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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 25)

25:1 {Having come into the province} (\epibas tēi eparcheiāi\).
Second aorist active participle of \epibainō\, to set foot upon.
Literally, "Having set foot upon his province." \Eparcheia\ is a
late word for province, in N.T. only here and 23:34. Judea was
not strictly a province, but a department (Page) of the province
of Syria which was under a _propraetor_ (\legatus Caesaris\)
while Judea was under a _procurator_ (\epitropos\). {After three
(\meta treis hēmeras\). So in Ac 28:17 in Rome. That is
on the third day, with a day of rest in between. Precisely the
language used of the resurrection of Jesus "after three days" =
"on the third day." So by common usage then and now.

25:2 {The principal men} (\hoi prōtoi\). The first men, the
leading men of the city, besides the chief priests. In verse 15
we have "the chief priests and the elders." These chief men among
the Jews would desire to pay their respects to the new Procurator
on his first visit to Jerusalem. There was another high priest
now, Ishmael in place of Ananias. {Informed him against Paul}
(\enephanisan autōi kata tou Paulou\). "This renewal of the
charge after two years, on the very first opportunity, is a
measure, not only of their unsleeping hatred, but of the
importance which they attached to Paul's influence" (Furneaux).
{Besought} (\parekaloun\). Imperfect active, kept on beseeching
as a special favour to the Jews.

25:3 {Asking favour against him} (\aitoumenoi charin kat'
. A favour to themselves (middle voice), not to Paul, but
"against" (\kat'\, down, against) him. {That he would send for}
(\hopōs metapempsētai\). First aorist middle subjunctive of
\metapempō\ (see 24:24,26) with final particle \hopōs\ like
\hina\. Aorist tense for single case. {Laying wait} (\enedran
. See on ¯23:16 for the word \enedra\. Old idiom
(Thucydides) for laying a plot or ambush as here. Only these two
uses of \enedra\ in N.T. Two years before the Sanhedrin had
agreed to the plot of the forty conspirators. Now they propose
one on their own initiative. {On the way} (\kata tēn hodon\).
Down along, up and down along the way. Plenty of opportunity
would occur between Caesarea and Jerusalem for ambush and
surprise attacks.

25:4 {Howbeit} (\men oun\). No antithesis expressed, though Page
considers \de\ in verse 6 to be one. They probably argued that
it was easier for one man (Paul) to come to Jerusalem than for
many to go down there. But Festus was clearly suspicious (verse
and was wholly within his rights to insist that they make
their charges in Caesarea where he held court. {Was kept in
(\tēreisthai\). Present passive infinitive of \tēreō\ in
indirect assertion. \Hoti\ with finite verb is more common after
\apokrinomai\, but the infinitive with the accusative of general
reference is proper as here (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1036).
{Shortly} (\en tachei\). In quickness, in speed. Old and common
usage, seen already in Lu 18:8; Ac 12:7; 22:18. Festus is
clearly within his rights again since his stay in Caesarea had
been so brief. He did go down in "eight or ten days" (verse 6).
Luke did not consider the matter important enough to be precise.

25:5 {Them therefore which are of power among you} (\hoi oun en
humin dunatoi\)
. "The mighty ones among you," "the men of power"
(\dunatoi\) and authority, "the first men," the Sanhedrin, in
other words. Note change here by Luke from indirect discourse in
verse 4, to direct in verse 5 (\phēsin\, says he). {Go down
with me}
(\sunkatabantes\). Double compound (\sun, kata\) second
aorist active participle of \sunkatabainō\. It was a fair
proposal. {If there is anything amiss in the man} (\ei ti estin
en tōi andri atopon\)
. Condition of the first class, assuming
that there is (to be courteous to them), but not committing
himself on the merits of the case. \Atopon\ is an old word,
specially common in Plato, meaning "out of place." In N.T. only
here and Lu 23:41 which see; Ac 28:6; 2Th 3:2. Note present
tense active voice of \katēgoreitōsan\ (imperative) of
\katēgoreō\, repeat their accusations.

