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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Ephesians: Chapter 2)

2:1 {And you did he quicken} (\kai humās\). The verb for {did he
does not occur till verse 5 and then with \hēmās\ (us)
instead of \humās\ (you). There is a like ellipsis or anacoluthon
in Col 1:21,22, only there is no change from \humās\ to
\hēmās\. {When ye were dead} (\ontas nekrous\). Present active
participle referring to their former state. Spiritually dead.
{Trespasses and sins} (\paraptōmasin kai hamartiais\). Both words
(locative case) though only one in verse 5.

2:2 {According to the course of this world} (\kata ton aiōna tou
kosmou toutou\)
. Curious combinations of \aiōn\ (a period of
, \kosmos\ (the world in that period). See 1Co 1:20 for
"this age" and 1Co 3:9 for "this world." {The prince of the
power of the air}
(\ton archonta tēs exousias tou aeros\). \Aēr\
was used by the ancients for the lower and denser atmosphere and
\aithēr\ for the higher and rarer. Satan is here pictured as
ruler of the demons and other agencies of evil. Jesus called him
"the prince of this world" (\ho archōn tou kosmou toutou\, Joh
. {That now worketh} (\tou nun energountos\). Those who
deny the existence of a personal devil cannot successfully deny
the vicious tendencies, the crime waves, in modern men. The power
of the devil in the lives of men does explain the evil at work
"in the sons of disobedience" (\en tois huiois tēs apethias\). In
5:6 also. A Hebrew idiom found in the papyri like "sons of
light" (1Th 5:5).

2:3 {We also all} (\kai hēmeis pantes\). We Jews. {Once lived}
(\anestraphēmen pote\). Second aorist passive indicative of
\anastrephō\, old verb, to turn back and forth, to live (2Co
. Cf. \pote periepatēsate\, of the Gentiles in verse 2.
{The desires} (\ta thelēmata\). Late and rare word except in LXX
and N.T., from \thelō\, to will, to wish. Plural here "the
wishes," "the wills" of the flesh like \tais epithumiais tēs
sarkos\ just before. Gentiles had no monopoly of such sinful
impulses. {Of the mind} (\tōn dianoiōn\). Plural again, "of the
thoughts or purposes." {Were by nature children of wrath}
(\ēmetha tekna phusei orgēs\). This is the proper order of these
words which have been the occasion of much controversy. There is
no article with \tekna\. Paul is insisting that Jews as well as
Gentiles ("even as the rest") are the objects of God's wrath
(\orgēs\) because of their lives of sin. See Ro 2:1-3:20 for
the full discussion of this to Jews unpalatable truth. The use of
\phusei\ (associative instrumental case of manner) is but the
application of Paul's use of "all" (\pantes\) as shown also in
Ro 3:20; 5:12. See \phusei\ of Gentiles in Ro 2:14. The
implication of original sin is here, but not in the form that
God's wrath rests upon little children before they have committed
acts of sin. The salvation of children dying before the age of
responsibility is clearly involved in Ro 5:13f.

2:4 {But God} (\ho de theos\). Change in the structure of the
sentence here, resuming verse 1 after the break. {Being rich in
(\plousios ōn en eleei\). More than \eleēmōn\ (being
. {Wherewith} (\hēn\). Cognate accusative with
\ēgapēsen\ (loved).

2:5 {Even when we were dead} (\kai ontas hēmās nekrous\). Repeats
the beginning of verse 1, but he changes \humās\ (you Gentiles)
to \hēmās\ (us Jews). {Quickened us together with Christ}
(\sunezōopoiēsen tōi Christōi\). First aorist active indicative
of the double compound verb \sunzōopoieō\ as in Col 2:13 which
see. Associative instrumental case in \Christōi\. Literal
resurrection in the case of Jesus, spiritual in our case as
pictured in baptism. {By grace have ye been saved} (\chariti este
. Instrumental case of \chariti\ and perfect passive
periphrastic indicative of \sōzō\. Parenthetical clause
interjected in the sentence. All of grace because we were dead.

2:6 {In Christ Jesus} (\en Christōi Iēsou\). All the preceding
turns on this phrase. See Col 3:1 for the word \sunēgeiren\.
{Made to sit with him} (\sunekathisen\). First aorist active
indicative of \sunkathizō\, old causative verb, but in N.T. only
here and Lu 22:55.

