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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 9)

9:1 {In Christ} (\en Christōi\). Paul really takes a triple oath
here so strongly is he stirred. He makes a positive affirmation
in Christ, a negative one (not lying), the appeal to his
conscience as co-witness (\sunmarturousēs\, genitive absolute as
in 2:15 which see)
"in the Holy Spirit."

9:2 {Sorrow} (\lupē\). Because the Jews were rejecting Christ the
Messiah. "We may compare the grief of a Jew writing after the
fall of Jerusalem" (Sanday and Headlam). {Unceasing pain in my
(\adialeiptos odunē tēi kardiāi\). Like _angina pectoris_.
\Odunē\ is old word for consuming grief, in N.T. only here and
and 1Ti 6:10. {Unceasing} (\adialeiptos\). Late and rare
adjective (in an inscription 1 cent. B.C.), in N.T. only here and
2Ti 1:3. Two rare words together and both here only in N.T. and
I and II Timothy (some small argument for the Pauline authorship
of the Pastoral Epistles)

9:3 {I could wish} (\ēuchomēn\). Idiomatic imperfect, "I was on
the point of wishing." We can see that \euchomai\ (I do wish)
would be wrong to say. \An ēuchomēn\ would mean that he does not
wish (conclusion of second class condition). \An ēuchomēn\ would
be conclusion of fourth class condition and too remote. He is
shut up to the imperfect indicative (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
. {Anathema} (\anathema\). See for this word as distinct from
\anathēma\ (offering) 1Co 12:3; Ga 1:8f. {I myself} (\autos
. Nominative with the infinitive \einai\ and agreeing with
subject of \ēuchomēn\. {According to the flesh} (\kata sarka\).
As distinguished from Paul's Christian brethren.

9:4 {Who} (\hoitines\). The very ones who, inasmuch as they.
{Israelites} (\Israēleitai\). Covenant name of the chosen people.
{Whose} (\hōn\). Predicate genitive of the relative, used also
again with \hoi pateres\. For "the adoption" (\hē huiothesia\)
see 8:15. {The glory} (\hē doxa\). The Shekinah Glory of God
(3:23) and used of Jesus in Jas 2:1. {The covenants} (\hai
. Plural because renewed often (Ge 6:18; 9:9; 15:18;
17:2,7,9; Ex 2:24)
. {The giving of the law} (\hē nomothesia\).
Old word, here only in N.T., from \nomos\ and \tithēmi\. {The
(\hē latreia\). The temple service (Heb 9:1,6). {The
(\hoi pateres\). The patriarchs (Ac 3:13; 7:32).

9:5 {Of whom} (\ex hōn\). Fourth relative clause and here with
\ex\ and the ablative. {Christ} (\ho Christos\). The Messiah. {As
concerning the flesh}
(\to kata sarka\). Accusative of general
reference, "as to the according to the flesh." Paul limits the
descent of Jesus from the Jews to his human side as he did in
1:3f. {Who is over all, God blessed for ever} (\ho on epi
pantōn theos eulogētos\)
. A clear statement of the deity of
Christ following the remark about his humanity. This is the
natural and the obvious way of punctuating the sentence. To make
a full stop after \sarka\ (or colon) and start a new sentence for
the doxology is very abrupt and awkward. See Ac 20:28; Tit 2:13
for Paul's use of \theos\ applied to Jesus Christ.

9:6 {But it is not as though} (\ouch hoion de hoti\). Supply
\estin\ after \ouch\: "But it is not such as that," an old idiom,
here alone in N.T. {Hath come to nought} (\ekpeptōken\). Perfect
active indicative of \ekpiptō\, old verb, to fall out. {For they
are not all Israel, which are of Israel}
(\ou gar pantes hoi ex
Israēl houtoi Israēl\)
. "For not all those out of Israel (the
literal Jewish nation)
, these are Israel (the spiritual Israel)."
This startling paradox is not a new idea with Paul. He had
already shown (Ga 3:7-9) that those of faith are the true sons
of Abraham. He has amplified that idea also in Ro 4. So he is
not making a clever dodge here to escape a difficulty. He now
shows how this was the original purpose of God to include only
those who believed. {Seed of Abraham} (\sperma Abraam\). Physical
descent here, but spiritual seed by promise in verse 8. He
quotes Ge 21:12f.

