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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 10)

10:1 {Desire} (\eudokia\). No papyri examples of this word,
though \eudokēsis\ occurs, only in LXX and N.T., but no example
for "desire" unless this is one, though the verb \eudokeō\ is
common in Polybius, Diodorus, Dion, Hal. It means will, pleasure,
satisfaction (Mt 11:26; 2Th 1:11; Php 1:15; 2:13; Eph 1:5,9).
{Supplication} (\deēsis\). Late word from \deomai\, to want, to
beg, to pray. In the papyri. See Lu 1:13. It is noteworthy
that, immediately after the discussion of the rejection of Christ
by the Jews, Paul prays so earnestly for the Jews "that they may
be saved" (\eis sōtērian\), literally "unto salvation." Clearly
Paul did not feel that the case was hopeless for them in spite of
their conduct. Bengel says: _Non orasset Paul si absolute
reprobati essent_ (Paul would not have prayed if they had been
absolutely reprobate)
. Paul leaves God's problem to him and pours
out his prayer for the Jews in accordance with his strong words
in 9:1-5.

10:2 {A zeal for God} (\zēlon theou\). Objective genitive like
Php 3:9, "through faith in Christ" (\dia pisteōs Christou\).
{But not according to knowledge} (\all' ou kat' epignōsin\). They
had knowledge of God and so were superior to the Gentiles in
privilege (2:9-11), but they sought God in an external way by
rules and rites and missed him (9:30-33). They became zealous
for the letter and the form instead of for God himself.

10:3 {Being ignorant of God's righteousness} (\agnoountes tēn tou
theou dikaiosunēn\)
. A blunt thing to say, but true as Paul has
shown in 2:1-3:20. They did not understand the God-kind of
righteousness by faith (1:17). They misconceived it (2:4).
{They did not subject themselves} (\ouch hupetagēsan\). Second
aorist passive indicative of \hupotassō\, common _Koinē_ verb, to
put oneself under orders, to obey, here the passive in sense of
the middle (Jas 4:7) like \apekrithēn\, I answered.

10:4 {The end of the law} (\telos nomou\). Christ put a stop to
the law as a means of salvation (6:14; 9:31; Eph 2:15; Col
as in Lu 16:16. Christ is the goal or aim of the law
(Gal 3:24). Christ is the fulfilment of the law (Mt 5:17; Ro
13:10; 1Ti 1:5)
. But here (Denney) Paul's main idea is that
Christ ended the law as a method of salvation for "every one that
believeth" whether Jew or Gentile. Christ wrote _finis_ on law as
a means of grace.

10:5 {Thereby} (\en autēi\). That is by or in "the righteousness
that is from law." He stands or falls with it. The quotation is
from Le 18:5.

10:6 {Saith thus} (\houtōs legei\). Paul personifies "the from
faith righteousness" (\hē ek pisteōs dikaiosunē\). A free
reproduction from De 30:11-14. Paul takes various phrases from
the LXX and uses them for "his inspired conviction and
experiences of the gospel" (Denney). He does not quote Moses as
saying this or meaning this. {Say not in thy heart} (\mē eipēis
en tēi kardiāi sou\)
. Second aorist active subjunctive with \mē\
like De 8:17. To say in the heart is to think (Mt 3:9). {That
is, to bring Christ down}
(\tout' estin Christon katagagein\).
Second aorist active infinitive of the common verb \katagō\, to
bring or lead down. It is dependent on the preceding verb
\anabēsetai\ (shall ascend). \Tout' estin\ (that is) is what is
called _Midrash_ or interpretation as in 9:8. It occurs three
times here (verses 6-8). Paul applies the words of Moses to
Christ. There is no need for one to go to heaven to bring Christ
down to earth. The Incarnation is already a glorious fact. Today
some men scout the idea of the Deity and Incarnation of Christ.

10:7 {Into the abyss} (\eis tēn abusson\). See Lu 8:31 for this
old Greek word (\a\ privative and \bussos\) bottomless like sea
(Ps 106:26), our abyss. In Re 9:1 it is the place of torment.
Paul seems to refer to Hades or Sheol (Ac 2:27,31), the other
world to which Christ went after death. {To bring Christ up}
(\Christon anagagein\). Second aorist active infinitive of
\anagō\ and dependent on \katabēsetai\ (shall descend). Christ
has already risen from the dead. The deity and resurrection of
Christ are precisely the two chief points of attack today on the
part of sceptics.

10:8 {But what saith it?} (\alla ti legei?\). That is "the from
faith righteousness." {The word of faith} (\to rēma tēs
. The gospel message concerning faith (objective
. Only here. In contrast to the law. {Which we preach}
(\ho kērussomen\). The living voice brings home to every one the
faith kind of righteousness. Paul seizes upon the words of Moses
with the orator's instinct and with rhetorical skill (Sanday and
applies them to the facts about the gospel message about
the Incarnation and Resurrection of Christ.