2:7 {That he might shew} (\hina endeixētai\). Final clause with
\hina\ and first aorist middle subjunctive of \endeiknumi\. See
1:7 for "riches of grace" and 1:19 for "exceeding"
(\huperballon\). {In kindness toward us} (\en chrēstotēti eph'
. See Ro 2:7 for this word from \chrēstos\ and that from
\chraomai\, here God's benignity toward us.

2:8 {For by grace} (\tēi gar chariti\). Explanatory reason. "By
the grace" already mentioned in verse 5 and so with the
article. {Through faith} (\dia pisteōs\). This phrase he adds in
repeating what he said in verse 5 to make it plainer. "Grace"
is God's part, "faith" ours. {And that} (\kai touto\). Neuter,
not feminine \tautē\, and so refers not to \pistis\ (feminine) or
to \charis\ (feminine also), but to the act of being saved by
grace conditioned on faith on our part. Paul shows that salvation
does not have its source (\ex humōn\, out of you) in men, but
from God. Besides, it is God's gift (\dōron\) and not the result
of our work.

2:9 {That no man should glory} (\hina mē tis kauchēsētai\).
Negative final clause (\hina mē\) with first aorist middle
subjunctive of \kauchaomai\. It is all of God's grace.

2:10 {Workmanship} (\poiēma\). Old word from \poieō\ with the
ending \-mat\ meaning result. In N.T. only here and Re 1:20.
{Created} (\ktisthentes\). First aorist passive participle of
\ktizō\, not the original creation as in Col 1:16; Eph 3:9, but
the moral and spiritual renewal in Christ, the new birth, as in
Eph 2:15; 4:24. {For good works} (\epi ergois agathois\).
Probably the true dative of purpose here with \epi\ (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 605)
. Purpose of the new creation in Christ.
{Which} (\hois\). Attraction of the relative \ha\ (accusative
after \proētoimasen\)
to case of the antecedent \ergois\. {Afore
(\proētoimasen\). First aorist active indicative of
\proētoimazō\, old verb to make ready beforehand. In N.T. only
here and Ro 9:23. Good works by us were included in the eternal
foreordination by God. {That we should walk in them} (\hina en
autois peripatēsōmen\)
. Expexegetic final clause explanatory of
the election to good works.

2:11 {Wherefore} (\dio\). This conjunction applies to the Gentile
Christians the arguments in 2:1-10. {That aforetime ye} (\hoti
pote humeis\)
. No verb is expressed, but in verse 12 Paul
repeats \hoti en tōi kairōi ekeinōi\ (for \pote\) "that at that
time" and inserts \ēte\ (ye were). {Uncircumcision}
(\akrobustia\), {circumcision} (\peritomēs\). The abstract words
are used to describe Gentiles and Jews as in Ga 5:6; Rom 2:27.
{Made by hands} (\cheiropoiētou\). Agreeing with \peritomēs\.
Verbal (Mr 14:58) from \cheiropoieō\ like \acheiropoiētos\ in
Col 2:11.

2:12 {Separate from Christ} (\chōris Christou\). Ablative case
with adverbial preposition \chōris\, describing their former
condition as heathen. {Alienated from the commonwealth of Israel}
(\apēllotriōmenoi tēs politeias tou Israēl\). Perfect passive
participle of \apallotrioō\, for which see Col 1:21. Here
followed by ablative case \politeias\, old word from \politeuō\,
to be a citizen (Php 1:27) from \politēs\ and that from \polis\
(city). Only twice in N.T., here as commonwealth (the spiritual
Israel or Kingdom of God)
and Ac 22:28 as citizenship.
{Strangers from the covenants of the promise} (\xenoi tōn
diathēkōn tēs epaggelias\)
. For \xenos\ (Latin _hospes_), as
stranger see Mt 25:35,38,43f., as guest-friend see Ro 16:23.
Here it is followed by the ablative case \diathēkōn\. {Having no
(\elpida mē echontes\). No hope of any kind. In Ga 4:8
\ouk\ (strong negative) occurs with \eidotes theon\, but here
\mē\ gives a more subjective picture (1Th 4:5). {Without God}
(\atheoi\). Old Greek word, not in LXX, only here in N.T.
Atheists in the original sense of being without God and also in
the sense of hostility to God from failure to worship him. See
Paul's words in Ro 1:18-32. "In the world" (\en tōi kosmōi\)
goes with both phrases. It is a terrible picture that Paul gives,
but a true one.

