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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 2)

2:1 {Was now come} (\en tōi sunplērousthai\). Luke's favourite
idiom of \en\ with the articular present infinitive passive and
the accusative of general reference, "in the being fulfilled
completely (perfective use of \sun-\) as to the day of
Pentecost." Common verb, but only in Luke in N.T. In literal
sense of filling a boat in Lu 8:23, about days in Lu 9:51 as
here. Whether the disciples expected the coming of the Holy
Spirit on this day we do not know. Blass holds that the present
tense shows that the day had not yet come. It is a Hebrew idiom
(Ex 7:25) and Luke may mean that the day of Pentecost was not
yet over, was still going on, though Hackett takes it for the
interval (fifty days) between Passover and Pentecost. Apparently
this day of Pentecost fell on the Jewish Sabbath (our Saturday).
It was the feast of first fruits. {All together in one place}
(\pantes homou epi to auto\). All together in the same place.
Note \homou\ here (correct text), not \homothumadon\ as in
1:14, and so a bit of tautology.

2:2 {Suddenly} (\aphnō\). Old adverb, but in the N.T. only in
Acts (2:2; 16:26; 28:6). Kin to \exaiphnēs\ (Ac 22:61). {A
(\ēchos\). Our \echo\. Old word, already in Lu 4:37 for
rumour and Lu 21:25 for the roar of the sea. It was not wind,
but a roar or reverberation "as of the rushing of a mighty wind"
(\hōsper pheromenēs pnoēs biaias\). This is not a strict
translation nor is it the genitive absolute. It was "an echoing
sound as of a mighty wind borne violently" (or rushing along like
the whirr of a tornado)
. \Pnoē\ (wind) is used here (in the N.T.
only here and 17:25 though old word)
probably because of the
use of \pneuma\ in verse 4 of the Holy Spirit. In Joh 3:5-8
\pneuma\ occurs for both wind and Spirit. {Filled} (\eplērōsen\).
"As a bath is filled with water, that they might be baptized with
the Holy Ghost, in fulfilment of Ac 1:5" (Canon Cook). {They
were sitting}
(\ēsan kathēmenoi\). Periphrastic imperfect middle
of \kathēmai\.

2:3 {Parting asunder} (\diamerizomenai\). Present middle (or
participle of \diamerizō\, old verb, to cleave asunder,
to cut in pieces as a butcher does meat (aorist passive in Lu
. So middle here would mean, parting themselves asunder
or distributing themselves. The passive voice would be "being
distributed." The middle is probably correct and means that "the
fire-like appearance presented itself at first, as it were, in a
single body, and then suddenly parted in this direction and that;
so that a portion of it rested on each of those present"
(Hackett). The idea is not that each tongue was cloven, but each
separate tongue looked like fire, not real fire, but looking like
(\hōsei\, as if) fire. The audible sign is followed by a visible
one (Knowling). "Fire had always been, with the Jews, the symbol
of the Divine presence (cf. Ex 3:2; De 5:4). No symbol could be
more fitting to express the Spirit's purifying energy and
refining energy" (Furneaux). The Baptist had predicted a
baptizing by the Messiah in the Holy Spirit and in fire (Mt
. {It sat} (\ekathisen\). Singular verb here, though plural
\ōpthēsan\ with tongues (\glōssai\). A tongue that looked like
fire sat upon each one.

2:4 {With other tongues} (\heterais glōssais\). Other than their
native tongues. Each one began to speak in a language that he had
not acquired and yet it was a real language and understood by
those from various lands familiar with them. It was not jargon,
but intelligible language. Jesus had said that the gospel was to
go to all the nations and here the various tongues of earth were
spoken. One might conclude that this was the way in which the
message was to be carried to the nations, but future developments
disprove it. This is a third miracle (the sound, the tongues like
fire, the untaught languages)
. There is no blinking the fact that
Luke so pictures them. One need not be surprised if this occasion
marks the fulfilment of the Promise of the Father. But one is not
to confound these miraculous signs with the Holy Spirit. They are
merely proof that he has come to carry on the work of his
dispensation. The gift of tongues came also on the house of
Cornelius at Caesarea (Ac 10:44-47; 11:15-17), the disciples of
John at Ephesus (Ac 19:6), the disciples at Corinth (1Co
. It is possible that the gift appeared also at Samaria
(Ac 8:18). But it was not a general or a permanent gift. Paul
explains in 1Co 14:22 that "tongues" were a sign to unbelievers
and were not to be exercised unless one was present who
understood them and could translate them. This restriction
disposes at once of the modern so-called tongues which are
nothing but jargon and hysteria. It so happened that here on this
occasion at Pentecost there were Jews from all parts of the
world, so that some one would understand one tongue and some
another without an interpreter such as was needed at Corinth. The
experience is identical in all four instances and they are not
for edification or instruction, but for adoration and wonder and
worship. {As the Spirit gave them utterance} (\kathōs to pneuma
edidou apophtheggesthai autois\)
. This is precisely what Paul
claims in 1Co 12:10,28, but all the same without an interpreter
the gift was not to be exercised (1Co 14:6-19). Paul had the
gift of tongues, but refused to exercise it except as it would be
understood. Note the imperfect tense here (\edidou\). Perhaps
they did not all speak at once, but one after another.
\Apophtheggesthai\ is a late verb (LXX of prophesying, papyri).
Lucian uses it of the ring of a vessel when it strikes a reef. It
is used of eager, elevated, impassioned utterance. In the N.T.
only here, verse 14; 26:25. \Apophthegm\ is from this verb.

