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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 19)

19:1 {Was passing through} (\diērcheto\). Imperfect middle. Now
Jesus was inside the Roman Jericho with the procession.

19:2 {Chief publican} (\architelōnēs\). The word occurs nowhere
else apparently but the meaning is clear from the other words
with \archi-\ like \archiereus\ (chief priest) \archipoimēn\
(chief shepherd). Jericho was an important trading point for
balsam and other things and so Zacchaeus was the head of the tax
collections in this region, a sort of commissioner of taxes who
probably had other publicans serving under him.

19:3 {He sought} (\ezētei\). Imperfect active. He was seeking,
conative idea. {Jesus who he was} (\Iēsoun tis estin\).
Prolepsis, to see who Jesus was. He had heard so much about him.
He wanted to see which one of the crowd was Jesus. {For the
(\apo tou ochlou\). He was short and the crowd was thick
and close. {Stature} (\tēi hēlikiāi\). No doubt of that meaning
here and possibly so in 2:52. Elsewhere "age" except Lu 12:25;
Mt 6:27 where it is probably "stature" also.

19:4 {Ran on before} (\prodramōn eis to emprosthen\). Second
aorist active participle of \protrechō\ (defective verb).
"Before" occurs twice (\pro-\ and \eis to emprosthen\). {Into a
sycamore tree}
(\epi sukomorean\). From \sukon\, fig, and
\moron\, mulberry. The fig-mulberry and quite a different tree
from the sycamine tree in 17:6, which see. It bore a poor fruit
which poor people ate (Am 7:14). It was a wide open tree with
low branches so that Zacchaeus could easily climb into it. {That
(\ekeinēs\). Feminine for \hodos\ (way) is understood.
Genitive case with \di\ in composition (\dierchesthai\) or as an
adverbial use.

19:5 {Make haste and come down} (\speusas katabēthi\).
Simultaneous aorist active participle (\speusas\) with the second
aorist active imperative. "Come down in a hurry."

19:6 {He made haste and came down} (\speusas katebē\). Luke
repeats the very words of Jesus with the same idiom. {Received
him joyfully}
(\hupedexato auton chairōn\). The very verb used of
Martha's welcome to Jesus (10:38). "Joyfully" is the present
active participle, "rejoicing" (\chairōn\).

19:7 {Murmured} (\diegogguzonto\). Imperfect middle of this
compound onomatopoetic word \dia-gogguzō\. In Lu 5:30 we have
the simple \gogguzō\, a late word like the cooing doves or the
hum of bees. This compound with \dia-\ is still rarer, but more
expressive. {To lodge} (\katalusai\). Jesus was the hero of this
crowd from Galilee on their way to the passover. But here he had
shocked their sensibilities and those of the people of Jericho by
inviting himself to be the guest of this chief publican and
notorious sinner who had robbed nearly everybody in the city by
exorbitant taxes.

19:8 {Stood} (\statheis\). Apparently Jesus and Zacchaeus had
come to the house of Zacchaeus and were about to enter when the
murmur became such a roar that Zacchaeus turned round and faced
the crowd. {If I have wrongfully exacted aught of any man} (\ei
tinos ti esukophantēsa\)
. A most significant admission and
confession. It is a condition of the first class (\ei\ and the
aorist active indicative)
that assumes it to be true. His own
conscience was at work. He may have heard audible murmurs from
the crowd. For the verb \sukophantein\, see discussion on ¯3:14,
the only two instances in the N.T. He had extorted money
wrongfully as they all knew. {I return fourfold} (\apodidōmi
. I offer to do it here and now on this spot. This
was the Mosaic law (Ex 22:1; Nu 5:6f.). Restitution is good
proof of a change of heart. D. L. Moody used to preach it with
great power. Without this the offer of Zacchaeus to give half his
goods to the poor would be less effective. "It is an odd
coincidence, nothing more, that the fig-mulberry (sycamore)
should occur in connexion with the _fig_-shewer (sycophant)."

19:10 {The lost} (\to apolōlos\). The neuter as a collective
whole, second perfect active participle of \apollumi\, to
destroy. See Lu 15 for the idea of the lost.

19:11 {He added and spake} (\prostheis eipen\). Second aorist
active participle of \prostithēmi\ with \eipen\. It is a Hebrew
idiom seen also in Lu 20:1f. he added to send (\prosetheto
and in Ac 12:3 "he added to seize" (\prosetheto
. This undoubted Hebraism occurs in the N.T. in Luke
only, probably due to the influence of the LXX on Luke the Greek
Christian. {To appear} (\anaphainesthai\). Present passive
infinitive of an old verb to be made manifest, to be shown up. In
the N.T. only here and Ac 21:3.