25:6 {On the morrow} (\tēi epaurion\). Locative case of the
article with \hēmerāi\ understood (\epaurion\, adverb, tomorrow).
Festus lost no time for the chief men had come down with him.
{Sat on the judgment seat} (\kathisas epi tou bēmatos\). A legal
formality to give weight to the decision. Ingressive aorist
active participle. For this use of \bēma\ for judgment seat see
on ¯Mt. 27:19; Joh 19:13; Acts 12:21; 18:12; 25:10,17. Same
phrase repeated in 25:17. {To be brought} (\achthēnai\). First
aorist passive infinitive of \agō\ after \ekeleusen\ (commanded).
Same words repeated in 25:17 by Festus.

25:7 {When he was come} (\paragenomenou autou\). Genitive
absolute of common verb \paraginomai\ (cf. 24:24). {Which had
come down}
(\hoi katabebēkotes\). Perfect active participle of
\katabainō\. They had come down on purpose at the invitation of
Festus (verse 5), and were now ready. {Stood round about him}
(\periestēsan auton\). Second aorist (ingressive) active
(intransitive) of \periistēmi\, old verb, "Took their stand
around him," "_periculum intentantes_" (Bengel). Cf. Lu 23:10
about Christ. They have no lawyer this time, but they mass their
forces so as to impress Festus. {Bringing against him}
(\katapherontes\). Bearing down on. See on ¯20:9; 26:10, only
N.T. examples of this ancient verb. {Many and grievous charges}
(\polla kai barea aitiōmata\). This word \aitiōma\ for old form
\aitiama\ is found in one papyrus (Moulton and Milligan's
in sense of "blame." But the charges were no
"heavier" than those made by Tertullus (24:5-8). Paul's reply
proves this and they were also probably on court record
(Furneaux). See this adjective \barus\ (heavy) used with \lukoi\
(wolves) in 20:29. {Which they could not prove} (\ha ouk
ischuon apodeixai\)
. Imperfect active of \ischuō\, to have
strength or power as in 19:16,20. Repetition and reiteration
and vehemence took the place of proof (\apodeixai\, first aorist
active infinitive of \apodeiknumi\, to show forth, old verb, in
N.T. only here, Ac 2:22 which see and 1Co 4:9)

25:8 {While Paul said in his defence} (\tou Paulou
. Genitive absolute again, present middle
participle of \apologeomai\, old verb to make defence as in
19:33; 24:10; 26:1,2. The recitative \hoti\ of the Greek before
a direct quotation is not reproduced in English. {Have I sinned
at all}
(\ti hēmarton\). Constative aorist active indicative of
\hamartanō\, to miss, to sin. The \ti\ is cognate accusative (or
adverbial accusative)
. Either makes sense. Paul sums up the
charges under the three items of law of the Jews, the temple, the
Roman state (Caesar). This last was the one that would interest
Festus and, if proved, would render Paul guilty of treason
(\majestas\). Nero was Emperor A.D. 54-68, the last of the
emperors with any hereditary claim to the name "Caesar." Soon it
became merely a title like Kaiser and Czar (modern derivatives).
In Acts only "Caesar" and "Augustus" are employed for the
Emperor, not "King" (\Basileus\) as from the time of Domitian.
Paul's denial is complete and no proof had been presented. Luke
was apparently present at the trial.