2:5 {Were dwelling} (\ēsan katoikountes\). Periphrastic imperfect
active indicative. Usually \katoikeō\ means residence in a place
(4:16; 7:24; 9:22,32) as in verse 14 (Luke 13:4). Perhaps
some had come to Jerusalem to live while others were here only
temporarily, for the same word occurs in verse 9 of those who
dwell in Mesopotamia, etc. {Devout} (\eulabeis\). Reverent (\eu\,
well, \lambanō\, to take)
. See on ¯Lu 2:25 like Simeon waiting
for the consolation of Israel or hoping to die and be buried in
the Holy City and also Ac 8:2.

2:6 {When this sound was heard} (\genomenēs tēs phōnēs tautēs\).
Genitive absolute with aorist middle participle. Note \phōnē\
this time, not \ēcho\ as in verse 1. \Phōnē\ originally meant
sound as of the wind (Joh 3:8) or an instrument (1Co
, then voice of men. The meaning seems to be that the
excited "other tongues" of verse 4 were so loud that the noise
drew the crowd together. The house where the 120 were may have
been (Hackett) on one of the avenues leading to the temple. {Were
(\sunechuthē\). First aorist passive indicative of
\suncheō\ or \sunchunō\, to pour together precisely like the
Latin _confundo_, to confound. The Vulgate has it _mente confusa
est_. It is an old verb, but in the N.T. only in Acts five times
(2:6; 9:22; 19:32; 21:27,31). {In his own language} (\tēi idiāi
. Locative case. Each one could understand his own
language when he heard that. Every one that came heard somebody
speaking in his native tongue.

2:7 {Were amazed} (\existanto\). Imperfect middle of \existēmi\,
to stand out of themselves, wide-open astonishment. {Marvelled}
(\ethaumazon\). Imperfect active. The wonder grew and grew.
{Galileans} (\Galilaioi\). There were few followers of Jesus as
yet from Jerusalem. The Galileans spoke a rude Aramaic (Mr
and probably crude Greek vernacular also. They were not
strong on language and yet these are the very people who now show
such remarkable linguistic powers. These people who have come
together are all Jews and therefore know Aramaic and the
vernacular _Koinē_, but there were various local tongues "wherein
we were born" (\en hēi egennēthēmen\). An example is the
Lycaonian (Ac 14:11). These Galilean Christians are now heard
speaking these various local tongues. The lists in verses 9-11
are not linguistic, but geographical and merely illustrate how
widespread the Dispersion (\Diaspora\) of the Jews was as
represented on this occasion. Jews were everywhere, these "Jews
among the nations" (Ac 21:21). Page notes four main divisions
here: (I) The Eastern or Babylonian, like the Parthians, Medes,
Elamites, Mesopotamians. (2) The Syrian like Judea, Cappadocia,
Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, Pamphylia. (3) The Egyptian like Egypt,
Libya, Cyrene. (4) The Roman. {Jews and proselytes}
(\prosēlutoi\). These last from \proserchomai\, to come to, to
join, Gentile converts to Judaism (circumcision, baptism,
. This proselyte baptism was immersion as is shown by
I. Abrahams (_Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels_, p. 38).
Many remained uncircumcised and were called proselytes of the

2:11 {Cretes and Arabians}. These two groups "seem to have been
added to the list as an afterthought" (Knowling). Crete is an
island to itself and Arabia was separate also though near Judea
and full of Jews. The point is not that each one of these groups
of Jews spoke a different language, but that wherever there was a
local tongue they heard men speaking in it. {We do hear them
(\akouomen lalountōn autōn\). Genitive case \autōn\
with \akouō\ the participle \lalountōn\ agreeing with \autōn\, a
sort of participial idiom of indirect discourse (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 1040ff.)
. {The mighty works} (\ta megaleia\). Old
adjective for magnificent. In LXX, but only here (not genuine in
Lu 1:49)
in the N.T. Cf. 2Pe 1:16 for \megaleiotēs\

2:12 {Were perplexed} (\diēporounto\). Imperfect middle of
\diaporeō\ (\dia\, \a\ privative, \poros\) to be wholly at a
loss. Old verb, but in N.T. only in Luke and Acts. They continued
amazed (\existanto\) and puzzled. {What meaneth this?} (\Ti
thelei touto einai\)
. Literally, what does this wish to be?

2:13 {Mocking} (\diachleuazontes\). Old verb, but only here in
the N.T., though the simple verb (without \dia\) in 17:32.
\Chleuē\ means a joke. {With new wine} (\gleukous\). Sweet wine,
but intoxicating. Sweet wine kept a year was very intoxicating.
Genitive case here after \memestōmenoi eisin\ (periphrastic
perfect passive indicative)
, old verb \mestoō\, only here in the
N.T. Tanked up with new wine, state of fulness.

