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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Ephesians: Chapter 1)

1:1 {Of Christ Jesus} (\Christou Iēsou\). So B D, though Aleph A
L have \Iēsou Christou\. Paul is named as the author and so he
is. Otherwise the Epistle is pseudepigraphic. {By the will of
(\dia thelēmatos theou\). As in 1Co 1:1; 2Co 1:1; Ro 1:1.
{At Ephesus} (\en Ephesōi\). In Aleph and B these words are
inserted by later hands, though both MSS. give the title \Pros
Ephesious\. Origen explains the words \tois hagiois tois ousin\
as meaning "the saints that are" (genuine saints), showing that
his MSS. did not have the words \en Ephesōi\. The explanation of
the insertion of these words has already been given in the
remarks on "The Destination" as one copy of the general letter
that was preserved in Ephesus. It is perfectly proper to call it
the Epistle to the Ephesians if we understand the facts.

1:3 {Blessed} (\eulogētos\). Verbal of \eulogeō\, common in the
LXX for Hebrew _baruk_ (Vulgate _benedictus_) and applied usually
to God, sometimes to men (Ge 24:31), but in N.T. always to God
(Lu 1:68), while \eulogēmenos\ (perfect passive participle) is
applied to men (Lu 1:42). "While \eulogēmenos\ points to an
isolated act or acts, \eulogētos\ describes the intrinsic
character" (Lightfoot). Instead of the usual \eucharistoumen\
(Col 1:3) Paul here uses \eulogētos\, elsewhere only in 2Co
1:3 in opening, though in a doxology in Ro 1:25; 9:5; 2Co
11:31. The copula here is probably \estin\ (is), though either
\estō\ (imperative) or \eiē\ (optative as wish) will make sense.
{The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ} (\ho theos kai
patēr tou Kuriou hēmōn Iēsou Christou\)
. \Kai\ is genuine here,
though not in Col 1:3. The one article (\ho\) with \theos kai
patēr\ links them together as in 1Th 1:3; 3:11,13; Ga 1:4. See
also the one article in 2Pe 1:1,11. In Eph 1:17 we have \ho
theos tou Kuriou hēmōn Iēsou Christou\, and the words of Jesus in
Joh 20:17. {Who hath blessed us} (\ho eulogēsas humās\). First
aorist active participle of \eulogeō\, the same word, antecedent
action to the doxology (\eulogētos\). {With} (\en\). So-called
instrumental use of \en\ though {in} is clear. {Every spiritual
(\pasēi eulogiāi pneumatikēi\). Third use of the root
\eulog\ (verbal, verb, substantive). Paul lovingly plays with the
idea. The believer is a citizen of heaven and the spiritual
blessings count for most to him. {In the heavenly places in
(\en tois epouraniois en Christōi\). In four other places
in Eph. (1:20; 2:6; 3:10; 6:12). This precise phrase (with
occurs nowhere else in the N.T. and has a clearly local
meaning in 1:20; 2:6; 3:10, doubtful in 6:12, but probably so
here. In 2:6 the believer is conceived as already seated with
Christ. Heaven is the real abode of the citizen of Christ's
kingdom (Php 3:20) who is a stranger on earth (Php 1:27; Eph
. The word \epouranios\ (heavenly) occurs in various
passages in the N.T. in contrast with \ta epigeia\ (the earthly)
as in Joh 3:12; 1Co 15:40,48,49; Php 2:10, with \patris\
(country) in Heb 11:16, with \klēsis\ (calling) in Heb 3:1,
with \dōrea\ (gift) in Heb 6:4, with \basileia\ (kingdom) in
2Ti 4:18.

1:4 {Even as he chose us in him} (\kathōs exelexato hēmās en
. First aorist middle indicative of \eklegō\, to pick out,
to choose. Definitive statement of God's elective grace
concerning believers in Christ. {Before the foundation of the
(\pro katabolēs kosmou\). Old word from \kataballō\, to
fling down, used of the deposit of seed, the laying of a
foundation. This very phrase with \pro\ in the Prayer of Jesus
(Joh 17:24) of love of the Father toward the Son. It occurs
also in 1Pe 1:20. Elsewhere we have \apo\ (from) used with it
(Mt 25:34; Lu 11:50; Heb 4:3; 9:26; Re 13:8; 17:8). But Paul
uses neither phrase elsewhere, though he has \apo tōn aiōnōn\
(from the ages) in Eph 3:9. Here in Eph 1:3-14. Paul in
summary fashion gives an outline of his view of God's redemptive
plans for the race. {That we should be} (\einai hēmās\).
Infinitive of purpose with the accusative of general reference
(\hēmās\). See Col 1:22 for the same two adjectives and also
\katenōpion autou\.

