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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 18)

18:1 {To the end that} (\pros to dein\). {With a view to the
being necessary}
, \pros\ and the articular infinitive. The
impersonal verb \dei\ here is in the infinitive and has another
infinitive loosely connected with it \proseuchesthai\, to pray.
{Not to faint} (\mē enkakein\). Literally, not to give in to evil
(\en, kakeō\, from \kakos\, bad or evil), to turn coward, lose
heart, behave badly. A late verb used several times in the N.T.
(2Co 4:1,16, etc.).

18:2 Regarded not (\mē entrepomenos\). Present middle participle
of \entrepō\, old verb, to turn one on himself, to shame one, to
reverence one. This was a "hard-boiled" judge who knew no one as
his superior. See on ¯Mt 21:37.

18:3 {Came oft} (\ērcheto\). Imperfect tense denotes repetitions,
no adverb for "oft" in the Greek. {Avenge me of} (\ekdikēson me
. A late verb for doing justice, protecting one from another
(note both \ek\ and \apo\, here). Deissmann (_Light from the
Ancient East_, pp. 420ff.)
quotes a \stēlē\ of the second century
B.C. with a prayer for vengeance for a Jewish girl that had been
murdered which has this very verb \ekdikeō\.

18:4 {He would not} (\ouk ēthelen\). Imperfect tense of continued
refusal. {Though} (\ei kai\). Concerning sentence, not \kai ei\
(even if).

18:5 {Yet} (\ge\). Delicate intensive particle of deep feeling as
here. {Because this widow troubleth me} (\dia to parechein moi
kopon tēn chēran tautēn\)
. Literally, because of the furnishing
me trouble as to this widow (accusative of general reference with
the articular infinitive)
. {Lest she wear me out} (\hina mē
hupōpiazēi me\)
. Some take it that the judge is actually afraid
that the widow may come and assault him, literally beat him under
the eye. That idea would be best expressed here by the aorist

18:6 {The unrighteous judge} (\ho kritēs tēs adikias\). The judge
of unrighteousness (marked by unrighteousness), as in 16:8 we
have "the steward of unrighteousness," the same idiom.

18:7 {And he is longsuffering} (\makrothumei\). This present
active indicative comes in awkwardly after the aorist subjunctive
\poiēsēi\ after \ou mē\, but this part of the question is
positive. Probably \kai\ here means "and yet" as so often (Joh
9:30; 16:32, etc.)
. God delays taking vengeance on behalf of his
people, not through indifference, but through patient

18:8 {Howbeit} (\plēn\). It is not clear whether this sentence is
also a question or a positive statement. There is no way to
decide. Either will make sense though not quite the same sense.
The use of \āra\ before \heurēsei\ seems to indicate a question
expecting a negative answer as in Ac 8:30; Ro 14:19. But here
\āra\ comes in the middle of the sentence instead of near the
beginning, an unusual position for either inferential \āra\ or
interrogative \āra\. On the whole the interrogative \āra\ is
probably correct, meaning to question if the Son will find a
persistence of faith like that of the widow.

18:9 {Set all others at naught} (\exouthenountas tous loipous\).
A late verb \exoutheneō\, like \oudeneō\, from \outhen\
(\ouden\), to consider or treat as nothing. In LXX and chiefly in
Luke and Paul in the N.T.

18:10 {Stood} (\statheis\). First aorist passive participle of
\histēmi\. Struck an attitude ostentatiously where he could be
seen. Standing was the common Jewish posture in prayer (Mt 6:5;
Mr 11:25)
. {Prayed thus} (\tauta prosēucheto\). Imperfect
middle, was praying these things (given following). {With
(\pros heauton\). A soliloquy with his own soul, a
complacent recital of his own virtues for his own
self-satisfaction, not fellowship with God, though he addresses
God. {I thank thee} (\eucharistō soi\). But his gratitude to God
is for his own virtues, not for God's mercies to him. One of the
rabbis offers a prayer like this of gratitude that he was in a
class by himself because he was a Jew and not a Gentile, because
he was a Pharisee and not of the _am-haaretz_ or common people,
because he was a man and not a woman. {Extortioners}
(\harpages\). An old word, \harpax\ from same root as \harpazō\,
to plunder. An adjective of only one gender, used of robbers and
plunderers, grafters, like the publicans (Lu 3:13), whether
wolves (Mt 7:15) or men (1Co 5:19f.). The Pharisee cites the
crimes of which he is not guilty. {Or even} (\ē kai\). As the
climax of iniquity (Bruce), he points to "this publican."
Zaccheus will admit robbery (Lu 19:8). {God} (\ho theos\).
Nominative form with the article as common with the vocative use
of \theos\ (so verse 13; Joh 20:28).