25:9 {Desiring to gain favour with the Jews} (\thelōn tois
Ioudaiois charin katathesthai\)
. Precisely the expression used of
Felix by Luke in 24:27 which see. Festus, like Felix, falls a
victim to fear of the Jews. {Before me} (\ep' emou\). Same use of
\epi\ with the genitive as in 23:30; 24:19,21. Festus, seeing
that it was unjust to condemn Paul and yet disadvantageous to
absolve him (Blass), now makes the very proposal to Paul that the
rulers had made to him in Jerusalem (verse 3). He added the
words "\ep' emou\" (before me) as if to insure Paul of justice.
If Festus was unwilling to give Paul justice in Caesarea where
his regular court held forth, what assurance was there that
Festus would give it to him at Jerusalem in the atmosphere of
intense hostility to Paul? Only two years ago the mob, the
Sanhedrin, the forty conspirators had tried to take his life in
Jerusalem. Festus had no more courage to do right than Felix,
however plausible his language might sound. Festus also, while
wanting Paul to think that he would in Jerusalem "be judged of
these things before me," in reality probably intended to turn
Paul over to the Sanhedrin in order to please the Jews, probably
with Festus present also to see that Paul received justice (\me
. Festus possibly was surprised to find that the
charges were chiefly against Jewish law, though one was against
Caesar. It was not a mere change of venue that Paul sensed, but
the utter unwillingness of Festus to do his duty by him and his
willingness to connive at Jewish vengeance on Paul. Paul had
faced the mob and the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem, two years of
trickery at the hands of Felix in Caesarea, and now he is
confronted by the bland chicanery of Festus. It is too much, the
last straw.

25:10 {I am standing before Caesar's judgment-seat} (\Hestōs epi
tou bēmatos Kaisaros eimi\)
. Periphrastic present perfect
indicative (\hestōs eimi\), second perfect participle \hestōs\ of
\histēmi\ (intransitive). Paul means to say that he is a Roman
citizen before a Roman tribunal. Festus was the representative of
Caesar and had no right to hand him over to a Jewish tribunal.
Festus recognized this by saying to Paul "wilt thou" (\theleis\).
{Where I ought to be judged} (\hou me dei krinesthai\). Rather,
"Where I must be judged," for \dei\ expresses necessity (it is
. Paul exposes the conduct of Festus with merciless
precision. {As thou also very well knowest} (\hōs kai su kallion
. "As thou also dost understand (hast additional
knowledge, \epiginōskeis\)
better" (than thou art willing to
. That this is Paul's meaning by the use of the comparative
\kallion\ (positive \kalōs\) is made plain by the confession of
Festus to Agrippa in verse 18. Paul says that Festus knows that
he has done no wrong to the Jews at all (\ouden ēdikēka\) and yet
he is trying to turn him over to the wrath of the Jews in

25:11 {If I am a wrong-doer} (\ei men oun adikō\). Condition of
the first class with \ei\ and the present active indicative of
\adikeō\ (\a\ privative and \dikē\): "If I am in the habit of
doing injustice," assuming it to be true for the sake of
argument. {And have committed anything worthy of death} (\kai
axion thanatou pepracha\)
. Same condition with the difference in
tense (\pepracha\, perfect active indicative) of a single case
instead of a general habit. Assuming either or both Paul draws
his conclusion. {I refuse not to die} (\ou paraitoumai to
. Old verb to ask alongside, to beg from, to
deprecate, to refuse, to decline. See on ¯Lu 14:18f. Josephus
(_Life_, 29) has \thanein ou paraitoumai\. Here the articular
second aorist active infinitive is in the accusative case the
object of \paraitoumai\: "I do not beg off dying from myself."
{But if none of these things is} (\ei de ouden estin\). \De\ here
is contrasted with \men\ just before. No word for "true" in the
Greek. \Estin\ ("is") in the Greek here means "exists." Same
condition (first class, assumed as true). {Whereof these accuse
(\hōn houtoi katēgorousin mou\). Genitive of relative \hon\
by attraction from \ha\ (accusative with \katēgorousin\) to case
of the unexpressed antecedent \toutōn\ ("of these things"). \Mou\
is genitive of person after \katēgorousin\. {No man can give me
up to them}
(\oudeis me dunatai autois charisasthai\). "Can"
legally. Paul is a Roman citizen and not even Festus can make a
free gift (\charisasthai\) of Paul to the Sanhedrin. {I appeal
unto Caesar}
(\Kaisara epikaloumai\). Technical phrase like Latin
_Caesarem appello_. Originally the Roman law allowed an appeal
from the magistrate to the people (_provocatio ad populum_), but
the emperor represented the people and so the appeal to Caesar
was the right of every Roman citizen. Paul had crossed the
Rubicon on this point and so took his case out of the hands of
dilatory provincial justice (really injustice). Roman citizens
could make this appeal in capital offences. There would be
expense connected with it, but better that with some hope than
delay and certain death in Jerusalem. Festus was no better than
Felix in his vacillation and desire to curry favour with the Jews
at Paul's expense. No doubt Paul's long desire to see Rome
(19:21; Ro 15:22-28) and the promise of Jesus that he would see
Rome (Ac 23:11) played some part in Paul's decision. But he
made it reluctantly for he says in Rome (Ac 28:19): "I was
constrained to appeal." But acquittal at the hands of Festus with
the hope of going to Rome as a free man had vanished.