19:12 {To take to himself a kingdom} (\labein heautōi
. Second aorist active infinitive of \lambanō\ with
the dative reflexive \heautōi\ where the middle voice could have
been used. Apparently this parable has the historical basis of
Archelaus who actually went from Jerusalem to Rome on this very
errand to get a kingdom in Palestine and to come back to it. This
happened while Jesus was a boy in Nazareth and it was a matter of
common knowledge.

19:13 {Trade ye herewith till I come} (\pragmateusasthe en hōi
. First aorist middle imperative of \pragmateuomai\, an
old verb from \prāgma\, business. Here only in the N.T. Westcott
and Hort in their text read \pragmateusasthai\, first aorist
middle infinitive (\-ai\ and \-e\ were pronounced alike). The
infinitive makes it indirect discourse, the imperative direct.
{While I am coming} is what \en hōi erchomai\ really means.

19:14 {His citizens} (\hoi politai autou\). That actually
happened with Archelaus.

19:15 {When he was come back again} (\en tōi epanelthein auton\).
"On the coming back again as to him." Luke's favourite idiom of
the articular infinitive after \en\ and with the accusative of
general reference. {Had given} (\dedōkei\). Past perfect active
indicative without augment of \didōmi\. {That he might know}
(\hina gnoi\). Second aorist active subjunctive of \ginoskō\. The
optative would be \gnoiē\.

19:16 {Hath made} (\prosērgasato\). Only here in the N.T. Note
\pros-\ in addition, besides, more.

19:17 {Have thou authority} (\isthi exousian echōn\).
Periphrastic present active imperative. Keep on having authority.

19:19 {Be thou also over} (\kai su epano ginou\). Present middle
imperative. Keep on becoming over. There is no real reason for
identifying this parable of the pounds with the parable of the
talents in Mt 25. The versatility of Jesus needs to be
remembered by those who seek to flatten out everything.

19:20 {I kept} (\eichon\). Imperfect active of \echō\. I kept on
keeping. {Laid up} (\apokeimenēn\). Present passive participle
agreeing with \hēn\ (which), used often as perfect passive of
\tithēmi\ as here, laid away or off (\apo\). It is not the
periphrastic construction, but two separate verbs, each with its
own force. {In a napkin} (\en soudariōi\). A Latin word
_sudarium_ from _sudor_ (sweat) transliterated into Greek, a
sweatcloth handkerchief or napkin. Found in papyrus marriage
contracts as part of the dowry (second and third centuries A.D.,
Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 223)
. Used also for swathing the
head of the dead (Joh 11:44; 20:7).

19:21 {I feared} (\ephoboumēn\). Imperfect middle, I continued to
fear. {Austere} (\austēros\). Old Greek word from \auō\, to dry
up. Reproduced in Latin _austeros_ and English _austere_. It
means rough to the taste, stringent. Here only in the N.T.
Compare \sklēros\ (hard) in Mt 25:24. "Harsh in flavour, then
in disposition" (Bruce). {Thou layedst not down} (\ouk ethēkas\).
Probably a proverb for a grasping profiteer.

19:22 {Thou knewest} (\ēideis\). Second past perfect of \horaō\,
to see, used as imperfect of \oida\, to know. Either it must be
taken as a question as Westcott and Hort do or be understood as
sarcasm as the Revised Version has it. The words of the wicked
(\ponēros\) slave are turned to his own condemnation.

19:23 {Then wherefore} (\kai dia ti\). Note this inferential use
of \kai-\ in that case. {Into the bank} (\epi trapezan\).
Literally, {upon a table}. This old word \trapeza\, from
\tetrapeza\ (\tetra\, four, \pous\, foot). It means then any
table (Mr 7:28), food on the table (Ac 16:34), feast or
banquet (Ro 11:9), table of the money-changers (Joh 2:15; Mr
11:15; Mt 21:12)
, or bank as here. Our word bank is from Old
English _bench_. {With interest} (\sun tokōi\). Not usury, but
proper and legal interest. Old word from \tiktō\, to bring forth.
In the N.T. only here and Mt 25:27. {Should have required it}
(\an auto epraxa\). Conclusion of second-class condition the
condition or apodosis being implied in the participle "coming"
(\elthōn\), and the previous question. On this technical use of
\prassō\ (\epraxa\) see Lu 3:13.