2:13 {But now} (\nuni de\). Strong contrast, as opposed to "at
that time." {Afar off} (\makran\). Adverb (accusative feminine
adjective with \hodon\ understood)
. From the \politeia\ and its
hope in God. {Are made nigh} (\egenēthēte eggus\). First aorist
passive indicative of \ginomai\, a sort of timeless aorist. Nigh
to the commonwealth of Israel in Christ. {In the blood of Christ}
(\en tōi haimati tou Christou\). Not a perfunctory addition, but
essential (1:7), particularly in view of the Gnostic denial of
Christ's real humanity.

2:14 {For he is our peace} (\autos gar estin hē eirēnē hēmōn\).
He himself, not just what he did (necessary as that was and is).
He is our peace with God and so with each other (Jews and
. {Both one} (\ta amphotera hen\). "The both" (Jew and
. Jesus had said "other sheep I have which are not of
this fold" (Joh 10:16). {One} (\hen\) is neuter singular
(oneness, unity, identity) as in Ga 3:28. Race and national
distinctions vanish in Christ. If all men were really in Christ,
war would disappear. {Brake down the middle wall of partition}
(\to mesotoichon tou phragmou lusas\). "Having loosened (first
aorist active participle of \luō\, see Joh 2:19)
middle-wall (late word, only here in N.T., and very rare
anywhere, one in papyri, and one inscription)
of partition
(\phragmou\, old word, fence, from \phrassō\, to fence or hedge,
as in Mt 21:33)
." In the temple courts a partition wall divided
the court of the Gentiles from the court of Israel with an
inscription forbidding a Gentile from going further (Josephus,
_Ant_. VIII. 3, 2)
. See the uproar when Paul was accused of
taking Trophimus beyond this wall (Ac 21:28).

2:15 {Having abolished} (\katargēsas\). First aorist active
participle of \katargeō\, to make null and void. {The enmity}
(\tēn echthran\). But it is very doubtful if \tēn echthran\ (old
word from \echthros\, hostile, Lu 23:12)
is the object of
\katargēsas\. It looks as if it is in apposition with to
\mesotoichon\ and so the further object of \lusas\. The enmity
between Jew and Gentile was the middle wall of partition. And
then it must be decided whether "in his flesh" (\en tēi sarki
should be taken with \lusas\ and refer especially to the
Cross (Col 1:22) or be taken with \katargēsas\. Either makes
sense, but better sense with \lusas\. Certainly "the law of
commandments in ordinances (\ton nomon tōn entolōn en dogmasin\)
is governed by \katargēsas\. {That he might create} (\hina
. Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of
\ktizō\. {The twain} (\tous duo\). The two men (masculine here,
neuter in verse 14)
, Jew and Gentile. {One new man} (\eis hena
kainon anthrōpon\)
. Into one fresh man (Col 3:9-11) "in
himself" (\en hautōi\). Thus alone is it possible. {Making peace}
(\poiōn eirēnēn\). Thus alone can it be done. Christ is the
peace-maker between men, nations, races, classes.

2:16 {And might reconcile} (\kai apokatallaxēi\). Final clause
with \hina\ understood of first aorist active subjunctive of
\apokatallassō\ for which see Col 1:20,22. {Them both} (\tous
. "The both," "the two" (\tous duo\), Jew and
Gentile. {In one body} (\en heni sōmati\). The "one new man" of
verse 15 of which Christ is Head (1:23), the spiritual
church. Paul piles up metaphors to express his idea of the
Kingdom of God with Christ as King (the church, the body, the
commonwealth of Israel, oneness, one new man in Christ,
fellow-citizens, the family of God, the temple of God)
. {Thereby}
(\en autōi\). On the Cross where he slew the enmity (repeated
between Jew and Gentile.

2:17 {Preached peace} (\euēggelisato eirēnēn\). First aorist
middle of \euaggelizō\. "He gospelized peace" to both Jew and
Gentile, "to the far off ones" (\tois makran\) and "to the nigh
ones" (\tois eggus\). By the Cross and after the Cross Christ
could preach that message.