25:12 {When he had conferred with the council} (\sunlalēsas meta
tou sumbouliou\)
. The word \sumboulion\ in the N.T. usually means
"counsel" as in Mt 12:14, but here alone as an assembly of
counsellors or council. But the papyri (Milligan and Moulton's
furnish a number of instances of this sense of the
word as "council." Here it apparently means the chief officers
and personal retinue of the procurator, his assessors
(\assessores consiliarii\). These local advisers were a
necessity. Some discretion was allowed the governor about
granting the appeal. If the prisoner were a well-known robber or
pirate, it could be refused. {Thou hast appealed unto Caesar}
(\Kaisara epikeklēsai\). The same technical word, but the perfect
tense of the indicative. {Unto Caesar thou shalt go} (\epi
Kaisara poreusēi\)
. Perhaps the volitive future (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 874)
. Bengel thinks that Festus sought to frighten
Paul with these words. Knowling suggests that "they may have been
uttered, if not with a sneer, yet with the implication 'thou
little knowest what an appeal to Caesar means.'" But
embarrassment will come to Festus. He has refused to acquit this
prisoner. Hence he must formulate charges against him to go
before Caesar.

25:13 {When certain days were passed} (\Hēmerōn diagenomenon\).
Genitive absolute of \diaginomai\, to come between, "days
intervening." {Agrippa the King} (\Agrippas ho basileus\).
Agrippa II son of Agrippa I of Ac 12:20-23. On the death of
Herod King of Chalcis A.D. 48, Claudius A.D. 50 gave this Herod
Agrippa II the throne of Chalcis so that Luke is correct in
calling him king, though he is not king of Judea. But he was also
given by Claudius the government of the temple and the right of
appointing the high priest. Later he was given also the
tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias. He was the last Jewish king
in Palestine, though not king of Judea. He angered the Jews by
building his palace so as to overlook the temple and by frequent
changes in the high priesthood. He made his capital at Caesarea
Philippi which he called Neronias in honour of Nero. Titus
visited it after the fall of Jerusalem. {Bernice} (\Bernikē\). He
was her brother and yet she lived with him in shameful intimacy
in spite of her marriage to her uncle Herod King of Chalcis and
to Polemon King of Cilicia whom she left. Schuerer calls her both
a Jewish bigot and a wanton. She afterwards became the mistress
of Titus. {Arrived at Caesarea} (\katēntēsan eis Kaisarian\).
Came down (first aorist active of \katantaō\) to Caesarea from
Jerusalem. {And saluted Festus} (\aspasamenoi ton Phēston\). The
Textus Receptus has \aspasomenoi\ the future participle, but the
correct text is the aorist middle participle \aspasamenoi\ which
cannot possibly mean subsequent action as given in the Canterbury
Revision "and saluted." It can only mean contemporaneous
(simultaneous) action "saluting" or antecedent action like the
margin "having saluted." But antecedent action is not possible
here, so that simultaneous action is the only alternative. It is
to be noted that the salutation synchronized with the arrival in
Caesarea (note \kata\, down, the effective aorist tense), not
with the departure from Jerusalem, nor with the whole journey.
Rightly understood the aorist participle here gives no trouble at
all (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 861-3).