2:14 {Standing up with the eleven} (\statheis sun tois hendeka\).
Took his stand with the eleven including Matthias, who also rose
up with them, and spoke as their spokesman, a formal and
impressive beginning. The Codex Bezae has "ten apostles." Luke is
fond of this pictorial use of \statheis\ (first aorist passive
participle of \histēmi\)
as seen nowhere else in the N.T. (Lu
18:11,40; 19:8; Ac 5:20; 17:22; 27:21)
. {Lifted up his voice}
(\epēren tēn phōnēn autou\). This phrase only in Luke in the N.T.
(Lu 11:29; Ac 2:14; 14:11; 22:22), but is common in the old
writers. First aorist active indicative of \epairō\. The large
crowd and the confusion of tongues demanded loud speaking. "This
most solemn, earnest, yet sober speech" (Bengel). Codex Bezae
adds "first" after "voice." Peter did it to win and hold
attention. {Give ear unto my words} (\enōtisasthe ta rhēmata
. Late verb in LXX and only here in the N.T. First aorist
middle from \enōtizomai\ (\en, ous\, ear) to give ear to, receive
into the ear. People's ears differ greatly, but in public speech
they have to be reached through the ear. That puts an obligation
on the speaker and also on the auditors who should sit where they
can hear with the ears which they have, an obligation often

2:15 {As ye suppose} (\hōs humeis hupolambanete\). Note use of
\humeis\ (ye) for decided emphasis. {The third hour} (\hōra
. Three o'clock in the day Jewish time, nine Roman.
Drunkenness belongs to the night (1Th 5:7). It was a quick,
common sense reply, and complete answer to their suspicion.

2:16 {This is that which hath been spoken by the prophet Joel}
(\touto estin to eirēmenon dia tou prophētou Iōēl\). Positive
interpretation of the supernatural phenomena in the light of the
Messianic prophecy of Joe 2:28-32. Peter's mind is now opened
by the Holy Spirit to understand the Messianic prophecy and the
fulfilment right before their eyes. Peter now has spiritual
insight and moral courage. The {power} (\dunamis\) of the Holy
Spirit has come upon him as he proceeds to give the first
interpretation of the life and work of Jesus Christ since his
Ascension. It is also the first formal apology for Christianity
to a public audience. Peter rises to the height of his powers in
this remarkable sermon. Jesus had foretold that he would be a
Rock and now he is no longer shale, but a solid force for
aggressive Christianity. He follows here in verses 17-21
closely the LXX text of Joel and then applies the passage to the
present emergency (22-24).

2:17 {In the last days} (\en tais eschatais hēmerais\). Joel does
not have precisely these words, but he defines "those days" as
being "the day of the Lord" (cf. Isa 2:2; Mic 4:1). {I will
pour forth}
(\ekcheō\). Future active indicative of \ekcheō\.
This future like \edomai\ and \piomai\ is without tense sign,
probably like the present in the futuristic sense (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 354)
. Westcott and Hort put a different accent on
the future, but the old Greek had no accent. The old Greek had
\ekcheusō\. This verb means to pour out. {Of my Spirit} (\apo tou
. This use of \apo\ (of) is either because of the
variety in the manifestations of the Spirit (1Co 12) or because
the Spirit in his entirety remains with God (Holtzmann, Wendt).
But the Hebrew has it: "I will pour out my Spirit" without the
partitive idea in the LXX. {And your daughters} (\kai hai
thugateres h–mōn\)
. Anna is called a prophetess in Lu 2:36 and
the daughters of Philip prophesy (Ac 21:9) and verse 18
(handmaidens). See also 1Co 11:5 (\prophētousa\). {Visions}
(\horaseis\). Late word for the more common \horama\, both from
\horaō\, to see. In Re 4:3 it means appearance, but in Re
9:17 as here an ecstatic revelation or vision. {Dream dreams}
(\enupniois enupniasthēsontai\). Shall dream with (instrumental
dreams. First future passive of \enupniazō\ from \enupnios\
(\en\ and \hupnos\, in sleep), a common late word. Only here in
the N.T. (this from Joel as all these verses 17-21 are) and
Jude 1:8. {Yea and} (\kai ge\). Intensive particle \ge\ added
to \kai\ (and), an emphatic addition (=Hebrew _vegam_).
{Servants} (\doulous\), {handmaidens} (\doulas\). Slaves, actual
slaves of men. The humblest classes will receive the Spirit of
God (cf. 1Co 1:26-31). But the word "prophesy" here is not in
the LXX (or the Hebrew).

2:19 {Wonders} (\terata\). Apparently akin to the verb \tēreō\,
to watch like a wonder in the sky, {miracle} (\miraculum\),
marvel, portent. In the New Testament the word occurs only in the
plural and only in connection with \sēmeia\ (signs) as here and
in verse 43. But {signs} (\sēmeia\) here is not in the LXX. See
on Mt 11:20. In verse 22 all three words occur together:
powers, wonders, signs (\dunamesi, terasi, sēmeiois\). {As above}
(\anō\). This word is not in the LXX nor is "beneath" (\katō\),
both probably being added to make clearer the contrast between
heaven and earth. {Blood and fire and vapour of smoke} (\haima
kai pur kai atmida kapnou\)
. A chiasm as these words illustrate
bloodshed and destruction by fire as signs here on earth.