2:18 {Through him} (\di' autou\). Christ. {We both} (\hoi
. "We the both" (Jew and Gentile). {Our access} (\tēn
. The approach, the introduction as in Ro 5:2. {In
one Spirit}
(\en heni pneumati\). The Holy Spirit. {Unto the
(\pros ton patera\). So the Trinity as in 1:13f. The
Three Persons all share in the work of redemption.

2:19 {So then} (\ara oun\). Two inferential particles
(accordingly therefore). {No more} (\ouketi\). No longer.
{Sojourners} (\paroikoi\). Old word for dweller by (near by, but
not in)
. So Ac 7:6,29; 1Pe 2:11 (only other N.T. examples).
Dwellers just outside the house or family of God.
{Fellow-citizens} (\sunpolitai\, old, but rare word, here only in
, members now of the \politeia\ of Israel (verse 12), the
opposite of \xenoi kai paroikoi\. {Of the household of God}
(\oikeioi tou theou\). Old word from \oikos\ (house, household),
but in N.T. only here, Ga 6:10; 1Ti 5:8. Gentiles now in the
family of God (Ro 8:29).

2:20 {Being built upon} (\epoikodomēthentes\). First aorist
passive participle of \epoikodomeō\, for which double compound
verb see 1Co 3:10; Co; 2:17. {The foundation} (\epi tōi
. Repetition of \epi\ with the locative case. See 1Co
3:11 for this word. {Of the apostles and prophets} (\ton
apostolōn kai prophētōn\)
. Genitive of apposition with
\themeliōi\, consisting in. If one is surprised that Paul should
refer so to the apostles, he being one himself, Peter does the
same thing (2Pe 3:2). Paul repeats this language in 3:5.
{Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone} (\ontōs
akrogōnianiou autou Christou Iēsou\)
. Genitive absolute. The
compound \akrogōniaios\ occurs only in the LXX (first in Isa
and in the N.T. (here, 1Pe 2:6). \Lithos\ (stone) is
understood. Jesus had spoken of himself as the stone, rejected by
the Jewish builders (experts), but chosen of God as the head of
the corner (Mt 21:42), \eis kephalēn gōnias\. "The
\akrogōniaios\ here is the primary foundation-stone at the angle
of the structure by which the architect fixes a standard for the
bearings of the walls and cross-walls throughout" (W. W. Lloyd).

2:21 {Each several building} (\pāsa oikodomē\). So without
article Aleph B D G K L. \Oikodomē\ is a late word from \oikos\
and \demō\, to build for building up (edification) as in Eph
4:29, then for the building itself as here (Mr 13:1f.).
Ordinary Greek idiom here calls for "every building," not for
"all the building" (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 772), though it is
not perfectly clear what that means. Each believer is called a
\naos theou\ (1Co 3:16). One may note the plural in Mr 13:1
(\oikodomai\) of the various parts of the temple. Perhaps that is
the idea here without precise definition of each \oikodomē\. But
there are examples of \pās\ without the article where "all" is
the idea as in \pāsēs ktiseōs\ (all creation) in Col 1:15.
{Fitly framed together} (\sunarmologoumenē\). Double compound
from \sun\ and \harmologos\ (binding, \harmos\, joint and
, apparently made by Paul and in N.T. only here and Eph
4:16. Architectural metaphor. {Into a holy temple} (\eis naon
. The whole structure with all the \oikodomai\. Another
metaphor for the Kingdom of God with which compare Peter's
"spiritual house" (\oikos pneumatikos\) in which each is a living
stone being built in (1Pe 2:5).

2:22 {Ye also are builded together} (\kai humeis
. Ye Gentiles also. Present passive indicative
(continuous process) of common old verb \sunoikodomeō\, to build
together with others or out of varied materials as here. Only
here in N.T. In 1Pe 2:5 Peter uses \oikodomeisthe\ for the same
process. {For a habitation} (\eis katoikētērion\). Late word
(LXX), in N.T. only here and Re 18:2. From \katoikeō\, to
dwell, as Eph 3:17. Possibly each of us is meant here to be the
"habitation of God in the Spirit" and all together growing
(\auxei\) "into a holy temple in the Lord," a noble conception of
the brotherhood in Christ.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Ephesians: Chapter 2)