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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 24)

24:1 {And with an Orator, one Tertullus} (\kai rhētoros Tertullou
. A deputation of elders along with the high priest
Ananias, not the whole Sanhedrin, but no hint of the forty
conspirators or of the Asian Jews. The Sanhedrin had become
divided so that now it is probably Ananias (mortally offended)
and the Sadducees who take the lead in the prosecution of Paul.
It is not clear whether after five days is from Paul's departure
from Jerusalem or his arrival in Caesarea. If he spent nine days
in Jerusalem, then the five days would be counted from then
(verse 11). The employment of a Roman lawyer (Latin _orator_)
was necessary since the Jews were not familiar with Roman legal
procedure and it was the custom in the provinces (Cicero _pro
Cael_. 30)
. The speech was probably in Latin which Paul may have
understood also. \Rhētōr\ is a common old Greek word meaning a
forensic orator or advocate but here only in the N.T. The Latin
_rhetor_ was a teacher of rhetoric, a very different thing.
Tertullus is a diminutive of Tertius (Ro 16:22). {Informed}
(\enephanisan\). Same verb as in 23:15,22, somewhat like our
modern "indictment," certainly accusations "against Paul" (\kata
tou Paulou\)
. They were down on Paul and the hired barrister was
prosecuting attorney. For the legal form see _Oxyrhynchus
Papyri_, Vol. II., p. 162, line 19.

24:2 {When he (Paul) was called} (\klēthentos autou\). Genitive
absolute (as so often in Acts) with first aorist passive
participle of \kaleō\. Seeing that by thee we enjoy much peace
(\pollēs eirēnēs tugchanontes dia sou\). Literally, obtaining
much peace by thee. A regular piece of flattery, _captatio
benevolentiae_, to ingratiate himself into the good graces of the
governor. Felix had suppressed a riot, but Tacitus (_Ann_. XII.
declares that Felix secretly encouraged banditti and shared
the plunder for which the Jews finally made complaint to Nero who
recalled him. But it sounded well to praise Felix for keeping
peace in his province, especially as Tertullus was going to
accuse Paul of being a disturber of the peace. {And that by thy
(\kai dia tēs pronoias\). Forethought, old Greek word
from \pronoos\ (\pronoeō\ in 1Ti 5:8; Ro 12:17; 2Co 8:21), in
N.T. only here and Ro 13:14. "Providence" is Latin
_Providentia_ (foreseeing, _provideo_). Roman coins often have
_Providentia Caesaris_. Post-Augustan Latin uses it of God
(Deus). {Evils are corrected for this nation} (\diorthōmatōn
ginomenōn tōi ethnei toutōi\)
. Genitive absolute again,
\ginomenōn\, present middle participle describing the process of
reform going on for this nation (dative case of personal
. \Diorthōma\ (from \diorthoō\, to set right) occurs
from Aristotle on of setting right broken limbs (Hippocrates) or
reforms in law and life (Polybius, Plutarch). "Reform continually
taking place for this nation." Felix the Reform Governor of
Judea! It is like a campaign speech, but it doubtless pleased

24:3 {In all ways and in all places} (\pantēi te kai pantachou\).
\Pantēi\, old adverb of manner only here in N.T. \Pantachou\ also
old adverb of place, several times in N.T. But these adverbs most
likely go with the preceding clause about "reforms" rather than
as here translated with "we accept" (\apodechometha\). But "with
all gratitude" (\meta pasēs eucharistias\) does naturally go with