2:20 {Shall be turned} (\metastraphēsetai\). Second future
passive of \metastrephō\, common verb, but only three times in
the N.T. (Ac 2:20 from Joel; Jas 4:9; Ga 1:7). These are the
"wonders" or portents of verse 19. It is worth noting that
Peter interprets these "portents" as fulfilled on the Day of
Pentecost, though no such change of the sun into darkness or of
the moon into blood is recorded. Clearly Peter does not interpret
the symbolism of Joel in literal terms. This method of Peter may
be of some service in the Book of Revelation where so many
apocalyptic symbols occur as well as in the great Eschatological
Discourse of Jesus in Mt 24,25. In Mt 24:6,29 Jesus had
spoken of wars on earth and wonders in heaven. {Before the day of
the Lord come, that great and notable day}
(\prin elthein hēmeran
kuriou tēn megalēn kai epiphanē\)
. The use of \prin\ with the
infinitive and the accusative of general reference is a regular
Greek idiom. The use of the adjectives with the article is also
good Greek, though the article is not here repeated as in 1:25.
The Day of the Lord is a definite conception without the article.
{Notable} (\epiphanē\) is the same root as epiphany
(\epiphaneia\) used of the Second Coming of Christ (2Th 2:8; 1Ti
6:14; 2Ti 4:1; Tit 2:13)
. It translates here the Hebrew word for
"terrible." In the Epistles the Day of the Lord is applied
(Knowling) to the Coming of Christ for judgment (1Th 5:2; 1Co
1:8; 2Co 1:14; Php 1:10)

2:21 {Shall call on} (\epikalesētai\). First aorist middle
subjunctive of \epikaleō\, common verb, to call to, middle voice
for oneself in need. Indefinite relative clause with \ean\ and so
subjunctive, punctiliar idea, in any single case, and so aorist.

2:22 {Hear these words} (\akousate tous logous toutous\). Do it
now (aorist tense). With unerring aim Peter has found the
solution for the phenomena. He has found the key to God's work on
this day in his words through Joel. {as ye yourselves know}
(\kathōs autoi oidate\). Note \autoi\ for emphasis. Peter calls
the audience to witness that his statements are true concerning
"Jesus the Nazarene." He wrought his miracles by the power of God
in the midst of these very people here present.

2:23 {Him} (\touton\). "This one," resumptive and emphatic object
of "did crucify and slay." {Being delivered up} (\ekdoton\).
Verbal adjective from \ekdidōmi\, to give out or over. Old word,
but here only in the N.T. Delivered up by Judas, Peter means. {By
the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God}
hōrismenēi boulēi kai prognōsēi tou theou\)
. Instrumental case.
Note both purpose (\boulē\) and foreknowledge (\prognōsis\) of
God and "determined" (\hōrismenē\, perfect passive participle,
state of completion)
. God had willed the death of Jesus (Joh
and the death of Judas (Ac 1:16), but that fact did not
absolve Judas from his responsibility and guilt (Lu 22:22). He
acted as a free moral agent. {By the hand} (\dia cheiros\). Luke
is fond of these figures (hand, face, etc.) very much like the
Hebrew though the vernacular of all languages uses them. {Lawless
(\anomōn\). Men without law, who recognize no law for their
conduct, like men in high and low stations today who defy the
laws of God and man. Old word, very common in the LXX. {Ye did
(\prospēxantes\). First aorist active participle of
\prospēgnumi\, rare compound word in Dio Cassius and here only in
the N.T. One must supply \tōi staurōi\ and so it means "fastened
to the cross," a graphic picture like Paul's "nailed to the
cross" (\prosēlōsas tōi staurōi\) in Col 2:14. {Did slay}
(\aneilate\). Second aorist active indicative with first aorist
vowel \a\ instead of \o\ as is common in the _Koinē_. This verb
\anaireō\, to take up, is often used for kill as in Ac 12:2.
Note Peter's boldness now under the power of the Holy Spirit. He
charges the people to their faces with the death of Christ.

2:24 {God raised up} (\ho theos anestēsen\). _Est hoc summum
orationis_ (Blass). Apparently this is the first public
proclamation to others than believers of the fact of the
Resurrection of Jesus. "At a time it was still possible to test
the statement, to examine witnesses, to expose fraud, the Apostle
openly proclaimed the Resurrection as a fact, needing no
evidence, but known to his hearers" (Furneaux). {The pangs of
(\tas ōdinas tou thanatou\). Codex Bezae has "Hades"
instead of death. The LXX has \ōdinas thanatou\ in Ps 18:4, but
the Hebrew original means "snares" or "traps" or "cords" of death
where sheol and death are personified as hunters laying snares
for prey. How Peter or Luke came to use the old Greek word
\ōdinas\ (birth pangs) we do not know. Early Christian writers
interpreted the Resurrection of Christ as a birth out of death.
"Loosing" (\lusas\) suits better the notion of "snares" held a
prisoner by death, but birth pangs do bring deliverance to the
mother also. {Because} (\kathoti\). This old conjunction (\kata,
occurs in the N.T. only in Luke's writings. {That he
should be holden}
(\krateisthai auton\). Infinitive present
passive with accusative of general reference and subject of \ēn
adunaton\. The figure goes with "loosed" (\lusas\) above.