1:5 {Having foreordained us} (\Proorisas hēmās\). First aorist
active participle of \proorizō\, late and rare compound to define
or decide beforehand. Already in Ac 4:28; 1Co 2:7; Ro 8:29. See
also verse 11. Only other N.T. example in verse 11. To be
taken with \exelexato\ either simultaneous or antecedent
(causal). {Unto adoption as sons} (\eis huiothesian\). For this
interesting word see Ga 4:5; Ro 8:15; 9:4. {Unto himself} (\eis
. Unto God. {According to the good pleasure of his will}
(\kata tēn eudokian tou thelēmatos autou\). Here \eudokian\ means
{purpose} like \boulēn\ in verse 11 rather than {benevolence}
(good pleasure). Note the preposition \kata\ here for standard.

1:6 {To the praise} (\eis epainon\). Note the prepositions in
this sentence. {Which} (\hēs\). Genitive case of the relative
\hēn\ (cognate accusative with \echaritōsen\ (he freely
, late verb \charitoō\ (from \charis\, grace), in N.T.
attracted to case of antecedent \charitos\ only here and Lu
1:28. {In the Beloved} (\en tōi ēgapēmenōi\). Perfect passive
participle of \agapaō\. This phrase nowhere else in the N.T.
though in the Apostolic Fathers.

1:7 {In whom} (\en hōi\). Just like Col 1:14 with
\paraptōmatōn\ (trespasses) in place of \hamartiōn\ (sins) and
with the addition of \dia tou haimatos autou\ (through his blood)
as in Col 1:20. Clearly Paul makes the blood of Christ the cost
of redemption, the ransom money (\lutron\, Mt 20:28; Mr 10:45;
\antilutron\, 1Ti 2:6)
. See Col 1:9.

1:8 {According to the riches of his grace} (\kata to ploutos tēs
charitos autou\)
. A thoroughly Pauline phrase, riches of kindness
(Ro 2:4), riches of glory (Col 1:27; Eph 3:16; Php 4:19),
riches of fulness of understanding (Col 2:7), riches of Christ
(Eph 3:8), and in Eph 2:7 "the surpassing riches of grace."
{Which} (\hēs\). Genitive attracted again to case of antecedent

1:9 {The mystery of his will} (\to mustērion tou thelēmatos
. Once hidden, now revealed as in Col 1:26 which see.
See also Col 2:3. {Which he purposed} (\hēn proetheto\). Second
aorist middle of \protithēmi\, old verb, for which see Ro 1:13;

1:10 {Unto a dispensation of the fulness of the times} (\eis
oikonomian tou plērōmatos tōn kairōn\)
. See Col 1:25 for
\oikonomian\. In Ga 4:4 "the fulness of the time" (\to plērōma
tou chronou\)
the time before Christ is treated as a unit, here
as a series of epochs (\kairōn\). Cf. Mr 1:15; Heb 1:1. On
\plērōma\ see also Ro 11:26; Eph 3:19; 4:13. {To sum up}
(\anakephalaiōsasthai\). Purpose clause (amounting to result)
with first aorist middle infinitive of \anakephalaioō\, late
compound verb \ana\ and \kephalaioō\ (from \kephalaion\, Heb
8:1, and that from \kephalē\, head)
, to head up all things in
Christ, a literary word. In N.T. only here and Ro 13:9. For the
headship of Christ in nature and grace see Col 1:15-20.

1:11 {In him} (\en autōi\). Repeats the idea of \en tōi Christōi\
of verse 10. {We were made a heritage} (\eklērōthēmen\). First
aorist passive of \klēroō\, an old word, to assign by lot
(\klēros\), to make a \klēros\ or heritage. So in LXX and papyri.
Only time in N.T., though \prosklēroō\ once also (Ac 17:4).
{Purpose} (\prothesin\). Common substantive from \protithēmi\, a
setting before as in Ac 11:23; 27:13.