24:4 {That I be not further tedious unto thee} (\hina mē epi
pleion se enkoptō\)
. _Koinē_ verb (Hippocrates, Polybius) to cut
in on (or into), to cut off, to impede, to hinder. Our modern
telephone and radio illustrate it well. In the N.T. (Ac 24:4;
1Th 2:18; Ga 5:7; Ro 15:22; 1Pe 3:7)
. "That I may not cut in on
or interrupt thee further (\epi pleion\) in thy reforms."
Flattery still. {Of thy clemency} (\tēi sēi epieikeiāi\).
Instrumental case of old word from \epieikēs\ and this from \epi\
and \eikos\ (reasonable, likely, fair). "Sweet Reasonableness"
(Matthew Arnold), gentleness, fairness. An \epieikēs\ man is "one
who makes reasonable concessions" (Aristotle, _Eth_. V. 10),
while \dikaios\ is "one who insists on his full rights" (Plato,
_Leg_. 757 D)
as translated by Page. {A few words} (\suntomōs\).
Old adverb from \suntemnō\, to cut together (short), abbreviate.
Like \dia bracheōn\ in Heb 13:22. In N.T. only here and Mr 16
(shorter conclusion).

24:5 {For we have found} (\heurontes gar\). Second aorist active
participle of \heuriskō\, but without a principal verb in the
sentence. Probably we have here only a "summary of the charges
against Paul" (Page). {A pestilent fellow} (\loimon\). An old
word for pest, plague, pestilence, Paul the pest. In N.T. only
here and Lu 21:11 (\loimoi kai limoi\, pestilences and famines)
which see. Latin _pestis_. Think of the greatest preacher of the
ages being branded a pest by a contemporary hired lawyer. {A
mover of insurrections}
(\kinounta staseis\). This was an offence
against Roman law if it could be proven. "Plotted against at
Damascus, plotted against at Jerusalem, expelled from Pisidian
Antioch, stoned at Lystra, scourged and imprisoned at Philippi,
accused of treason at Thessalonica, haled before the proconsul at
Corinth, cause of a serious riot at Ephesus, and now finally of a
riot at Jerusalem" (Furneaux). Specious proof could have been
produced, but was not. Tertullus went on to other charges with
which a Roman court had no concern (instance Gallio in Corinth).
{Throughout the world} (\kata tēn oikoumenēn\). The Roman
inhabited earth (\gēn\) as in 17:6. {A ringleader of the sect
of the Nazarenes}
(\prōtostatēn tēs tōn Nazōraiōn haireseōs\).
\Prōtostatēs\ is an old word in common use from \prōtos\ and
\histēmi\, a front-rank man, a chief, a champion. Here only in
the N.T. This charge is certainly true. About "sect" (\hairesis\)
see on ¯5:17. \Nazōraioi\ here only in the plural in the N.T.,
elsewhere of Jesus (Mt 2:23; 26:71; Lu 18:37; Joh 18:5,7; 19:19;
Ac 2:22; 3:6; 4:10; 6:14; 22:8; 26:9)
. The disciple is not above
his Master. There was a sneer in the term as applied to Jesus and
here to his followers.

24:6 {Assayed to profane} (\epeirasen bebēlōsai\). A flat
untruth, but the charge of the Asian Jews (21:28-30). _Verbum
optum ad calumnian_ (Bengel). {We seized} (\ekratēsamen\). As if
the Sanhedrin had arrested Paul, Tertullus identifying himself
with his clients. But it was the mob (21:28-31) that attacked
Paul and Lysias who rescued him (21:32ff.).

24:7 This whole verse with some words at the end of verse 6 and
the beginning of verse 8 in the Textus Receptus ("And would
have judged according to our law. But the chief captain Lysias
came upon us, and with great violence took him away out of our
hands, commanding his accusers to come unto thee")
is absent from
Aleph A B H L P 61 (many other cursives) Sahidic Bohairic. It is
beyond doubt a later addition to the incomplete report of the
speech of Tertullus. As the Revised Version stands, verse 8
connects with verse 6. The motive of the added words is clearly
to prejudice Felix against Lysias and they contradict the record
in Ac 21. Furneaux holds them to be genuine and omitted because
contradictory to Ac 21. More likely they are a clumsy attempt
to complete the speech of Tertullus.

24:8 {From whom} (\par' hou\). Referring to Paul, but in the
Textus Receptus referring to Lysias. {By examining him thyself}
(\autos anakrinas\). Not by torture, since Paul was a Roman
citizen, but by hearing what Paul has to say in defence of
himself. \Anakrinō\ is to examine thoroughly up and down as in
Lu 23:14.