2:25 {Concerning him} (\eis auton\). Peter interprets Ps
16:8-11 as written by David and with reference to the Messiah.
There is but one speaker in this Psalm and both Peter here and
Paul in Ac 13:36 make it the Messiah. David is giving his own
experience which is typical of the Messiah (Knowling). {I beheld}
(\proorōmēn\). Imperfect middle without augment of \prooraō\,
common verb, but only twice in the N.T., to see beforehand (Ac
or to see right before one as here. This idea of \pro-\
is made plainer by "before my face" (\enōpion mou\). {On my right
(\ek dexiōn mou\). The Lord Jehovah like a defender or
advocate stands at David's right hand as in trials in court (Ps
. {That} (\hina\) here is almost result. {Moved}
(\saleuthō\). First aorist passive subjunctive of \saleuō\, to
shake like an earthquake.

2:26 {Was glad} (\ēuphranthē\). First aorist (timeless here like
the Hebrew perfect)
passive indicative of \euphrainō\ (cf. Lu
. Timeless also is "rejoiced" (\ēgalliasato\). {Shall
(\kataskēnōsei\). Shall tabernacle, pitch a tent, make
one's abode (cf. Mt 13:32). See on ¯Mt 8:20 about
\kataskēnōseis\ (nests) {In hope} (\ep' elpidi\). On hope, the
hope of the resurrection.

2:27 {In Hades} (\eis Hāidēn\). Hades is the unseen world, Hebrew
Sheol, but here it is viewed as death itself "considered as a
rapacious destroyer" (Hackett). It does not mean the place of
punishment, though both heaven and the place of torment are in
Hades (Lu 16:23). "Death and Hades are strictly parallel terms:
he who is dead is in Hades" (Page). The use of \eis\ here=\en\ is
common enough. The Textus Receptus here reads \eis Hāidou\
(genitive case) like the Attic idiom with \domon\ (abode)
understood. "Hades" in English is not translation, but
transliteration. The phrase in the Apostles' Creed, "descended
into hell" is from this passage in Acts (Hades, not Gehenna). The
English word "hell" is Anglo-Saxon from \helan\, to hide, and was
used in the Authorized Version to translate both Hades as here
and Gehenna as in Mt 5:22. {Thy Holy One} (\ton hosion sou\).
Peter applies these words to the Messiah. {Corruption}
(\diaphthoran\). The word can mean destruction or putrefaction
from \diaphtheirō\, old word, but in N.T. only here and Ac
13:34-37. The Hebrew word in Ps 16 can mean also the pit or
the deep.

2:28 {The ways of life} (\hodous zōēs\). Though dead God will
show him the ways back to life.

2:29 {I may say} (\exon eipein\). Supply \estin\ before \exon\,
periphrastic present indicative of \exeimi\, to allow, permit.
The Authorized Version has "Let me speak," supplying \esto\
present imperative. {Freely} (\meta parrēsias\). Telling it all
(\pan, rhēsia\ from \eipon\, to speak), with fulness, with
boldness. Luke is fond of the phrase (as in 4:13). It is a new
start for Simon Peter, full of boldness and courage. {The
(\tou patriarchou\). Transliteration of the word, from
\patria\, family, and \archō\, to rule, the founder of a family.
Late word in LXX. Used of Abraham (Heb 7:4), of the twelve sons
of Jacob as founders of the several tribes (Ac 7:8), and here
of David as head of the family from whom the Messiah comes. {Was
(\etaphē\). Second aorist passive indicative of \thaptō\.
His tomb was on Mt. Zion where most of the kings were buried. The
tomb was said to have fallen into ruins in the time of the
Emperor Hadrian. Josephus (_Ant_. XVI. 7, 1) attributes most of
the misfortunes of Herod's family to the fact that he tried to
rifle the tomb of David.

2:31 {Foreseeing} (\proidōn\). Second aorist active participle.
Did it as a prophet. {Of the Christ} (\tou Christou\). Of the
Messiah. See under verse 32. This is a definite statement by
Peter that David knew that in Ps 16 he was describing the
resurrection of the Messiah.

2:32 {This Jesus} (\touton ton Iēsoun\). Many of the name
"Jesus," but he means the one already called "the Nazarene"
(verse 22) and foretold as the Messiah in Ps 16 and raised
from the dead by God in proof that he is the Messiah (2:24,32),
"this Jesus whom ye crucified" (verse 36). Other terms used of
him in the Acts are the Messiah, verse 31, the one whom God
"anointed" (Ac 10:38), as in Joh 1:41, Jesus Christ (9:34).
In 2:36 God made this Jesus Messiah, in 3:20 the Messiah
Jesus, in 17:3 Jesus is the Messiah, in 18:5 the Messiah is
Jesus, in 24:24 Christ Jesus. {Whereof} (\hou\). Or "of whom."
Either makes sense and both are true. Peter claims the whole 120
as personal witnesses to the fact of the Resurrection of Jesus
from the dead and they are all present as Peter calls them to
witness on the point. In Galilee over 500 had seen the Risen
Christ at one time (1Co 15:6) most of whom were still living
when Paul wrote. Thus the direct evidence for the resurrection of
Jesus piles up in cumulative force.