25:14 {Tarried} (\dietribon\). Imperfect active of \diatribō\,
common verb for spending time (Ac 12:19, etc.). {Many days}
(\pleious hēmeras\). More days (than a few). Accusative case for
extent of time. {Laid Paul's case} (\anetheto ta kata ton
. Second aorist middle indicative of \anatithēmi\, old
verb to set before, to place up, as if for consultation in
conference. Only twice in N.T. here and Ga 2:2. The motive of
Festus is not given, though it was natural enough in view of the
quandary of Festus about Paul (the things about Paul) and
Agrippa's interest in and responsibility for Jewish worship in
the temple in Jerusalem. It is quite possible that Festus had a
bit of \ennui\ over the visit of these Jewish dignitaries as
"more days" went by. Hence the tone of Festus about Paul in this
proposal for the entertainment of Agrippa and Bernice is
certainly one of superficial and supremely supercilious
indifference. {Left a prisoner} (\katalelimmenos desmios\).
Perfect passive participle of \kataleipō\, to leave behind. Paul
is one of Felix's left overs (left behind), a sort of "junk" left
on his hands. This cowardly Roman procurator thus pictures the
greatest of living men and the greatest preacher of all time to
this profligate pair (brother and sister) of sinners. Undoubtedly
today in certain circles Christ and his preachers are held up to
like contempt.

25:15 {Informed} (\enephanisan\). Same word as in 23:15,22;
25:2 which see. {Asking for sentence against him} (\aitoumenoi
kat' autou katadikēn\)
. Only N.T. example of this old word
(penalty, fine, condemnation) from \kata\ and \dikē\ (justice

25:16 {It is not the custom of the Romans} (\hoti ouk estin ethos
. If a direct quotation, \hoti\ is recitative as in
Authorized Version. Canterbury Revision takes it as indirect
discourse after \apekrithēn\ (I answered), itself in a relative
clause (\pros hous\) with the present tense (\estin\, is)
preserved as is usual. There is a touch of disdain (Furneaux) in
the tone of Festus. He may refer to a demand of the Jews before
they asked that Paul be brought to Jerusalem (25:3). At any
rate there is a tone of scorn towards the Jews. {Before that the
accused have}
(\prin ē ho katēgoroumenos echoi\). This use of the
optative in this temporal clause with \prin ē\ instead of the
subjunctive \an echēi\ is in conformity with literary Greek and
occurs only in Luke's writings in the N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_,
p. 970)
. This sequence of modes is a mark of the literary style
occasionally seen in Luke. It is interesting here to note the
succession of dependent clauses in verses 14-16. {The accusers
face to face}
(\kata prosōpon tous katēgorous\). Same word
\katēgoros\ as in 23:30,35; 25:18. This all sounds fair enough.
{And have had opportunity to make his defence concerning the
matter laid against him}
(\topon te apologias laboi peri tou
. Literally, "And should receive (\laboi\ optative
for same reason as \echoi\ above, second aorist active of
opportunity for defence (objective genitive)
concerning the charge" (\egklēmatos\ in N.T. only here and
23:19 which see)

25:17 {When they were come together here} (\sunelthontōn
. Genitive absolute of second aorist active participle
of \sunerchomai\, but without \autōn\ (they), merely understood.
{Delay} (\anabolēn\). Old word from \anaballō\, only here in N.T.