24:9 {Joined in the charge} (\sunepethento\). Second aorist
middle indicative of \sunepitithēmi\, old verb, double compound,
to place upon (\epi\) together with (\sun\), to make a joint
attack, here only in the N.T. {Affirming} (\phaskontes\).
Alleging, with the accusative in indirect assertion as in 25:19;
Ro 1:22 (nominative with infinitive, Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
. {Were so} (\houtōs echein\), "held thus," common idiom.

24:10 {When the governor had beckoned to him} (\neusantos autōi
tou hēgemonos\)
. Genitive absolute again with first aorist active
participle of \neuō\, to give a nod, old word, in N.T. only here
and Joh 13:24. "The governor nodding to him." {Forasmuch as I
(\epistamenos\). Knowing, from \epistamai\. {That thou hast
been of many years a judge}
(\ek pollōn etōn onta se kritēn\).
The participle in indirect assertion after \epistamenos\
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1041). Paul goes as far as he can in
the way of a compliment. For seven years Felix has been governor,
\onta\ being a sort of progressive present participle with \ek
pollōn etōn\ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 892). {Cheerfully}
(\euthumōs\). Old adverb from \euthumos\ (\eu\ and \thumos\, good
, here only in N.T. {Make my defence} (\apologoumai\). Old
and regular word for this idea as in Lu 21:14 which see.

24:11 {Seeing that thou canst take knowledge} (\dunamenou sou
. Genitive absolute again. The same word and form
(\epignōnai\) used by Tertullus, if in Greek, in verse 8 to
Felix. Paul takes it up and repeats it. {Not more than twelve
(\ou pleious hēmerai dōdeka\). Here \ē\ (than) is absent
without change of case to the ablative as usually happens. But
this idiom is found in the _Koinē_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
. {Since} (\aph' hēs\). Supply \hēmeras\, "from which day."
{To worship} (\proskunēsōn\). One of the few examples of the
future participle of purpose so common in the old Attic.

24:12 {Disputing} (\dialegomenon\). Simply conversing,
discussing, arguing, and then disputing, common verb in old Greek
and in N.T. (especially in Acts). {Stirring up a crowd}
(\epistasin poiounta ochlou\). \Epistasis\ is a late word from
\ephistēmi\, to make an onset or rush. Only twice in the N.T.,
2Co 11:28 (the pressure or care of the churches) and here
(making a rush of a crowd). The papyri give examples also for
"onset." So Paul denies the two charges that were serious and the
only one that concerned Roman law (insurrection).

24:13 {Prove} (\parastēsai\). First aorist active infinitive of
\paristēmi\, to place beside. They have made "charges," mere
assertions. They have not backed up these charges with proof,
"nor can they," says Paul. {Now} (\nuni\). As if they had changed
their charges from the cries of the mob in Jerusalem which is
true. Paul has no hired lawyer to plead for him, but he has made
a masterly plea for his freedom.

24:14 {I confess} (\homologō\). The only charge left was that of
being a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. This Paul
frankly confesses is true. He uses the word in its full sense. He
is "guilty" of that. {After the Way} (\kata tēn hodon\). This
word Paul had already applied to Christianity (22:4). He
prefers it to "sect" (\hairesin\ which means a choosing, then a
. Paul claims Christianity to be the real (whole,
Judaism, not a "sect" of it. But he will show that
Christianity is not a deviation from Judaism, but the fulfilment
of it (Page) as he has already shown in Ga 3; Ro 9. {So serve I
the God of our fathers}
(\houtōs latreuō tōi patrōiōi theōi\).
Paul has not stretched the truth at all. He has confirmed the
claim made before the Sanhedrin that he is a spiritual Pharisee
in the truest sense (23:6). He reasserts his faith in all the
law and the prophets, holding to the Messianic hope. A curious
"heretic" surely! {Which these themselves also look for} (\hēn
kai autoi houtoi prosdechontai\)
. Probably with a gesture towards
his accusers. He does not treat them all as Sadducees. See Tit
2:13 for similar use of the verb (\prosdechomenoi tēn makarian
elpida\, looking for the happy hope)