2:33 {By the right hand of God} (\tēi dexiāi tou theou\). This
translation makes it the instrumental case. The margin has it
"at" instead of "by," that is the locative case. And it will make
sense in the true dative case, "to the right hand of God." These
three cases came to have the same form in Greek. Ro 8:24
furnishes another illustration of like ambiguity (\tēi elpidi\),
saved by hope, in hope, or for hope. Usually it is quite easy to
tell the case when the form is identical. {Exalted}
(\hupsōtheis\). First aorist passive participle of \hupsoō\, to
lift up. Here both the literal and tropical sense occurs. Cf.
Joh 12:32. {The promise of the Holy Spirit} (\tēn epaggelian
tou pneumatos tou hagiou\)
. The promise mentioned in 1:4 and
now come true, consisting in the Holy Spirit "from the Father"
(\para tou patros\), sent by the Father and by the Son (Joh
15:26; 16:7)
. See also Ga 3:14. {He hath poured forth}
(\execheen\). Aorist active indicative of \ekcheō\ the verb used
by Joel and quoted by Peter already in verses 17,18. Jesus has
fulfilled his promise. {This which ye see and hear} (\touto ho
humeis kai blepete kai akouete\)
. This includes the sound like
the rushing wind, the tongues like fire on each of them, the
different languages spoken by the 120. "The proof was before
their eyes in this new energy from heaven" (Furneaux), a
culminating demonstration that Jesus was the Messiah.

2:34 {Ascended not} (\ou--anebē\). It is more emphatic than that:
For not David ascended into the heavens. Peter quotes Ps 110:1
as proof. No passage in the O.T. is so constantly quoted as
Messianic as this. "St. Peter does not demand belief upon his own
assertion, but he again appeals to the Scriptures, and to words
which could not have received a fulfilment in the case of David"
(Knowling). {Sit thou} (\kathou\). Late _Koinē_ form for earlier
\kathēso\, present middle imperative second singular of

2:35 {Till I make} (\heōs an thō\). Second aorist active
subjunctive of \tithēmi\ with \an\ after \heōs\ for the future, a
common Greek idiom. This dominion of Christ as Mediator will last
till the plan of the kingdom is carried out (1Co 15:23-28).
Complete subjugation will come, perhaps referring to the custom
of victorious kings placing their feet upon the necks of their
enemies (Jos 10:24). {Therefore assuredly} (\Asphalōs oun\).
Assuredly therefore, without any slip or trip (\asphalēs\ from
\a\ privative and \sphallō\, to trip, to slip. Peter draws a
powerfully pungent conclusion by the use of the adverb \asphalōs\
and the inferential conjunction \oun\.)
Peter's closing sentence
drives home the point of his sermon: "This very Jesus whom ye
crucified (note \humeis\, strongly emphatic {ye}), him God made
both Lord and Messiah" (\kai kurion kai Christon\), as David
foretold in Ps 110 and as the events of this day have
confirmed. The critics are disturbed over how Luke could have
gotten the substance of this masterful address spoken on the spur
of the moment with passion and power. They even say that Luke
composed it for Peter and put the words in his mouth. If so, he
made a good job of it. But Peter could have written out the notes
of the address afterwards. Luke had plenty of chances to get hold
of it from Peter or from others.

2:37 {They were pricked in their heart} (\katenugēsan tēn
. Second aorist indicative of \katanussō\, a rare verb
(LXX) to pierce, to sting sharply, to stun, to smite. Homer used
it of horses dinting the earth with their hoofs. The substantive
\katanuxis\ occurs in Ro 11:8. Here only in the N.T. It is
followed here by the accusative of the part affected, the heart.
{What shall we do?} (\Ti poiēsōmen\). Deliberative subjunctive
first aorist active. The sermon went home, they felt the sting of
Peter's words, compunction (\compungo\). Codex Bezae adds: "Show