25:18 {Brought} (\epheron\). Imperfect active of \pherō\,
referring to their repeated charges. {Of such evil things as I
(\hōn egō hupenooun ponērōn\). Incorporation of the
antecedent \ponērōn\ into the relative clause and change of the
case of the relative from the accusative \ha\ object of
\hupenooun\ to the genitive like \ponērōn\ (Robertson, _Grammar_,
p. 719)
. Note the imperfect active \hupenooun\ of \huponoeō\ to
emphasize Festus's state of mind about Paul before the trial.
This old verb only three times in the N.T. (here, Ac 13:25
which see; 27:27)

25:19 {But had} (\de eichon\). Descriptive imperfect active of
\echō\ and \de\ of contrast (but). {Concerning their own
(\peri tēs idias deisidaimonias\). See on ¯17:22 for
discussion of this word. Festus would hardly mean "superstition,"
whatever he really thought, because Agrippa was a Jew. {And of
one Jesus}
(\kai peri tinos Iēsou\). This is the climax of
supercilious scorn toward both Paul and "one Jesus." {Who was
(\tethnēkotos\). Perfect active participle of \thnēskō\
agreeing with \Iēsou\ (genitive). As being dead. {Whom Paul
affirmed to be alive}
(\hon ephasken ho Paulos zēin\). Imperfect
active of \phaskō\, old form of \phēmi\ to say, in the N.T. only
here and Ac 24:9; Ro 1:22. Infinitive \zēin\ in indirect
discourse with \hon\ (whom) the accusative of general reference.
With all his top-loftical airs Festus has here correctly stated
the central point of Paul's preaching about Jesus as no longer
dead, but living.

25:20 {Being perplexed} (\aporoumenos\). Present middle
participle of the common verb \aporeō\ (\a\ privative and \poros\
, to be in doubt which way to turn, already in Mr 6:20
which see and Lu 24:4. The Textus Receptus has \eis\ after
here, but critical text has only the accusative which this verb
allows (Mr 6:20) as in Thucydides and Plato. {How to inquire
concerning these things}
(\tēn peri toutōn zētēsin\). Literally,
"as to the inquiry concerning these things." This is not the
reason given by Luke in verse 9 (wanting to curry favour with
the Jews)
, but doubtless this motive also actuated Festus as both
could be true. {Whether he would go to Jerusalem} (\ei bouloito
poreuesthai eis Ierosoluma\)
. Optative in indirect question after
\elegon\ (asked or said) imperfect active, though the present
indicative could have been retained with change of person: "Dost
thou wish, etc.," (\ei boulēi\, etc.). See Robertson, _Grammar_,
pp. 1031, 1044. This is the question put to Paul in verse 9
though \theleis\ is there used.

25:21 {When Paul had appealed} (\tou Paulou epikalesamenou\).
Genitive absolute with first aorist middle participle of
\epikaleomai\, the technical word for appeal (verses 11,12).
The first aorist passive infinitive \tērēthēnai\ (to be kept) is
the object of the participle. {For the decision of the emperor}
(\eis tēn tou Sebastou diagnōsin\). \Diagnōsin\ (cf.
\diagnōsomai\ 24:22, I will determine)
is the regular word for
a legal examination (\cognitio\), thorough sifting (\dia\), here
only in N.T. Instead of "the Emperor" it should be "the
Augustus," as \Sebastos\ is simply the Greek translation of
_Augustus_, the adjective (Revered, Reverent) assumed by Octavius
B.C. 27 as the \agnomen\ that summed up all his various offices
instead of _Rex_ so offensive to the Romans having led to the
death of Julius Caesar. The successors of Octavius assumed
_Augustus_ as a title. The Greek term \Sebastos\ has the notion
of worship (cf. \sebasma\ in Acts 17:25). In the N.T. only
here, verse 25; 27:1 (of the legion). It was more imposing than
"Caesar" which was originally a family name (always official in
the N.T.)
and it fell in with the tendency toward emperor-worship
which later played such a large part in Roman life and which
Christians opposed so bitterly. China is having a revival of this
idea in the insistence on bowing three times to the picture of
Sun-Yat-Sen. {Till I should send him to Caesar} (\heōs an
anapempsō auton pros Kaisara\)
. Here \anapempsō\ can be either
future indicative or first aorist subjunctive (identical in first
person singular)
, aorist subjunctive the usual construction with
\heōs\ for future time (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 876). Literally,
"send up" (\ana\) to a superior (the emperor). Common in this
sense in the papyri and _Koinē_ writers. Here "Caesar" is used as
the title of Nero instead of "Augustus" as \Kurios\ (Lord) occurs
in verse 26.

