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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 14)

14:1 {Him that is weak} (\ton asthenounta\). See on ¯1Co 8:7-12;
9:22; Ro 4:19. {Receive ye} (\proslambanesthe\). Present middle
imperative (indirect), "take to yourselves." {Yet not to doubtful
(\mē eis diakriseis dialogismōn\). "Not for
decisions of opinions." Note \dia\ (between, two or \duo\) in
both words. Discriminations between doubts or hesitations. For
\diakrisis\, see 1Co 12:10; Heb 5:14 (only N.T. examples). For
\dialogismos\ see Lu 2:35; 24:38; Php 2:14. The "strong"
brother is not called upon to settle all the scruples of the
"weak" brother. But each takes it on himself to do it.

14:2 {One man} (\hos men\). "This one," demonstrative pronoun
\hos\ with \men\. {Hath faith} (\pisteuei\). Like \echei pistin\
(Ac 14:9). {But he that is weak} (\ho de asthenōn\). One would
expect \hos de\ (but that one) in contrast with \hos men\. \Ho\
is demonstrative with \de\ sometimes, but here is probably just
the article with \asthenōn\. {Herbs} (\lachana\). From \lachanō\,
to dig. Hence garden herbs or vegetables. Denney feels certain
that Paul has in mind a party of vegetarians in Rome.

14:3 {Set at nought} (\exoutheneitō\). Present active imperative
of \exoutheneō\, to treat as nothing and so with contempt (Lu
23:11; 1Th 5:20)
. {Judge} (\krinetō\). Present active imperative
of \krinō\, criticize. One side (the meat-eaters) despises the
vegetarians, while the vegetarians criticize the meat-eaters.
{Received him} (\auton proselabeto\). Aorist middle (indirect) of
\proslambanō\, same verb used in verse 1. God took both sides
into his fellowship without requiring that they be vegetarians or

14:4 {Who art thou?} (\su tis ei?\). Proleptic position of \su\,
"thou who art thou?" {The servant of another} (\allotrion
. Not another (\allon\) servant (household servant,
, but "another's servant." For the adjective
\allotrios\, see Lu 16:12; 2Co 10:15f. {Shall be made to stand}
(\stathēsetai\). Future passive of \histēmi\. In spite of your
sharp criticisms of one another. {Hath power} (\dunatei\). Verb
found only in Paul (2Co 9:8; 13:3; Ro 14:4), from verbal
adjective \dunatos\.

14:5 {One man} (\hos men\), {another} (\hos de\). Regular idiom
of contrasted demonstratives (this one, that one). {One day above
(\hēmeran par' hēmeran\). "Day beyond day." For this use
of \para\ (beside) in comparison see 1:25; Lu 13:2. {Be fully
(\plērophoreisthō\). Present passive imperative of
\plērophoreō\, late compound verb for which see on ¯Lu 1:1; Ro
4:21. {In his own mind} (\en tōi idiōi noi\). Intelligent and
honest decision according to the light possessed by each.

14:6 {Regardeth} (\phronei\). "Thinks of," "esteems," "observes,"
"puts his mind on" (from \phrēn\, mind). The Textus Receptus has
also "he that regardeth not," but it is not genuine. {Unto the
(\kuriōi\). Dative case. So as to \tōi theōi\ (unto God).
He eats unto the Lord, he eats not unto the Lord. Paul's
principle of freedom in non-essentials is most important. The
Jewish Christians still observed the Seventh day (the Sabbath).
The Gentile Christians were observing the first day of the week
in honour of Christ's Resurrection on that day. Paul pleads for

14:7 {To himself} (\heautōi\). Dative of advantage again. But to
the Lord as he shows in verse 8. Life and death focus in the

14:8 {Whether--or} (\ean te--ean te\). "Both if--and if"
(condition of third class with present subjunctive)
(\zōmen--apothnēskōmen\). Both living and dying are "to the
Lord." Paul repeats the idiom (\ean te--ean te\) with the
conclusion "we are the Lord's (\tou kuriou esmen\). Predicate
genitive, "we belong to the Lord."