24:15 {That there shall be a resurrection} (\anastasin mellein
. Indirect assertion with infinitive and accusative of
general reference (\anastasin\) after the word \elpida\ (hope).
The future infinitive \esesthai\ after \mellein\ is also
according to rule, \mellō\ being followed by either present,
aorist, or future infinitive (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 870, 877,
. {Both of the just and the unjust} (\dikaiōn te kai
. Apparently at the same time as in Joh 5:29 (cf. Ac
. Gardner thinks that Luke here misrepresents Paul who
held to no resurrection save for those "in Christ," a mistaken
interpretation of Paul in my opinion. The Talmud teaches the
resurrection of Israelites only, but Paul was more than a

24:16 {Herein} (\en toutōi\). His whole confession of belief in
verses 14,15. {Do I also exercise myself} (\kai autos askō\).
"Do I also myself take exercise," take pains, labour, strive. Old
word in Homer to work as raw materials, to adorn by art, then to
drill. Our word ascetic comes from this root, one who seeks to
gain piety by rules and severe hardship. Paul claims to be equal
to his accusers in efforts to please God. {Void of offence}
(\aproskopon\). This word belongs to the papyri and N.T. (only in
, not in the ancient writers. The papyri examples (Moulton
Milligan, _Vocabulary_)
use the word to mean "free from hurt or
harm." It is a privative and \proskoptō\ (to cut or stumble
. Page likes "void of offence" since that can be either
active "not stumbling" as in Php 1:10 or passive "not stumbled
against" as in 1Co 10:32 (the first toward God and the second
toward men)
, the only other N.T. examples. Hence the word here
appears in both senses (the first towards God, the second towards
. Paul adds "alway" (\dia pantos\), a bold claim for a
consistent aim in life. "Certainly his conscience acquitted him
of having caused any offence to his countrymen" (Rackham).
Furneaux thinks that it must have been wormwood and gall to
Ananias to hear Paul repeat here the same words because of which
he had ordered Paul to be smitten on the mouth (23:1f.).

24:17 {After many years} (\di' etōn pleionōn\). "At an interval
(\dia\) of more (\pleionōn\) years" (than a few, one must add),
not "after many years." If, as is likely Paul went up to
Jerusalem in Ac 18:22, that was some five years ago and would
justify "\pleionōn\" (several years ago or some years ago). {To
bring alms}
(\eleēmosunas poiēson\). Another (see \proskunēsōn\
in verse 11)
example of the future participle of purpose in the
N.T. These "alms" (on \eleēmosunas\ see on ¯Mt 6:1,4; Ac 10:2,
common in Tobit and is in the papyri)
were for the poor saints in
Jerusalem (1Co 16:1-4; 2Co 8; 9; Ro 15:26) who were none the
less Jews. "And offerings" (\kai prosphoras\). The very word used
in 21:26 of the offerings or sacrifices made by Paul for the
four brethren and himself. It does not follow that it was Paul's
original purpose to make these "offerings" before he came to
Jerusalem (cf. 18:18). He came up to worship (verse 11) and
to be present at Pentecost (20:16).

24:18 {Amidst which} (\en hail\). That is, "in which offerings"
(in presenting which offerings, 21:27). {They found me} (my
accusers here present, \heuron me\)
, {purified in the temple}
(\hēgnismenon en tōi hierōi\). Perfect passive participle of
\hagnizō\ (same verb in 21:24,26) state of completion of the
Jewish sacrifices which had gone on for seven days (21:27), the
very opposite of the charges made. {With no crowd} (\ou meta
. "Not with a crowd" till the Asiatic Jews gathered one
(21:27). {Nor yet with tumult} (\oude meta thorubou\). They
made the tumult (27:30), not Paul. Till they made the stir, all
was quiet.