19:25 {And they said unto him} (\kai eipan autōi\). Probably the
eager audience who had been listening to this wonderful parable
interrupted Jesus at this point because of this sudden turn when
the one pound is given to the man who has ten pounds. If so, it
shows plainly how keenly they followed the story which Jesus was
giving because of their excitement about the kingdom (Lu

19:26 {That hath not} (\tou mē echontos\). The present tense of
\echō\ here, that keeps on not having, probably approaches the
idea of acquiring or getting, the one who keeps on not acquiring.
This is the law of nature and of grace.

19:27 {Reign} (\basileusai\). First aorist active infinitive,
ingressive aorist, come to rule. {Slay} (\katasphaxate\). First
aorist active imperative of \katasphazō\, to slaughter, an old
verb, but only here in the N.T.

19:28 {Went on before} (\eporeueto emprosthen\). Imperfect
middle. Jesus left the parable to do its work and slowly went on
his way up the hill to Jerusalem.

19:29 {Unto Bethphage and Bethany} (\eis Bēthphagē kai
. Both indeclinable forms of the Hebrew or Aramaic
names. In Mr 11:1 "Bethany" is inflected regularly, which see.
{Of Olives} (\Elaiōn\). As in Mr 11:1; Mt 21:1, though some
editors take it to be, not the genitive plural of \elaia\ (olive
, but the name of the place Olivet. In the Greek it is just
a matter of accent (circumflex or acute) Olivet is correct in Ac
1:12. See on ¯Mt 21:1ff.; Mr 11:1ff. for details.

19:30 {Whereon no man ever yet sat} (\eph' hon oudeis pōpote
anthrōpōn ekathisen\)
. Plummer holds that this fact indicated to
the disciples a royal progress into the city of a piece with the
Virgin Birth of Jesus and the burial in a new tomb.

19:32 {As he had said unto them} (\kathōs eipen autois\). Luke
alone notes this item.

19:33 {As they were loosing} (\luontōn autōn\). Genitive
absolute. {The owners thereof} (\hoi kurioi autou\). The same
word \kurios\ used of the Lord Jesus in verse 31 (and 34) and
which these "owners" would understand. See on ¯Mt 21:3; Mr 11:3
for \kurios\ used by Jesus about himself with the expectation
that these disciples would recognize him by that title as they
did. The word in common use for the Roman emperor and in the LXX
to translate the Hebrew _Elohim_ (God).

19:35 {Set Jesus thereon} (\epebibasan ton Iēsoun\). First aorist
active. Old verb, to cause to mount, causative verb from \bainō\,
to go. In the N.T. only here and Lu 10:34; Ac 23:24.

19:36 {They spread} (\hupestrōnnuon\). Imperfect active
describing the continued spreading as they went on.
\Hupostrōnnuō\ is a late form of the old verb \hupostorennumi\.
Here only in the N.T.

19:37 {At the descent} (\pros tēi katabasei\). Epexegetic of
"drawing nigh." They were going by the southern slope of the
Mount of Olives. As they turned down to the city, the grand view
stirred the crowd to rapturous enthusiasm. This was the first
sight of the city on this route which is soon obscured in the
descent. The second view bursts out again (verse 41). It was a
shout of triumph from the multitude with their long pent-up
enthusiasm (verse 11), restrained no longer by the parable of
the pounds. {For all the mighty works which they had seen} (\peri
pasōn eidon dunameōn\)
. Neat Greek idiom, incorporation of the
antecedent (\dunameōn\) into the relative clause and attraction
of the case of the relative from the accusative \has\ to the
genitive \hōn\. And note "all." The climax had come, Lazarus,
Bartimaeus, and the rest.

19:38 {The king cometh} (\ho erchomenos, ho basileus\). The
Messianic hopes of the people were now all ablaze with
expectation of immediate realization. A year ago in Galilee he
had frustrated their plans for a revolutionary movement "to take
him by force to make him king" (Joh 6:15). The phrase "the
coming king" like "the coming prophet" (Joh 6:14; De 18:15)
expressed the hope of the long-looked-for Messiah. They are
singing from the Hallel in their joy that Jesus at last is making
public proclamation of his Messiahship. {Peace in heaven, and
glory in the highest}
(\en ouranōi eirēnē kai doxa en
. This language reminds one strongly of the song of
the angels at the birth of Jesus (Lu 2:14). Mr 11:10; Mt 21:9
have "Hosannah in the highest."