18:12 {Twice in the week} (\dis tou sabbatou\). One fast a year
was required by the law (Le 16:29; Nu 29:7). The Pharisees
added others, twice a week between passover and pentecost, and
between tabernacles and dedication of the temple. {I get}
(\ktōmai\). Present middle indicative, not perfect middle
\kektēmai\ (I possess). He gave a tithe of his income, not of his

18:13 {Standing afar off} (\makrothen hestōs\). Second perfect
active participle of \histēmi\, intransitive like \statheis\
above. But no ostentation as with the Pharisee in verse 11. At
a distance from the Pharisee, not from the sanctuary. {Would not
(\ouk ēthelen oude epārai\). Negatives (double) imperfect
of {thelō}, was not willing even to lift up, refused to lift
(\epārai\, first aorist active infinitive of the liquid compound
verb, \ep-airō\)
. Smote (\etupte\). Imperfect active of \tuptō\,
old verb, kept on smiting or beating. Worshippers usually lifted
up their closed eyes to God. {Be merciful} (\hilasthēti\). First
aorist passive imperative of \hilaskomai\, an old verb, found
also in LXX and inscriptions (\exhilaskomai\, Deissmann, _Bible
Studies_, p. 224)
. {A sinner} (\tōi hamartōlōi\). The sinner, not
a sinner. It is curious how modern scholars ignore this Greek
article. The main point in the contrast lies in this article. The
Pharisee thought of others as sinners. The publican thinks of
himself alone as the sinner, not of others at all.

18:14 {This man} (\houtos\). This despised publican referred to
contemptuously in verse 11 as "this" (\houtos\) publican.
{Rather than the other} (\par' ekeinon\). In comparison with
(placed beside) that one. A neat Greek idiom after the perfect
passive participle \dedikaiomenos\. {For} (\hoti\). This moral
maxim Christ had already used in 14:11. Plummer pertinently
asks: "Why is it assumed that Jesus did not repeat his sayings?"

18:15 {They brought} (\prosepheron\). Imperfect active, they were
bringing. So Mr 10:13. {Their babes} (\ta brephē\). Old word
for {infants}. Here Mr 10:13; Mt 19:13 have \paidia\ (little
. Note "also" (\kai\) in Luke, not in Mark and Matthew.
{That he should touch them} (\hina autōn haptētai\). Present
middle subjunctive (linear action, repeatedly touch or one after
the other)
, where Mr 10:13 has aorist middle subjunctive
(\hapsētai\). {Rebuked} (\epetimōn\). Imperfect indicative
active. Either inchoative began to rebuke, or continued, kept on
rebuking. Matthew and Mark have the aorist \epetimēsan\.

18:16 {Called} (\prosekalesato\). Indirect middle aorist
indicative, called the children with their parents to himself and
then rebuked the disciples for their rebuke of the parents. The
language of Jesus is precisely that of Mr 10:14 which see, and
nearly that of Mt 19:14 which see also. The plea of Jesus that
children be allowed to come to him is one that many parents need
to heed. It is a tragedy to think of parents "forbidding" their
children or of preachers doing the same or of both being
stumbling-blocks to children.

18:17 {As a little child} (\hōs paidion\). Jesus makes the child
the model for those who seek entrance into the kingdom of God,
not the adult the model for the child. He does not say that the
child is already in the kingdom without coming to him. Jesus has
made the child's world by understanding the child and opening the
door for him.

18:18 {Ruler} (\archōn\). Not in Mr 10:17; Mt 19:16. {What
shall I do to inherit?}
(\Ti poiēsas klēronomēsō;\). "By doing
what shall I inherit?" Aorist active participle and future active
indicative. Precisely the same question is asked by the lawyer in
Lu 10:25. This young man probably thought that by some one act
he could obtain eternal life. He was ready to make a large
expenditure for it. {Good} (\agathon\). See on ¯Mr 10:17; Mt
19:16 for discussion of this adjective for absolute goodness.
Plummer observes that no Jewish rabbi was called "good" in direct
address. The question of Jesus will show whether it was merely
fulsome flattery on the part of the young man or whether he
really put Jesus on a par with God. He must at any rate define
his attitude towards Christ.

18:22 {One thing thou lackest yet} (\eti hen soi leipei\).
Literally, one thing still fails thee or is wanting to thee. An
old verb with the dative of personal interest. Mr 10:21 has
here \husterei se\, which see. It was an amazing compliment for
one who was aiming at perfection (Mt 19:21). The youth
evidently had great charm and was sincere in his claims.
{Distribute} (\diados\). Second aorist active imperative of
\diadidōmi\ (give to various ones, \dia-\). Here Mark and Matthew
simply have \dos\ (give). The rest the same in all three Gospels.

18:23 {Became} (\egenēthē\). First aorist passive indicative of
\ginomai\. Like his countenance fell (\stugnasas\), in Mr
10:22. {Exceedingly sorrowful} (\perilupos\). Old adjective
(\peri, lupē\) with perfective use of \peri\. {Very rich}
(\plousios sphodra\). Rich exceedingly. Today, a

18:24 {Shall they enter} (\eisporeuontai\). Present middle
indicative, futuristic present.

18:25 {Through a needle's eye} (\dia trēmatos belonēs\). Both
words are old. \Trēma\ means a perforation or hole or eye and in
the N.T. only here and Mt 19:24. \Belonē\ means originally the
point of a spear and then a surgeon's needle. Here only in the
N.T. Mr 10:25; Mt 19:24 have \rhaphidos\ for needle. This is
probably a current proverb for the impossible. The Talmud twice
speaks of an elephant passing through the eye of a needle as
being impossible.