24:19 {But certain Jews from Asia} (\tines de apo tēs Alias
. No verb appears in the Greek for these words. Perhaps
he meant to say that "certain Jews from Asia charged me with
doing these things." Instead of saying that, Paul stops to
explain that they are not here, a thoroughly Pauline anacoluthon
(2Co 7:5) as in 26:9. "The passage as it stands is instinct
with life, and seems to exhibit the abruptness so characteristic
of the Pauline Epistles" (Page). {Who ought to have been here
before thee}
(\hous edei epi sou pareinai\). This use of \epi\
with genitive of the person is common. The imperfect indicative
with verbs of necessity and obligation to express failure to live
up to it is common in Greek (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 919-21).
"The accusers who were present had not witnessed the alleged
offence: those who could have given evidence at first-hand were
not present" (Furneaux). There was no case in a Roman court.
These Asiatic Jews are never heard of after the riot, though they
almost succeeded in killing Paul then. {If they had aught against
(\ei ti echoien pros eme\). A condition of the fourth class
or undetermined with less likelihood of being determined (\ei\
with the optative, Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1021)
. This is a
"mixed condition" (_op.cit._, p. 1022) with a conclusion of the
second class.

24:20 {These men themselves} (\autoi houtoi\). Since the Asiatic
Jews are not present and these men are. {Wrong doing}
(\adikēma\). Or misdeed. Old word from \adikeō\, to do wrong. In
the N.T. only here and Ac 18:14; Re 18:5. Paul uses "\adikēma\"
from the standpoint of his accusers. "To a less sensitive
conscience his action before the Sanhedrin would have seemed
venial enough" (Furneaux). {When I stood} (\stantos mou\).
Genitive absolute, second aorist active participle of \histēmi\
(intransitive), "when I took my stand." {Before the council}
(\epi tou sunedriou\). Same use of \epi\ with genitive as in
verse 19.

24:21 {Except it be} (\e\). Literally, "than," but after
interrogative \ti = ti allo\ "what else than." {For this one
(\peri mias tautēs phōnēs\). The normal Greek idiom with
the attributive use of \houtos\ calls for the article before
\mias\, though some inscriptions show it as here (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 702)
. {That} (\hēs\). Genitive of the relative
attracted to the case of the antecedent {phōnēs}. {I cried}
(\ekekraxa\). Reduplicated aorist as is usual with this verb in
the LXX (Jud 3:15). Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 348. {Touching}
(\peri\). Concerning (around, about). {I am called in question}
(\krinomai\). As in 23:6. {Before you} (\eph' humōn\). Same
idiom as in verses 19,20.

24:22 {Having more exact knowledge} (\akribesteron eidōs\).
"Knowing" (second perfect active participle of \oida\) "more
accurately" (comparative of adverb \akribōs\). More accurately
than what? Than the Sanhedrin supposed he had "concerning the
Way" (\ta peri tēs hodou\, the things concerning the Way, common
in Acts for Christianity)
. How Felix had gained this knowledge of
Christianity is not stated. Philip the Evangelist lived here in
Caesarea and there was a church also. Drusilla was a Jewess and
may have told him something. Besides, it is wholly possible that
Felix knew of the decision of Gallio in Corinth that Christianity
was a _religio licita_ as a form of Judaism. As a Roman official
he knew perfectly well that the Sanhedrin with the help of
Tertullus had failed utterly to make out a case against Paul. He
could have released Paul and probably would have done so but for
fear of offending the Jews whose ruler he was and the hope that
Paul (note "alms" in verse 17) might offer him bribes for his
liberty. {Deferred them} (\anebaleto autous\). Second aorist
middle indicative of \anaballō\, old verb (only here in N.T.) to
throw or toss up, to put back or off, in middle to put off from
one, to delay, to adjourn. Felix adjourned the case without a
decision under a plausible pretext, that he required the presence
of Lysias in person, which was not the case. Lysias had already
said that Paul was innocent and was never summoned to Caesarea,
so far as we know. Since Paul was a Roman citizen, Lysias could
have thrown some light on the riot, if he had any. {Shall come
(\katabēi\). Second aorist active subjunctive of
\katabainō\. {I will determine your matter} (\diagnōsomai ta
kath' humās\)
. Future middle of \diaginōskō\, old and common verb
to know accurately or thoroughly (\dia\). In the N.T. only here
(legal sense) and 23:15. "The things according to you" (plural,
the matters between Paul and the Sanhedrin)

