. MSS. vary between \hēmas\ (us) and
\humās\ (you), accusative of general reference with \egerthēnai\
(first aorist passive infinitive of \egeirō\, to awake, to wake
, "to be waked up out of sleep" (\ex hupnou\). {Nearer to us}
(\egguteron hēmōn\). Probably so, though \hēmōn\ can be taken
equally well with \hē sōtēria\ (our salvation is nearer). Final
salvation, Paul means, whether it comes by the second coming of
Christ as they all hoped or by death. It is true of us all.

13:12 {Is far spent} (\proekopsen\). First aorist active
indicative of \prokoptō\, to cut forward, to advance, old word
for making progress. See Lu 2:52; Ga 1:14; 2Ti 2:16; 3:9. {Is
at hand}
(\ēggiken\). Perfect active indicative, "has drawn
nigh." Vivid picture for day-break. {Let us therefore cast off}
(\apothōmetha oun\). Aorist middle subjunctive (volitive) of
\apotithēmi\, to put off from oneself "the works of darkness"
(\ta erga tou skotous\) as we do our night-clothes. {Let us put
(\endusōmetha\). Aorist middle subjunctive (volitive) of
\enduō\, to put on. For this same contrast between putting off
(\apotithēmi\ and \apekduō\) and putting on (\enduō\) see Col
3:8-12. {The armour of light} (\ta hopla tou photos\). The
weapons of light, that belong to the light (to the day time). For
the metaphor of the Christian armour see 1Th 5:8; 2Co 6:7; Ro
6:13; Eph 6:13ff.

13:13 {Honestly} (\euschēmonōs\). Paul is fond of the metaphor
"walk" (\peripateō\), 33 times though not in the Pastoral
Epistles. This old adverb (from \euschēmōn\, graceful) occurs
also in 1Th 4:12; 1Co 14:40. The English word "honest" means
honourable (Latin _honor_) and so decent. Wycliff translates 1Co
12:32 by "unhonest," "honesty," "honest" for "less honourable,
honour, honourable." {Not in revelling} (\mē kōmois\). Plural
"revellings." See on ¯Ga 5:21. {Drunkenness} (\methais\). Plural
again, "drunkennesses." See on ¯Ga 5:21. {In chambering}
(\koitais\). Plural also. See on ¯Ro 9:10. {Wantonness}
(\aselgeiais\). Plural likewise. See on ¯2Co 12:21; Ga 5:19.
{Not in strife and jealousy} (\mē eridi kai zēlōi\). Singular
here, but some MSS. have the plural like the previous words.
Quarrelling and jealousy go with the other vices (Shedd).

13:14 {But ye on} (\endusasthe\). The same metaphor as in verse
12. The Lord Jesus Christ is the garment that we all need. See
Ga 3:27 with baptism as the symbol. {Provision} (\pronoian\).
Old word for forethought (from \pronoos\). In N.T. only here and
Ac 24:2. {For the flesh} (\tēs sarkos\). Objective genitive.
{To fulfil the lusts thereof} (\eis epithumias\). "For lusts." No

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 13)