25:22 {I also could wish} (\eboulomēn kai autos\). The imperfect
for courtesy, rather than the blunt \boulomai\, I wish, I want.
Literally, "I myself also was wishing" (while you were talking),
a compliment to the interesting story told by Festus. The use of
\an\ with the imperfect would really mean that he does not wish
(a conclusion of the second class condition, determined as
. \An\ with the optative would show only a languid
desire. The imperfect is keen enough and yet polite enough to
leave the decision with Festus if inconvenient for any reason
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 885-7). Agrippa may have heard much
about Christianity.

25:23 {When Agrippa was come and Bernice} (\elthontos tou Agrippa
kai tēs Bernikēs\)
. Genitive absolute, the participle agreeing in
number and gender (masculine singular, \elthontos\) with
\Agrippa\, \Bernikēs\ being added as an afterthought. {With great
(\meta pollēs phantasias\). \Phantasia\ is a _Koinē_ word
(Polybius, Diodorus, etc.) from the old verb \phantazō\ (Heb
and it from \phainō\, common verb to show, to make an
appearance. This is the only N.T. example of \phantasia\, though
the kindred common word \phantasma\ (appearance) occurs twice in
the sense of apparition or spectre (Mt 14:26; Mr 6:49).
Herodotus (VII. 10) used the verb \phantazō\ for a showy parade.
Festus decided to gratify the wish of Agrippa by making the
"hearing" of Paul the prisoner (verse 22) an occasion for
paying a compliment to Agrippa (Rackham) by a public gathering of
the notables in Caesarea. Festus just assumed that Paul would
fall in with this plan for a grand entertainment though he did
not have to do it. {Into the place of hearing} (\eis to
. From \akroaomai\ (to be a hearer) and, like the
Latin _auditorium_, in Roman law means the place set aside for
hearing, and deciding cases. Here only in the N.T. Late word,
several times in Plutarch and other _Koinē_ writers. The hearing
was "semi-official" (Page) as is seen in verse 26. {With the
chief captains}
(\sun te chiliarchois\). \Chiliarchs\, each a
leader of a thousand. There were five cohorts of soldiers
stationed in Caesarea. {And the principal men of the city} (\kai
andrasin tois kat' exochēn\)
. The use of \kat' exochēn\, like our
French phrase _par excellence_, occurs here only in the N.T., and
not in the ancient Greek, but it is found in inscriptions of the
first century A.D. (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_).
\Exochē\ in medical writers is any protuberance or swelling. Cf.
our phrase "outstanding men." {At the command of Festus}
(\keleusantos tou Phēstou\). Genitive absolute again, "Festus
having commanded."

25:24 {Which are here present with us} (\hoi sunparontes hēmin\).
Present articular participle of \sunpareimi\ (only here in N.T.)
with associative instrumental case \hēmin\. {Made suit to me}
(\enetuchon moi\). Second aorist active indicative of
\entugchanō\, old verb to fall in with a person, to go to meet
for consultation or supplication as here. Common in old Greek and
_Koinē_. Cf. Ro 8:27,34. See \enteuxis\ (petition) 1Ti 2:1.
Papyri give many examples of the technical sense of \enteuxis\ as
petition (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 121). Some MSS. have
plural here \enetuchon\ rather than the singular \enetuchen\.
{Crying} (\boōntes\). Yelling and demanding with loud voices.
{That he ought not to live any longer} (\mē dein auton zēin
. Indirect command (demand) with the infinitive \dein\
for \dei\ (it is necessary). The double negative (\mē--mēketi\)
with \zēin\ intensifies the demand.