14:9 {And lived again} (\kai ezēsen\). First ingressive aorist
active indicative of \zaō\, "he came to life." {Might be lord of}
(\kurieusei\). Ingressive aorist active subjunctive of \kurieuō\,
"become Lord of." Purpose clause with \hina\ (that). Old verb
from \kurios\, lord. See Lu 22:25; Ro 6:9.

14:10 {But thou, why dost thou judge?} (\su de ti su krineis?\).
Referring to the conduct of the "weak" brother in verse 3. {Or
thou again}
(\ē kai su\). Referring to the "strong" brother.
{Shall stand before} (\parastēsometha\). Future middle of
\paristēmi\ and intransitive, to stand beside (\para\) with the
locative case (\tōi bemati\, the judgment seat) as in Ac 27:24.
See the same figure of God in 2Co 5:10.

14:11 {As I live} (\zō egō\). "I live." The LXX here (Isa
has \kat' emautou omnnuō\, "I swear by myself." {Shall
confess to God}
(\exomologēsetai tōi theōi\). Future middle of
\exomologeō\, to confess openly (\ex\) with the accusative as in
Mt 3:6. With the dative as here the idea is to give praise to,
to give gratitude to (Mt 11:25).

14:12 {Shall give account} (\logon dōsei\). So Aleph A C rather
than \apodōsei\ of Textus Receptus. Common use of \logos\ for
account (bookkeeping, ledger) as in Lu 16:2.

14:13 {Let us not therefore judge one another any more} (\mēketi
oun allēlous krinōmen\)
. Present active subjunctive (volitive).
"Let us no longer have the habit of criticizing one another." A
wonderfully fine text for modern Christians and in harmony with
what the Master said (Mt 7:1). {That no man put a stumbling
block in his brother's way or an occasion of falling}
(\to mē
tithenai proskomma tōi adelphōi ē skandalon\)
. Articular present
active infinitive of \tithēmi\ in apposition with \touto\,
accusative case after \krinate\: "Judge this rather, the not
putting a stumbling block (see 9:32 for \proskomma\) or a trap
(\skandalon\, 9:33) for his brother" (\adelphōi\, dative of

14:14 {I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus} (\oida kai
pepeismai en kuriōi Iēsou\)
. He knows it and stands persuaded
(perfect passive indicative of \peithō\, to persuade), but in the
sphere of the Lord Jesus (cf. 9:1), not by mere rational
processes. {Unclean of itself} (\kainon di' heautou\). So Paul
takes his stand with the "strong" as in 1Co 8:4f., but he is
not a libertine. Paul's liberty as to food is regulated by his
life in the Lord. For this use of \koinos\, not as common to all
(Ac 2:44; 4:32), but unhallowed, impure, see on ¯Mr 7:2,5; Ac
10:14,28. God made all things for their own uses. {Save that}
(\ei mē\). The exception lies not in the nature of the food (\di'
, but in the man's view of it (to him, \ekeinōi\, dative

14:15 Because of meat (\dia brōma\). "Because of food." {In love}
(\kata agapēn\). "According to love" as the regulating principle
of life. See 1Co 8 where Paul pleads for love in place of
knowledge on this point. {Destroy not} (\mē apollue\). Present
active imperative of \apolluō\, the very argument made in 1Co
8:10f. {With thy meat} (\tōi brōmati sou\). Instrumental case,
"with thy food." It is too great a price to pay for personal
liberty as to food.

14:16 {Your good} (\humōn to agathon\). "The good thing of you" =
the liberty or Christian freedom which you claim. {Be evil spoken
(\blasphēmeisthō\). Present passive imperative of
\blasphēmeō\ for which see Mt 9:3; Ro 3:8.