24:23 {And should have indulgence} (\echein te anesin\). From
\aniēmi\, to let loose, release, relax. Old word, in the N.T.
only here and 2Th 1:7; 2Co 2:13; 7:5; 8:13. It is the opposite
of strict confinement, though under guard, "kept in charge"
(\tēreisthai\). {Forbid} (\kōluein\). To hinder "no one of his
friends" (\mēdena tōn idiōn\). No one of Paul's "own" (cf. 4:23;
Joh 1:11)
or intimates. Of these we know the names of Luke,
Aristarchus, Trophimus, Philip the Evangelist.

24:24 {With Drusilla his wife} (\sun Drousillēi tēi idiāi
. Felix had induced her to leave her former husband
Aziz, King of Emesa. She was one of three daughters of Herod
Agrippa I (Drusilla, Mariamne, Bernice). Her father murdered
James, her great-uncle Herod Antipas slew John the Baptist, her
great-grandfather (Herod the Great) killed the babes of
Bethlehem. Perhaps the mention of Drusilla as "his own wife" is
to show that it was not a formal trial on this occasion. Page
thinks that she was responsible for the interview because of her
curiosity to hear Paul. {Sent for} (\metepempsato\). First aorist
middle of \metapempō\ as usual (Ac 10:5).

24:25 {Was terrified} (\emphobos genomenos\). Ingressive aorist
middle of \ginomai\, "becoming terrified." \Emphobos\ (\en\ and
old word, in the N.T. only Lu 24:5; Ac 10:5; 24:25; Re
11:13. Paul turned the tables completely around and expounded
"the faith in Christ Jesus" as it applied to Felix and Drusilla
and discoursed (\dialegomenou autou\, genitive absolute)
concerning "righteousness" (\dikaiosunēs\) which they did not
possess, "self-control" or temperance (\egkrateias\) which they
did not exhibit, and "the judgment to come" (\tou krimatos tou
which was certain to overtake them. Felix was brought
under conviction, but apparently not Drusilla. Like another
Herodias her resentment was to be feared (Knowling). {Go thy way
for this time}
(\to nun echon poreuou\). The ancient Greek has
this use of \to nun echon\ (Tobit 7:11) in the accusative of
time, "as for the present or holding the now." {When I have a
convenient season}
(\kairon metalabōn\). Second aorist active
participle of the old verb \metalambanō\, to find a share in, to
obtain. It was his "excuse" for dodging the personal turn that
Paul had given.

24:26 {He hoped withal} (\hama kai elpizōn\). "At the same time
also hoping." Paul had mentioned the "alms" (24:17) and that
excited the avarice of Felix for "money" (\chrēmata\). Roman law
demanded exile and confiscation for a magistrate who accepted
bribes, but it was lax in the provinces. Felix had doubtless
received them before. Josephus (_Ant_. XX. 8, 9) represents Felix
as greedy for money. {The oftener} (\puknoteron\). Comparative
adverb of \puknos\, old word, in N.T. only here and Lu 5:33
which see and 1Ti 5:23. Kin to \pugmē\ (Mr 7:3) which see
from \pukō\, thick, dense, compact. Paul kept on not offering a
bribe, but Felix continued to have hopes (present tense
, kept on sending for him (present tense
, and kept on communing (imperfect active
\hōmilei\ from \homileō\, old word as in Ac 20:11; Lu 24:14,
which see, only N.T. examples of this word)
. But he was doomed to
disappointment. He was never terrified again.