10:9 {If thou shalt confess} (\ean homologēsēis\). Third class
condition (\ean\ and first aorist active subjunctive of
. {With thy mouth Jesus as Lord} (\en tōi stomati sou
Kurion Iēsoun\)
. This is the reading of nearly all the MSS. But B
71 Clem of Alex. read \to rēma en tōi stomati sou hoti Kurios
Iēsous\ (the word in thy mouth that Jesus is Lord). The idea is
the same, the confession of Jesus as Lord as in 1Co 12:3; Php
2:11. No Jew would do this who had not really trusted Christ,
for \Kurios\ in the LXX is used of God. No Gentile would do it
who had not ceased worshipping the emperor as \Kurios\. The word
\Kurios\ was and is the touchstone of faith. {And shalt believe}
(\kai pisteusēis\). Same construction. Faith precedes confession,
of course.

10:10 {Man believeth} (\pisteuetai\). Impersonal construction,
"it is believed" (present passive indicative of \pisteuō\). The
order is reversed in this verse and the true order (faith, then
. {Confession is made} (\homologeitai\). Impersonal
construction again, "it is confessed," "man confesses." Both
\kardiāi\ (heart) and \stomati\ (mouth) are in the instrumental

10:11 {Every one} (\pās\). Paul adds this word to the quotation
from Isa 28:16 already made in 9:33.

10:12 {Distinction} (\diastolē\). See on this word 3:22. Here
it is followed by the ablative case \Ioudaiou te kai Hellēnos\
(between Jew and Greek). {Lord of all} (\Kurios pantōn\). See Ga
3:28. {Rich} (\ploutōn\). Present active participle of
\plouteō\. See Eph 3:8 "the unsearchable riches of Christ."

10:13 Paul here quotes Joe 3:5 (Joe 2:32 LXX).

10:14 {How then shall they call?} (\pōs oun epikalesōntai?\).
Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist middle) of \epikaleomai\
(see verses 12,13). The antecedent of \eis hon\ (in whom) is
not expressed. {How shall they believe?} (\pos pisteusōsin?\).
Deliberative subjunctive again (first aorist active of \pisteuō\
just used)
. Each time Paul picks up the preceding verb and
challenges that. Here again the antecedent \eis touton\ before
\hon\ is not expressed. {How shall they hear?} (\pos
. Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist active of
. {Without a preacher?} (\chōris kērussontos?\).
Preposition \chōris\ with ablative singular masculine present
active participle of \kērussō\, "without one preaching." {How
shall they preach?}
(\pōs kēruxōsin?\). Deliberative subjunctive
again (first aorist active \kērussō\, to preach). {Except they be
(\ean mē apostalōsin?\). Second aorist passive
deliberative subjunctive of \apostellō\, to send, from which verb
\apostolos\ apostle comes. Negative condition of third class. In
graphic style Paul has made a powerful plea for missions. It is
just as true today as then.

10:15 {How beautiful} (\Hōs hōraioi\). A quotation from Isa
52:7 more like the Hebrew than the LXX, picturing the messengers
of the restoration from the Jewish captivity. Paul assumes that
the missionaries (\apostoloi\) have been sent as implied in verse

10:16 {But they did not all hearken} (\ou pantes hupēkousan\).
They heard, but did not heed. Some disbelieve now (3:3) as they
did then. On obedience and disobedience see 5:19; 1Th 2:13; Ga
3:2. He quotes Isa 53:1 to show how Isaiah felt. {Report}
(\akoēi\). Literally, "hearing" (Mt 14:1; Mr 13:7).

10:17 {By the word of Christ} (\dia rēmatos Christou\). "By the
word about Christ" (objective genitive).

10:18 {Did they not hear?} (\mē ouk ēkousan?\). Rather, "Did they
fail to hear?" (expecting the negative answer \mē\, while \ouk\
blends with the verb)
. See on ¯1Co 9:5 for this construction.
{Yea, verily} (\menounge\). Triple particle (\men, oun, ge\) as
in 9:20. {Sound} (\phthoggos\). Vibration of a musical string.
See on ¯1Co 14:7. Only two N.T. examples. {The world} (\tēs
. The inhabited earth as in Lu 2:1.

10:19 {Did Israel not know?} (\mē Israel ouk egnō?\). "Did Israel
fail to know?" See above. {First} (\prōtos\). Moses first before
any one else. LXX quotation De 32:21. See on ¯1Co 10:22 for
\parazēlōsō\ (I will provoke you to jealousy). {With that which
is no nation}
(\ep' ouk ethnei\). The Jews had worshipped
"no-gods" and now God shows favours to a "no-nation" (people).
{Will I anger you} (\parorgiō humas\). Future active (Attic
of \parorgizō\, rare word, to rouse to wrath.

10:20 {Is very bold} (\apotolmāi\). Present active indicative of
\apotolmaō\, old word, to assume boldness (\apo\, off) and only
here in N.T. Isaiah "breaks out boldly" (Gifford). Paul cites
Isa 65:1 in support of his own courage against the prejudice of
the Jews. See 9:30-33 for illustration of this point. {I was
(\heurethēn\). First aorist passive indicative of

10:21 {All the day long} (\holēn tēn hēmeran\). Accusative of
extent of time. He quotes Isa 65:2. {Did I spread out}
(\exepetasa\). First aorist active indicative of \ekpetannumi\,
old verb, to stretch out, bold metaphor, only here in N.T. {Unto
a disobedient and a gainsaying people}
(\pros laon apeithounta
kai antilegonta\)
. "Unto a people disobeying and talking back."
The two things usually go together. Contrary and contradictory
(Lu 13:34f.).

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 10)