2:38 {Repent ye} (\metanoēsate\). First aorist (ingressive)
active imperative. Change your mind and your life. Turn right
about and do it now. You _crucified_ this Jesus. Now _crown_ him
in your hearts as Lord and Christ. This first. {And be baptized
every one of you}
(\kai baptisthētō hekastos h–mōn\). Rather,
"And let each one of you be baptized." Change of number from
plural to singular and of person from second to third. This
change marks a break in the thought here that the English
translation does not preserve. The first thing to do is make a
radical and complete change of heart and life. Then let each one
be baptized after this change has taken place, and the act of
baptism be performed "in the name of Jesus Christ" (\en tōi
onomati Iēsou Christou\)
. In accordance with the command of Jesus
in Mt 28:19 (\eis to onoma\). No distinction is to be insisted
on between \eis to onoma\ and \en tōi onomati\ with \baptizō\
since \eis\ and \en\ are really the same word in origin. In Ac
10:48 \en tōi onomati Iēsou Christou\ occurs, but \eis\ to
\onoma\ in 8:16; 19:5. The use of \onoma\ means in the name or
with the authority of one as \eis onoma prophētou\ (Mt 10:41)
as a prophet, in the name of a prophet. In the Acts the full name
of the Trinity does not occur in baptism as in Mt 28:19, but
this does not show that it was not used. The name of Jesus Christ
is the distinctive one in Christian baptism and really involves
the Father and the Spirit. See on ¯Mt 28:19 for discussion of
this point. "Luke does not give the form of words used in baptism
by the Apostles, but merely states the fact that they baptized
those who acknowledged Jesus as Messiah or as Lord" (Page). {Unto
the remission of your sins}
(\eis aphesin tōn hamartiōn h–mōn\).
This phrase is the subject of endless controversy as men look at
it from the standpoint of sacramental or of evangelical theology.
In themselves the words can express aim or purpose for that use
of \eis\ does exist as in 1Co 2:7 \eis doxan hēmōn\ (for our
. But then another usage exists which is just as good Greek
as the use of \eis\ for aim or purpose. It is seen in Mt 10:41
in three examples \eis onoma prophētou, dikaiou, mathētou\ where
it cannot be purpose or aim, but rather the basis or ground, on
the basis of the name of prophet, righteous man, disciple,
because one is, etc. It is seen again in Mt 12:41 about the
preaching of Jonah (\eis to kērugma Iōna\). They repented because
of (or at) the preaching of Jonah. The illustrations of both
usages are numerous in the N.T. and the _Koinē_ generally
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 592). One will decide the use here
according as he believes that baptism is essential to the
remission of sins or not. My view is decidedly against the idea
that Peter, Paul, or any one in the New Testament taught baptism
as essential to the remission of sins or the means of securing
such remission. So I understand Peter to be urging baptism on
each of them who had already turned (repented) and for it to be
done in the name of Jesus Christ on the basis of the forgiveness
of sins which they had already received. {The gift of the Holy
(\tēn dōrean tou hagiou pneumatos\). The gift consists
(Ac 8:17) in the Holy Spirit (genitive of identification).

2:39 {The promise} (\hē epaggelia\). The promise made by Jesus
(1:4) and foretold by Joel (verse 18). {To you} (\humin\).
You Jews. To your descendants, sons and daughters of verse 17.
{To all that are afar off} (\pāsin tois eis makran\.) The horizon
widens and includes the Gentiles. Those "afar off" from the Jews
were the heathen (Isa 49:1; 57:19; Eph 2:13,17). The rabbis so
used it. {Shall call} (\an proskalesētai\). First aorist middle
subjunctive with \an\ in an indefinite relative clause, a
perfectly regular construction. The Lord God calls men of every
nation anywhere whether Jews or Gentiles. It may be doubted how
clearly Peter grasped the significance of these words for he will
have trouble over this very matter on the housetop in Joppa and
in Caesarea, but he will see before long the full sweep of the
great truth that he here proclaims under the impulse of the Holy
Spirit. It was a great moment that Peter here reaches.

2:40 {With many other words} (\heterois logois pleiosin\).
Instrumental case. Not necessarily "different" (\heterois\), but
"further," showing that Luke does not pretend to give all that
Peter said. This idea is also brought out clearly by \pleiosin\
("more," not "many"), more than these given by Luke. {He
(\diemarturato\). First aorist middle of
\diamarturomai\, old verb, to make solemn attestation or call to
witness (perfective use of \dia\), while \martureō\ is to bear
witness. Page insists that here it should be translated
"protested solemnly" to the Jews as it seems to mean in Lu
16:28; Ac 20:23; 1Ti 5:21; 2Ti 2:14; 4:1. {And exhorted} (\kai
. Imperfect active, kept on exhorting. {Save
(\sōthēte\). First aorist passive of \sōzō\.
Literally, Be ye saved. {Crooked} (\skolias\). Old word, opposite
of \orthos\, straight. _Pravus_ the opposite of _rectus_, a
perversity for turning off from the truth. Cf. Lu 9:41; Php

2:41 {They then} (\Hoi men oun\). A common phrase in Acts either
without antithesis as in 1:6; 5:41; 8:4,25; 9:31; 11:19; 16:5;
or with it as here, 8:25; 13:4; 14:3; 17:17; 23:31; 25:4. \Oun\
connects with what precedes as the result of Peter's sermon while
\men\ points forward to what is to follow. {Were baptized}
(\ebaptisthēsan\). First aorist passive indicative, constative
aorist. Note that only those who had already received the word
and were converted were baptized. {There were added}
(\prosetethēsan\). First aorist passive indicative of
\prostithēmi\, old verb to add, to join to. Luke means that the
3,000 were added to the 120 already enlisted. It is not stated
they were all baptized by Peter or the twelve or all on the same
day, though that is the natural implication of the language. The
numerous pools in Jerusalem afforded ample opportunity for such
wholesale baptizing and Hackett notes that the habit of orientals
would place no obstacle in the way of the use of the public
reservoirs. Furneaux warns us that all the 3,000 may not have
been genuine converts and that many of them were pilgrims at the
passover who returned home. {Souls} (\psuchai\). Persons as in
verse 43.