25:25 {But I found} (\egō de katelabomēn\). Second aorist middle
of \katalambanō\, to lay hold of, to grasp, to comprehend as in
4:13; 10:34. {That he had committed nothing worthy of death}
(\mēden axion auton thanatou peprachenai\). Perfect active
infinitive of \prassō\ in indirect assertion with negative \mē\
and accusative \auton\ of general reference, the usual idiom.
Verse 25 repeats the statement in verse 21, perhaps for the
benefit of the assembled dignitaries.

25:26 {No certain thing} (\asphales ti--ou\). Nothing definite or
reliable (\a\ privative, \sphallō\, to trip). All the charges of
the Sanhedrin slipped away or were tripped up by Paul. Festus
confesses that he had nothing left and thereby convicts himself
of gross insincerity in his proposal to Paul in verse 9 about
going up to Jerusalem. By his own statement he should have set
Paul free. The various details here bear the marks of the
eyewitness. Luke was surely present and witnessed this grand
spectacle with Paul as chief performer. {Unto my lord} (\tōi
. Augustus (Octavius) and Tiberius refused the title of
\kurios\ (lord) as too much like _rex_ (king) and like master and
slave, but the servility of the subjects gave it to the other
emperors who accepted it (Nero among them). Antoninus Pius put it
on his coins. Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 105)
gives an ostracon dated Aug. 4, A.D. 63 with the words "in the
year nine of Nero the lord" (\enatou Nerōnos tou kuriou\).
Deissmann (_op. cit._, pp. 349ff.) runs a most interesting
parallel "between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar in
the application of the term \kurios\, lord" in ostraca, papyri,
inscriptions. Beyond a doubt Paul has all this fully in mind when
he says in 1Co 12:3 that "no one is able to say \Kurios Iēsous\
except in the Holy Spirit" (cf. also Php 2:11). The Christians
claimed this word for Christ and it became the test in the Roman
persecutions as when Polycarp steadily refused to say " Lord
Caesar" and insisted on saying "Lord Jesus" when it meant his
certain death. {Before you} (\eph' humōn\). The whole company. In
no sense a new trial, but an examination in the presence of these
prominent men to secure data and to furnish entertainment and
pleasure to Agrippa (verse 22). {Especially before thee}
(\malista epi sou\). Out of courtesy. It was the main reason as
verse 22 shows. Agrippa was a Jew and Festus was glad of the
chance to see what he thought of Paul's case. {After examination
(\tēs anakriseōs genomenēs\). Genitive absolute, "the
examination having taken place." \Anakrisis\ from \anakrinō\ (cf.
12:19; 24:8; 28:18)
is a legal term for preliminary
examination. Only here in the N.T. Inscriptions and papyri give
it as examination of slaves or other property. {That I may have
somewhat to write}
(\hopōs schō ti grapsō\). Ingressive aorist
subjunctive \schō\ (may get) with \hopōs\ (final particle like
. \Ti grapsō\ in indirect question after \schō\ is either
future indicative or aorist subjunctive (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
. Festus makes it plain that this is not a "trial," but an
examination for his convenience to help him out of a predicament.

25:27 {Unreasonable} (\alogon\). Old word from \a\ privative and
\logos\ (reason, speech). "Without reason" as of animals (Jude
1:10; 2Pe 2:12)
, "contrary to reason" here. These the only N.T.
instances and in harmony with ancient usage. {In sending}
(\pemponta\). Note accusative case with the infinitive \sēmānai\
though \moi\ (dative) just before. Cf. same variation in
15:22f.; 22:17. {Signify} (\sēmānai\). First aorist active
infinitive (not \sēmēnai\, the old form) of \sēmainō\, to give a
sign (\sēmeion\). {The charges} (\tas aitias\). This naive
confession of Festus reveals how unjust has been his whole
treatment of Paul. He had to send along with the appeal of Paul
_litterae dimissoriae_ (\apostoli\) which would give a statement
of the case (Page).

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 25)