1:12 {To the end that we should be} (\eis to einai hēmās\). Final
clause with \eis\ to and the infinitive \einai\ (see the mere
infinitive \einai\ in verse 4)
and the accusative of general
reference. {Who had before hoped in Christ} (\tous proēlpikotas
en tōi Christōi\)
. Articular perfect active participle of
\proelpizō\, late and rare compound (here only in N.T.) and the
reference of \pro\ not clear. Probably the reference is to those
who like Paul had once been Jews and had now found the Messiah in
Jesus, some of whom like Simeon and Anna had even looked for the
spiritual Messiah before his coming.

1:13 {Ye also} (\kai humeis\). Ye Gentiles (now Christians), in
contrast to \hēmās\ (we) in 12. {In whom} (\en hōi\). Repeated
third time (once in verse 11, twice in 13), and note \ho\ or
\hos\ in 14. {Ye were sealed} (\esphragisthēte\). First aorist
passive indicative of \sphragizō\, old verb, to set a seal on one
as a mark or stamp, sometimes the marks of ownership or of
worship of deities like \stigmata\ (Ga 6:17). Marked and
authenticated as God's heritage as in 4:30. See 2Co 1:22 for
the very use of the metaphor here applied to the Holy Spirit even
with the word \arrabōn\ (earnest). {Spirit} (\pneumati\). In the
instrumental case.

1:14 {An earnest} (\arrabōn\). See 2Co 1:22 for discussion of
\arrabōn\. Here "of promise" (\tēs epaggelias\) is added to the
Holy Spirit to show that Gentiles are also included in God's
promise of salvation. {Of our inheritance} (\tēs klēronomias
. God's gift of the Holy Spirit is the pledge and first
payment for the final inheritance in Christ. {Of God's own
(\tēs peripoiēseōs\). The word {God's} is not in the
Greek, but is implied. Late and rare word (from \peripoieō\, to
make a survival)
with the notion of obtaining (1Th 5:9; 2Th
and then of preserving (so in the papyri). So in 1Pe 2:9;
Heb 10:39, and here. God has purchased us back to himself. The
sealing extends (\eis\) to the redemption and to the glory of

1:15 {And which ye shew toward all the saints} (\kai tēn eis
pantas tous hagious\)
. The words "ye show" do not occur in the
Greek. The Textus Receptus has \ten agapēn\ (the love) before
\tēn\ supported by D G K L Syr., Lat., Copt., but Aleph A B P
Origen do not have the word \agapēn\. It could have been omitted,
but is probably not genuine. The use of the article referring to
\pistin\ and the change from \en\ to \eis\ probably justifies the
translation "which ye shew toward."

1:16 {I do not cease} (\ou pauomai\). Singular present middle,
while in Col 1:9 Paul uses the plural (literary, or including
, \ou pauometha\.

1:17 {The Father of glory} (\ho patēr tēs doxēs\). The God
characterized by glory (the Shekinah, Heb 9:5) as in Ac 7:2;
1Co 2:8; 2Co 1:3; Jas 2:1. {That--may give} (\hina--dōiē\). In
Col 1:9 \hina\ is preceded by \aitoumenoi\, but here the
sub-final use depends on the general idea asking in the sentence.
The form \dōiē\ is a late _Koinē_ optative (second aorist active)
for the usual \doiē\. It occurs also in 2Th 3:16; Ro 15:5; 2Ti
1:16,18 in the text of Westcott and Hort. Here B 63 read \dōi\
(like Joh 15:16) second aorist active subjunctive, the form
naturally looked for after a primary tense (\pauomai\). This use
of the volitive optative with \hina\ after a primary tense is
rare, but not unknown in ancient Greek. {A spirit of wisdom and
(\pneuma sophias kai apokalupseōs\). The Revised
Version does not refer this use of \pneuma\ to the Holy Spirit
(cf. Ga 6:1; Ro 8:15), but it is open to question if it is
possible to obtain this wisdom and revelation apart from the Holy
Spirit. {In the knowledge of him} (\en epignōsei autou\). In the
full knowledge of Christ as in Colossians.