18:26 {Then who} (\kai tis\). Literally, {and who}. The \kai\
calls attention to what has just been said. Wealth was assumed to
be mark of divine favour, not a hindrance to salvation.

18:27 {The impossible with men possible with God} (\ta adunata
para anthrōpois dunata para tōi theōi\)
. Paradoxical, but true.
Take your stand "beside" (\para\) God and the impossible becomes
possible. Clearly then Jesus meant the humanly impossible by the
parabolic proverb about the camel going through the needle's eye.
God can break the grip of gold on a man's life, but even Jesus
failed with this young ruler.

18:28 {Our own} (\ta idia\). Our own things (home, business,
. Right here is where so many fail. Peter speaks here not in
a spirit of boastfulness, but rather with his reactions from
their consternation at what has happened and at the words of
Jesus (Plummer).

18:30 {Shall not receive} (\ouchi mē labēi\). Very strong double
negative with aorist active subjunctive of \lambanō\. {Manifold
(\pollaplasiona\). Late Greek word, here alone in the N.T.
save Mt 19:29 where Westcott and Hort have it though many MSS.
there read \hekatonplasiona\ (a hundredfold) as in Mr 10:30.

18:31 {Took unto him} (\paralabōn\). Second aorist active
participle of \paralambanō\. Taking along with himself. So Mr
10:32. Mt 20:17 adds \kat' idian\ (apart). Jesus is making a
special point of explaining his death to the Twelve. {We go up}
(\anabainomen\). Present active indicative, we are going up.
{Unto the Son of man} (\tōi huiōi tou anthrōpou\). Dative case of
personal interest. The position is amphibolous and the
construction makes sense either with "shall be accomplished"
(\telesthēsetai\) or "that are written" (\ta gegrammena\),
probably the former. Compare these minute details of the prophecy
here (verses 32f.) with the words in Mr 10:33f.; Mt 20:18f.,
which see.

18:33 {The third day} (\tēi hēmerāi tēi tritēi\). The day the
third. In Mt 20:19 it is "the third day" while in Mr 10:34
"after three days" occurs in the same sense, which see.

18:34 {And they perceived not} (\kai ouk eginōskon\). Imperfect
active. They kept on not perceiving. Twice already Luke has said
this in the same sentence. {They understood none of these things}
(\ouden toutōn sunēkan\). First aorist active indicative, a
summary statement. {This saying was hid from them} (\ēn to rhēma
touto kekrummenon ap' autōn\)
. Past perfect passive indicative
(periphrastic), state of completion. It was a puzzling
experience. No wonder that Luke tries three times to explain the
continued failure of the apostles to understand Jesus. The words
of Christ about his death ran counter to all their hopes and

18:35 {Unto Jericho} (\eis Iereichō\). See on ¯Mt 20:29; Mr
10:46, for discussion of the two Jerichos in Mark and Matt. (the
old and the new as here)
. {Begging} (\epaitōn\). Asking for
something. He probably was by the wayside between the old Jericho
and the new Roman Jericho. Mark gives his name Bartimaeus
(10:46). Mt 20:30 mentions two.

18:36 {Inquired} (\epunthaneto\). Imperfect middle. Repeatedly
inquired as he heard the tramp of the passing crowd going by
(\diaporeuomenou\). {What this meant} (\Ti eiē touto\).
Literally, What it was. Without \an\ the optative is due to
indirect discourse, changed from \estin\. With \an\ (margin of
Westcott and Hort)
the potential optative of the direct discourse
is simply retained.

18:37 {Passeth by} (\parerchetai\). Present middle indicative
retained in indirect discourse as \paragei\ is in Mt 20:30. No
reason for differences of English tenses in the two passages (was
passing by, passeth by)

18:38 {He cried} (\eboēsen\). Old verb, \boaō\, to shout, as in
9:38. {Son of David} (\huie Daueid\). Shows that he recognizes
Jesus as the Messiah.

18:39 {That he should hold his peace} (\hina sigēsēi\).
Ingressive aorist subjunctive. That he should become silent; as
with \hina siōpēsēi\ in Mr 10:48. {The more a great deal}
(\pollōi māllon\). By much more as in Mr 10:48.

18:40 {Stood} (\statheis\). First aorist passive where Mr 10:49;
Mt 20:32 have \stas\ (second aorist active) translated "stood
still." One is as "still" as the other. The first is that Jesus "
stopped." {Be brought} (\achthēnai\). First aorist infinitive in
indirect command.

18:41 {What wilt thou that I should do unto thee?} (\Ti soi
theleis poiēsō;\)
. Same idiom in Mr 10:51; Mt 20:32 which see,
the use of \thelō\ without \hina\ with aorist subjunctive (or
future indicative)
. See same references also for \hina anablepsō\
"that I may see again" without verb before \hina\. Three uses of
\anablepō\ here (verses 41,42,43).

18:43 {Followed} (\ēkolouthei\). Imperfect active as in Mr
10:52. Either inchoative he began to follow, or descriptive, he
was following.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 18)