24:27 {But when two years were fulfilled} (\dietias de
. Genitive absolute first aorist passive of
\plēroō\, common verb to fill full. \Dietia\, late word in LXX
and Philo, common in the papyri, in N.T. only here and Ac
28:30. Compound of \dia\, two (\duo, dis\) and \etos\, year. So
Paul lingered on in prison in Caesarea, waiting for the second
hearing under Felix which never came. Caesarea now became the
compulsory headquarters of Paul for two years. With all his
travels Paul spent several years each at Tarsus, Antioch,
Corinth, Ephesus, though not as a prisoner unless that was true
part of the time at Ephesus for which there is some evidence
though not of a convincing kind. We do not know that Luke
remained in Caesarea all this time. In all probability he came
and went with frequent visits with Philip the Evangelist. It was
probably during this period that Luke secured the material for
his Gospel and wrote part or all of it before going to Rome. He
had ample opportunity to examine the eyewitnesses who heard Jesus
and the first attempts at writing including the Gospel of Mark
(Lu 1:1-4). {Was succeeded by} (\elaben diadochon\). Literally,
"received as successor." \Diadochos\ is an old word from
\diadechomai\, to receive in succession (\dia, duo\, two) and
occurs here alone in the N.T. Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 115)
gives papyri examples where \hoi diadochoi\ means "higher
officials at the court of the Ptolemies," probably "deputies," a
usage growing out of the "successors" of Alexander the Great
(Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_), though here the original
notion of "successor" occurs (cf. Josephus, _Ant_. XX. 8, 9).
Luke does not tell why Felix "received" a successor. The
explanation is that during these two years the Jews and the
Gentiles had an open fight in the market-place in Caesarea. Felix
put the soldiers on the mob and many Jews were killed. The Jews
made formal complaint to the Emperor with the result that Felix
was recalled and Porcius Festus sent in his stead. {Porcius
(\Porkion Phēston\). We know very little about this man.
He is usually considered a worthier man than Felix, but Paul
fared no better at his hands and he exhibits the same insincerity
and eagerness to please the Jews. Josephus (_Ant_. XX. 8, 9) says
that "Porcius Festus was sent as a successor to Felix." The
precise year when this change occurred is not clear. Albinus
succeeded Festus by A.D. 62, so that it is probable that Festus
came A.D. 58 (or 59). Death cut short his career in a couple of
years though he did more than Felix to rid the country of robbers
and _sicarii_. Some scholars argue for an earlier date for the
recall of Felix. Nero became Emperor Oct. 13, A.D. 54. Poppaea,
his Jewish mistress and finally wife, may have had something to
do with the recall of Felix at the request of the Jews. {Desiring
to gain favour with the Jews}
(\thelōn te charita katathesthai
tois Ioudaiois\)
. Reason for his conduct. Note second aorist
(ingressive) middle infinitive \katathesthai\ from \katatithēmi\,
old verb to place down, to make a deposit, to deposit a favour
with, to do something to win favour. Only here and 25:9 in
N.T., though in some MSS. in Mr 15:46. It is a banking figure.
{Left Paul in bonds} (\katelipe ton Paulon dedemenon\). Effective
aorist active indicative of \kataleipō\, to leave behind. Paul
"in bonds" (\dedemenon\, perfect passive participle of \deō\, to
was the "deposit" (\katathesthai\) for their favour. Codex
Bezae adds that Felix left Paul in custody "because of Drusilla"
(\dia Drousillan\). She disliked Paul as much as Herodias did
John the Baptist. So Pilate surrendered to the Jews about the
death of Jesus when they threatened to report him to Caesar. Some
critics would date the third group of Paul's Epistles
(Philippians, Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians) to the
imprisonment here in Caesarea, some even to one in Ephesus. But
the arguments for either of these two views are more specious
than convincing. Furneaux would even put 2Ti 4:9-22 here in
spite of the flat contradiction with Ac 21:29 about Trophimus
being in Jerusalem instead of Miletus (2Ti 4:20), a "mistake"
which he attributes to Luke! That sort of criticism can prove

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 24)