1:18 {Having the eyes of your heart enlightened} (\pephōtismenous
tous ophthalmous tēs kardias humōn\)
. A beautiful figure, the
heart regarded as having eyes looking out toward Christ. But the
grammar is difficult. There are three possible interpretations.
One is an anacoluthon, the case of \pephōtismenous\ being changed
from the dative \humin\ (to you) to the accusative because of the
following infinitive like \eklexamenous\ (Ac 15:22) after
\apostolois\. Another way of explaining it is to regard it as a
tertiary predicate of \dōiē\, a loose expansion of \pneuma\. The
third way is to regard the construction as the accusative
absolute, a rare idiom possible in Ac 26:3; 1Co 16:3; 1Ti 2:6.
In this case, the participle merely agrees with \tous
ophthalmous\, not with \humin\, "the eyes of your heart having
been enlightened." Otherwise \tous ophthalmous\ is the accusative
retained after the passive participle. {That ye may know} (\eis
to eidenai\)
. Final use of \eis to\ and the infinitive (second
perfect of \oida\)
as in verse 12. Note three indirect
questions after \eidenai\ (what the hope \tis hē elpis\, what the
riches \tis ho ploutos\, and what the surpassing greatness \kai
ti to huperballon megethos\)
. When the Holy Spirit opens the eyes
of the heart, one will be able to see all these great truths. {In
the saints}
(\en tois hagiois\). Our riches is in God, God's is
in his saints.

1:19 {The exceeding greatness of his power} (\to huperballon
megethos tēs dunameōs autou\)
. \Megethos\ is an old word (from
, but here only in N.T. \Huperballon\, present active
participle of \huperballō\, reappears in 2:7; 3:19 and seen
already in 2Co 3:10; 9:14. To enlightened eyes the greatness of
God's power is even more "surpassing."

1:20 {Which he wrought} (\enērgēken\). Reading of A B rather than
aorist \enērgēsen\. Perfect active indicative, "which he has
wrought." \Hēn\ is cognate accusative of the relative referring
to \energeian\ (energy) with \enērgēken\ and note also \kratous\
(strength) and \ischuos\ (might), three words trying to express
what surpasses (\huperballon\) expression or comprehension. {Made
him to sit}
(\kathisas\). First aorist active participle of
\kathizō\ in causative sense as in 1Co 6:4. Metaphorical local
expression like \dexiāi\ and \en tois epour aniois\.

1:21 {Far above all rule} (\huperanō pasēs archēs\). Late
compound adverbial preposition (\huper, anō\) with the ablative
case. In N.T. only here and Heb 9:5. As in Col 1:16, so here
Paul claims primacy for Jesus Christ above all angels, aeons,
what not. These titles all were used in the Gnostic speculations
with a graduated angelic hierarchy. {World} (\aiōni\). "Age." See
this identical expression in Mt 12:32 for the present time
(Gal 1:4; 1Ti 6:17) and the future life (Eph 2:7; Lu 20:35).
Both combined in Mr 10:30; Lu 18:30.

1:22 {He put all things in subjection} (\panta hupetaxen\). First
aorist active indicative of \hupotassō\, quoted from Ps 8:7 as
in 1Co 15:27. {Gave him to be head} (\auton edōken kephalēn\).
{Gave} (\edōken\, first aorist active indicative of \didōmi\) to
the church (the universal spiritual church or kingdom as in Col
Christ as Head (\kephalēn\, predicate accusative). This
conception of \ekklēsia\ runs all through Ephesians (3:10,21;

1:23 {Which} (\hētis\). "Which in fact is," explanatory use of
\hētis\ rather than \hē\. {The fulness of him that filleth all in
(\to plērōma tou ta panta en pāsin plēroumenou\). This is
probably the correct translation of a much disputed phrase. This
view takes \plērōma\ in the passive sense (that which is filled,
as is usual, Col 1:19)
and \plēroumenou\ as present middle
participle, not passive. All things are summed up in Christ
(1:10), who is the \plērōma\ of God (Col 1:19), and in
particular does Christ fill the church universal as his body.
Hence we see in Ephesians the Dignity of the Body of Christ which
is ultimately to be filled with the fulness (\plērōma\) of God
(3:19) when it grows up into the fulness (\plērōma\) of Christ

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Ephesians: Chapter 1)