14:17 {The kingdom of God} (\hē basileia tou theou\). Not the
future kingdom of eschatology, but the present spiritual kingdom,
the reign of God in the heart, of which Jesus spoke so often. See
1Co 4:21. Paul scores heavily here, for it is not found in
externals like food and drink, but in spiritual qualities and

14:18 {Herein} (\en toutōi\). "On the principle implied by these
virtues" (Sanday and Headlam). {Approved of men} (\dokimos tois
. "Acceptable to men." Stands the test for men. See
1Co 11:19; 2Co 10:18; 2Ti 2:15.

14:19 {So then} (\ara oun\). Two inferential particles,
"accordingly therefore." {Let us follow after} (\diōkōmen\).
Present active subjunctive (volitive). "Let us pursue." Some MSS.
have present indicative, "we pursue." {The things which make for
(\ta tēs eirēnēs\). "The things of peace," literally,
genitive case. So "the things of edification for one another"
(\ta tēs oikodomēs tēs eis allēlous\).

14:20 {Overthrow not} (\mē katalue\). "Destroy not," "do not
loosen down" (carrying on the metaphor in \oikodomē\, building).
{The work of God} (\to ergon tou theou\). The brother for whom
Christ died, verse 15. Perhaps with a side-glance at Esau and
his mess of pottage. {But it is evil} (\alla kakon\). Paul
changes from the plural \koina\ to the singular \kakon\. {With
(\dia proskommatos\). "With a stumbling-block" as in
verse 13. This use of \dia\ (accompaniment) is common. So then
it is addressed to the "strong" brother not to cause a
stumbling-block by the way he eats and exercises his freedom.

14:21 {Not to eat} (\to mē phagein\). "The not eating." Articular
infinitive (second aorist active of \esthiō\) and subject of
\kalon estin\ (copula, understood). {Flesh} (\kreas\). Old word,
in N.T. only here and 1Co 8:13. {To drink} (\pein\). Shortened
form for \piein\ (second aorist active infinitive of \pinō\).
{Whereby} (\en hōi\). "On which thy brother stumbleth"

14:22 {Have thou to thyself before God} (\su--kata seauton eche
enōpion tou theou\)
. Very emphatic position of \su\ at the
beginning of the sentence, "Thou there." The old MSS. put \hēn\
(relative "which") after \pistin\ and before \echeis\. This
principle applies to both the "strong" and the "weak." He is
within his rights to act "according to thyself," but it must be
"before God" and with due regard to the rights of the other
brethren. {In that which he approveth} (\en hoi dokimazei\). This
beatitude cuts both ways. After testing and then approving
(1:28; 2:18) one takes his stand which very act may condemn
himself by what he says or does. "It is a rare felicity to have a
conscience untroubled by scruples" (Denney).

14:23 {He that doubteth} (\ho diakrinomenos\). Present middle
participle of \diakrinō\, to judge between (\dia\), to hesitate.
See Jas 1:6f. for this same picture of the double-minded man.
Cf. Ro 4:20; Mr 11:23. {Is condemned} (\katakekritai\). Perfect
passive indicative of \katakrinō\ (note \kata-\), "stands
condemned." {If he eat} (\ean phagēi\). Third class condition,
\ean\ and second aorist active subjunctive. If in spite of his
doubt, he eat. {Whatsoever is not of faith is sin} (\pan ho ouk
ek pisteōs hamartia estin\)
. {Faith} (\pistis\) here is
subjective, one's strong conviction in the light of his relation
to Christ and his enlightened conscience. To go against this
combination is sin beyond a doubt. Some MSS. (A L etc.) put the
doxology here which most place in 16:25-27. But they all give
chapters 15 and 16. Some have supposed that the Epistle
originally ended here, but that is pure speculation. Some even
suggest two editions of the Epistle. But chapter 15 goes right on
with the topic discussed in chapter 14.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 14)