9:8 {The children of the promise} (\ta tekna tēs epaggelias\).
Not through Ishmael, but through Isaac. Only the children of the
promise are "children of God" (\tekna tou theou\) in the full
sense. He is not speaking of Christians here, but simply showing
that the privileges of the Jews were not due to their physical
descent from Abraham. Cf. Lu 3:8.

9:9 {A word of promise} (\epaggelias ho logos houtos\).
Literally, "this word is one of promise." Paul combines Ge
18:10,14 from the LXX.

9:10 {Having conceived of one} (\ex henos koitēn echousa\). By
metonomy with cause for the effect we have this peculiar idiom
(\koitē\ being bed, marriage bed), "having a marriage bed from
one" husband. One father and twins.

9:11 {The children being not yet born} (\mēpō gennēthentōn\).
Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle of
\gennaō\, to beget, to be born, though no word for children nor
even the pronoun \autōn\ (they). {Neither having done anything
good or bad}
(\mēde praxantōn ti agathon ē phaulon\). Genitive
absolute again with first active participle of \prassō\. On
\phaulon\, see 2Co 5:10. {The purpose of God} (\hē prothesis
tou theou\)
. See 8:28 for \prothesis\. {According to election}
(\kat' eklogēn\). Old word from \eklegō\, to select, to choose
out. See 1Th 1:4. Here it is the purpose (\prothesis\) of God
which has worked according to the principles of election. {Not of
(\ouk ex ergōn\). Not of merit.

9:12 {But of him that calleth} (\all' ek tou kalountos\). Present
active articular participle of \kaleō\ in the ablative case after
\ek\. The source of the selection is God himself. Paul quotes Ge
25:33 (LXX).

9:13 Paul quotes Mal 1:2f. {But Esau I hated} (\ton de Esau
. This language sounds a bit harsh to us. It is possible
that the word \miseō\ did not always carry the full force of what
we mean by "hate." See Mt 6:24 where these very verbs (\miseō\
and \agapaō\)
are contrasted. So also in Lu 14:26 about
"hating" (\miseō\) one's father and mother if coming between one
and Christ. So in Joh 12:25 about "hating" one's life. There is
no doubt about God's preference for Jacob and rejection of Esau,
but in spite of Sanday and Headlam one hesitates to read into
these words here the intense hatred that has always existed
between the descendants of Jacob and of Esau.

9:14 {Is there unrighteousness with God?} (\mē adikia para tōi
. Paul goes right to the heart of the problem. \Mē\
expects a negative answer. "Beside" (\para\) God there can be no
injustice to Esau or to any one because of election.

9:15 {For he says to Moses} (\tōi Mōusei gar legei\). He has an
Old Testament illustration of God's election in the case of
Pharaoh (Ex 33:19). {On whom I have mercy} (\hon an eleō\).
Indefinite relative with \an\ and the present active subjunctive
of \eleaō\, late verb only here and Jude 1:23 in N.T. "On
whomsoever I have mercy." The same construction in \hon an
oikteirō\, "on whomsoever I have compassion."

9:16 {So then} (\ara oun\). In view of this quotation. {It is not
(\ou\). We must supply \estin eleos\ with \ou\. "Mercy is not
of." The articular participles (\tou thelontos, tou trechontos,
tou eleōntos\)
can be understood as in the genitive with \eleos\
understood (mercy is not a quality of) or as the predicate
ablative of source like \epiluseōs\ in 2Pe 1:20. Paul is fond
of the metaphor of running.

9:17 {To Pharaoh} (\tōi Pharaō\). There is a national election as
seen in verses 7-13, but here Paul deals with the election of
individuals. He "lays down the principle that God's grace does
not necessarily depend upon anything but God's will" (Sanday and
. He quotes Ex 9:16. {Might be published}
(\diaggelēi\). Second aorist passive subjunctive of \diaggellō\.

9:18 {He hardeneth} (\sklērunei\). Pharaoh hardened his own heart
also (Ex 8:15,32; 9:34), but God gives men up also
(1:24,26,28). This late word is used by the Greek physicians
Galen and Hippocrates. See on ¯Ac 19:9. Only here in Paul.