19:39 {Some of the Pharisees} (\tines tōn Pharisaiōn\). Luke
seems to imply by "from the multitude" (\apo tou ochlou\) that
these Pharisees were in the procession, perhaps half-hearted
followers of the mob. But Joh 12:19 speaks of Pharisees who
stood off from the procession and blamed each other for their
failure and the triumph of Jesus. These may represent the bolder
spirits of their same group who dared to demand of Jesus that he
rebuke his disciples.

19:40 {If these shall hold their peace} (\ean houtoi
. A condition of the first class, determined as
fulfilled. The use of \ean\ rather than \ei\ cuts no figure in
the case (see Ac 8:31; 1Th 3:8; 1Jo 5:15). The kind of
condition is determined by the mode which is here indicative. The
future tense by its very nature does approximate the aorist
subjunctive, but after all it is the indicative. {The stones will
cry out}
(\hoi lithoi kraxousin\). A proverb for the impossible

19:41 {Wept} (\eklausen\). Ingressive aorist active indicative,
burst into tears. Probably audible weeping.

19:42 {If thou hadst known} (\ei egnōs\). Second aorist active
indicative of \ginōskō\. Second-class condition, determined as
unfulfilled. {Even thou} (\kai su\). Emphatic position of the
subject. {But now} (\nun de\). Aposiopesis. The conclusion is not
expressed and the sudden breaking off and change of structure is
most impressive. {They are hid} (\ekrubē\). Second aorist passive
indicative of \kruptō\, common verb, to hide.

19:43 {Shall cast up a bank} (\parembalousin charaka\). Future
active indicative of \paremballō\, a double compound (\para, en,
of long usage, finally in a military sense of line of
battle or in camp. Here alone in the N.T. So also the word
\charaka\ (\charax\) for bank, stake, palisade, rampart, is here
alone in the N.T., though common enough in the old Greek.
{Compass thee round} (\perikuklōsousin se\). Future active
indicative. Another common compound to make a circle (\kuklos\)
around (\peri\), though here only in the N.T. {Keep thee in}
(\sunexousin se\). Shall hold thee together on every side
(\pantothen\). See about \sunechō\ on 4:38.

19:44 {Shall dash to the ground} (\edaphiousin\). Attic future of
\edaphizō\, to beat level, to raze to the ground, a rare verb
from \edaphos\, bottom, base, ground (Ac 22:7), here alone in
the N.T. {Because} (\anth' hōn\). "In return for which things."
{Thou knewest not} (\ouk egnōs\). Applying the very words of the
lament in the condition in verse 42. This vivid prophecy of the
destruction of Jerusalem is used by those who deny predictive
prophecy even for Jesus as proof that Luke wrote the Gospel after
the destruction of Jerusalem. But it is no proof at all to those
who concede to Jesus adequate knowledge of his mission and

19:45 {Began to cast out} (\ērxato ekballein\). So Mr 11:15
whereas Mt 21:12 has simply "he cast out." See Mark and Matthew
for discussion of this second cleansing of the temple at the
close of the public ministry in relation to the one at the
beginning in Joh 2:14-22. There is nothing gained by accusing
John or the Synoptics of a gross chronological blunder. There was
abundant time in these three years for all the abuses to be

19:47 {He was teaching} (\ēn didaskōn\). Periphrastic imperfect.
{Daily} (\to kath' hēmeran\). Note the accusative neuter article,
"as to the according to the day," very awkward English surely,
but perfectly good Greek. The same idiom occurs in 11:3.
{Sought} (\ezētoun\). Imperfect active, conative imperfect, were
seeking, trying to seek. {The principal men of the people} (\hoi
prōtoi tou laou\)
. The first men of the people. The position
after the verb and apart from the chief priests and the scribes
calls special attention to them. Some of these "first men" were
chief priests or scribes, but not all of them. The lights and
leaders of Jerusalem were bent on the destruction (\apolesai\) of
Jesus. The raising of Lazarus from the dead brought them together
for this action (Joh 11:47-53; 12:9-11).

19:48 {They could not find} (\ouch hēuriskon\). Imperfect active.
They kept on not finding. {What they might do} (\to ti
. First aorist active deliberative subjunctive in a
direct question retained in the indirect. Note the article \to\
(neuter accusative) with the question. {Hung upon him}
(\exekremeto autou\). Imperfect middle of \ekkremamai\, an old
verb (\mi\ form) to hang from, here only in the N.T. The form is
an \omega\ form from \ekkremomai\, a constant tendency to the
\omega\ form in the _Koinē_. It pictures the whole nation (save
the leaders in verse 47)
hanging upon the words of Jesus as if
in suspense in mid-air, rapt attention that angered these same
leaders. Tyndale renders it "stuck by him."

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 19)