9:19 {Why doth he still find fault?} (\ti eti memphetai?\). Old
verb, to blame. In N.T. only here and Heb 8:8. Paul's imaginary
objector picks up the admission that God hardened Pharaoh's
heart. "Still" (\eti\) argues for a change of condition since
that is true. {Withstandeth his will} (\tōi boulēmati autou
. Perfect active indicative of \anthistēmi\, old
verb, maintains a stand (the perfect tense). Many have attempted
to resist God's will (\boulēma\, deliberate purpose, in N.T. only
here and Ac 27:43; 1Pe 4:3)
. Elsewhere \thelēma\ (Mt 6:10).

9:20 {Nay, but, O man, who art thou?} (\O anthrōpe, men oun ge su
tis ei?\)
. "O man, but surely thou who art thou?" Unusual and
emphatic order of the words, prolepsis of \su\ (thou) before
\tis\ (who) and \men oun ge\ (triple particle, \men\, indeed,
\oun\, therefore, \ge\, at least)
at the beginning of clause as
in Ro 10:18; Php 3:8 contrary to ancient idiom, but so in
papyri. {That repliest} (\ho antapokrinomenos\). Present middle
articular participle of double compound verb \antapokrinomai\, to
answer to one's face (\anti-\) late and vivid combination, also
in Lu 14:6, nowhere else in N.T., but in LXX. {The thing
(\to plasma\). Old word (Plato, Aristophanes) from
\plassō\, to mould, as with clay or wax, from which the aorist
active participle used here (\tōi plasanti\) comes. Paul quotes
these words from Isa 29:16 verbatim. It is a familiar idea in
the Old Testament, the absolute power of God as Creator like the
potter's use of clay (Isa 44:8; 45:8-10; Jer 18:6). \Mē\
expects a negative answer. {Why didst thou make me thus?} (\ti me
epoiēsas houtōs?\)
. The original words in Isaiah dealt with the
nation, but Paul applies them to individuals. This question does
not raise the problem of the origin of sin for the objector does
not blame God for that but why God has used us as he has, made
some vessels out of the clay for this purpose, some for that.
Observe "thus" (\houtōs\). The potter takes the clay as he finds
it, but uses it as he wishes.

9:21 {Or hath not the potter a right over the clay?} (\ē ouk
echei exousian ho kerameus tou pēlou?\)
. This question, expecting
an affirmative answer, is Paul's reply to the previous one, "Why
didst thou make me thus?" \Pēlos\, old word for clay, is mud or
wet clay in Joh 9:6,11,14f. The old word for potter
(\kerameus\) in N.T. only here and Mt 27:7,10. {Lump}
(\phuramatos\). Late word from \phuraō\, to mix (clay, dough,
. {One part} (\ho men\) {--another} (\ho de\). Regular idiom
for contrast (\men--de\) with the old demonstrative \ho\ (this),
"this vessel (\skeuos\, old word as in Mr 11:16) for honour,
that for dishonour." Paul thus claims clearly God's sovereign
right (\exousian\, power, right, authority, from \exesti\) to use
men (already sinners) for his own purpose.

9:22 {Willing} (\thelōn\). Concessive use of the participle,
"although willing," not causal, "because willing" as is shown by
"with much long-suffering" (\en pollēi makrothumiāi\, in much
. {His power} (\to dunaton autou\). Neuter
singular of the verbal adjective rather than the substantive
\dunamin\. {Endured} (\ēnegken\). Constative second aorist active
indicative of the old defective verb \pherō\, to bear. {Vessels
of wrath}
(\skeuē orgēs\). The words occur in Jer 50:25 (LXX
Jer 27:25)
, but not in the sense here (objective genitive like
\tekna orgēs\, Eph 2:3, the objects of God's wrath)
. {Fitted}
(\katērtismena\). Perfect passive participle of \katartizō\, old
verb to equip (see Mt 4:21; 2Co 13:11), state of readiness.
Paul does not say here that God did it or that they did it. That
they are responsible may be seen from 1Th 2:15f. {Unto
(\eis apōleian\). Endless perdition (Mt 7:13; 2Th
2:3; Php 3:19)
, not annihilation.

9:23 {Vessels of mercy} (\skeuē eleous\). Objective genitive like
\skeuē orgēs\. {Afore prepared} (\proētoimasen\). First aorist
active indicative of \proetoimazō\, old verb to make ready (from
\hetoimos\, ready)
and \pro\, before, in N.T. only here and Eph
2:10. But same idea in Ro 8:28-30.

9:24 {But also from the Gentiles} (\alla kai ex ethnōn\). Paul
had already alluded to this fact in 9:6f. (cf. Ga 3:7-9). Now
he proceeds to prove it from the Old Testament.

9:25 {In Hosea} (\en tōi Hōsēe\). He quotes 2:23 with some
freedom. Hosea refers to the ten tribes and Paul applies the
principle stated there to the Gentiles. Hosea had a son named
_Lo-ammi_ = \ou laos\. So here \ho ou laos mou\ "the not people
of mine." \Ou\ with substantives obliterates the meaning of the
substantive, an idiom seen in Thucydides and other Greek writers.
See also Ro 10:19; 1Pe 2:10. {Which was not beloved} (\tēn ouk
. The LXX rendering of _Lo-ruhamah_ (not mercy,
without mercy or love)
, name of Hosea's daughter. The use of
\ouk\ with the perfect passive participle is emphatic, since \mē\
is the usual negative of the participle in the _Koinē_.

9:26 {Ye are not my people} (\ou laos mou humeis\). Quotation
from Ho 1:10 (LXX Ho 2:1). {There} (\ekei\). Palestine in the
original, but Paul applies it to scattered Jews and Gentiles

9:27 {Isaiah} (\Esaias\). Shortened quotation from Isa 10:22
(LXX). {It is the remnant that shall be saved} (\to hupoleimma
. First future passive of \sōzō\. Literally, "the
remnant will be saved." Late word from \hupoleipō\, to leave
behind (11:3), here only in N.T. Textus Receptus has
\kataleimma\, but Aleph A B have \hupoleimma\. Isaiah cries in
anguish over the outlook for Israel, but sees hope for the

9:28 {Finishing it and cutting it short} (\suntelōn kai
. Present active participles and note \sun-\ with each
(perfective use of the preposition, finishing completely as in
Lu 4:13, cutting off completely or abridging and here only in
The quotation is from Isa 28:22.

9:29 {Hath said before} (\proeirēken\). Perfect active indicative
of \proeipon\ (defective verb). Stands on record in Isa 1:9.
{Had left} (\egkatelipen\). Second aorist active indicative of
old verb \egkataleipō\, to leave behind. Condition of second
class, determined as unfulfilled, with \an egenēthēmen\ and \an
hōmoiōthēmen\ as the conclusions (both first aorist passives of
\ginomai\ and \homoioō\, common verbs)
. {A seed} (\sperma\). The
remnant of verse 27.

9:30 {Attained} (\katelaben\). Second aorist active indicative of
\katalambanō\, old verb, to grasp, to seize, to overtake
(carrying out the figure in \diōkō\ (to pursue). It was a curious
paradox. {Which is of faith} (\tēn ek pisteōs\). As Paul has
repeatedly shown, the only way to get the God-kind of

9:31 {Did not arrive at that law} (\eis nomon ouk ephthasen\).
First aorist active indicative of \phthanō\, old verb to
anticipate (1Th 4:15), now just to arrive as here and 2Co
10:14. The word "that" is not in the Greek. Legal righteousness
Israel failed to reach, because to do that one had to keep
perfectly all the law.

9:32 We must supply the omitted verb \ediōxa\ (pursued) from
verse 31. That explains the rest. {They stumbled at the stone
of stumbling}
(\prosekopsan tōi lithōi tou proskommatos\). The
quotation is from Isa 8:14. \Proskoptō\ means to cut (\koptō\)
against (\pros\) as in Mt 4:6; Joh 11:9f. The Jews found Christ
a \skandalon\ (1Co 1:23).

9:33 Paul repeats the phrase just used in the whole quotation
from Isa 8:14 with the same idea in "a rock of offence"
(\petran skandalou\, "a rock of snare," a rock which the Jews
made a cause of stumbling)
. The rest of the verse is quoted from
Isa 28:16. However, the Hebrew means "shall not make haste"
rather than "shall not be put to shame." In 1Pe 2:8 we have the
same use of these Scriptures about Christ. Either Peter had read
Romans or both Paul and Peter had a copy of Christian
_Testimonia_ like Cyprian's later.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 9)