2:42 {They continued steadfastly} (\ēsan proskarturountes\).
Periphrastic active imperfect of \proskartureō\ as in Ac 1:14
(same participle in verse 46). {Fellowship} (\koinōniāi\). Old
word from \koinōnos\ (partner, sharer in common interest) and
this from \koinos\ what is common to all. This partnership
involves participation in, as the blood of Christ (Php 2:1) or
co-operation in the work of the gospel (Php 1:5) or
contribution for those in need (2Co 8:4; 9:13). Hence there is
wide diversity of opinion concerning the precise meaning of
\koinōnia\ in this verse. It may refer to the distribution of
funds in verse 44 or to the oneness of spirit in the community
of believers or to the Lord's Supper (as in 1Co 10:16) in the
sense of communion or to the fellowship in the common meals or
\agapae\ (love-feasts). {The breaking of bread} (\tēi klasei tou
. The word \klasis\ is an old word, but used only by Luke
in the N.T. (Lu 24:35; Ac 2:42), though the verb \klaō\ occurs
in other parts of the N.T. as in verse 46. The problem here is
whether Luke refers to the ordinary meal as in Lu 24:35 or to
the Lord's Supper. The same verb \klaō\ is used of breaking bread
at the ordinary meal (Lu 24:30) or the Lord's Supper (Lu
. It is generally supposed that the early disciples
attached so much significance to the breaking of bread at the
ordinary meals, more than our saying grace, that they followed
the meal with the Lord's Supper at first, a combination called
\agapai\ or love-feasts. "There can be no doubt that the
Eucharist at this period was preceded uniformly by a common
repast, as was the case when the ordinance was instituted"
(Hackett). This led to some abuses as in 1Co 11:20. Hence it is
possible that what is referred to here is the Lord's Supper
following the ordinary meal. "To simply explain \tēi klasei tou
artou\ as='The Holy Communion' is to pervert the plain meaning of
words, and to mar the picture of family life, which the text
places before us as the ideal of the early believers" (Page). But
in Ac 20:7 they seem to have come together especially for the
observance of the Lord's Supper. Perhaps there is no way to
settle the point conclusively here. {The prayers} (\tais
. Services where they prayed as in 1:14, in the
temple (Ac 3:1), in their homes (4:23).

2:43 {Came} (\egineto\). Imperfect middle, kept on coming. {Were
(\egineto\). Same tense. Awe kept on coming on all and
signs and wonders kept on coming through the apostles. The two
things went on \pari passu\, the more wonders the more fear.

2:44 {Were together} (\ēsan epi to auto\). Some MSS. \ēsan kai\
(were and). But they were together in the same place as in 2:1.
{And had} (\kai eichon\). Imperfect active, kept on having, a
habit in the present emergency. {Common} (\koina\). It was not
actual communism, but they held all their property ready for use
for the common good as it was needed (4:32). This situation
appears nowhere else except in Jerusalem and was evidently due to
special conditions there which did not survive permanently. Later
Paul will take a special collection for the poor saints in

2:45 {Sold} (\epipraskon\). Imperfect active, a habit or custom
from time to time. Old and common verb, \pipraskō\. {Parted}
(\diemerizon\). Imperfect again of \diamerizō\, old verb for
dividing or distributing between (\dia\) people. {According as
any man had need}
(\kathoti an tis chreian eichen\). Regular
Greek idiom for comparative clause with \an\ and imperfect
indicative corresponding precisely with the three preceding
imperfects (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 967).

2:46 {With one accord in the temple} (\homothumadon en tōi
. See on ¯1:14 for \homothumadon\. They were still
worshipping in the temple for no breach had yet come between
Christians and Jews. Daily they were here and daily breaking
bread at home (\kat' oikon\) which looks like the regular meal.
{They did take their food} (\metelambanon trophēs\). Imperfect
tense again and clearly referring to the regular meals at home.
Does it refer also to the possible \agapai\ or to the Lord's
Supper afterwards as they had common meals "from house to house"
(\kat' oikon\)? We know there were local churches in the homes
where they had "worship rooms," the church in the house. At any
rate it was "with singleness" (\aphelotēti\) of heart. The word
occurs only here in the N.T., though a late _Koinē_ word
(papyri). It comes from \aphelēs\, free from rock (\phelleus\ is
stony ground)
, smooth. The old form was \apheleia\.

2:47 {Having favor} (\echontes charin\). Cf. Lu 2:52 of the Boy
Jesus. {Added} (\prosetithei\). Imperfect active, kept on adding.
If the Lord only always "added" those who join our churches. Note
verse 41 where same verb is used of the 3,000. {To them} (\epi
to auto\)
. Literally, "together." Why not leave it so? "To the
church" (\tēi ekklēsiāi\) is not genuine. Codex Bezae has "in the
church." {Those that were being saved} (\tous sōzomenous\).
Present passive participle. Probably for repetition like the
imperfect \prosetithei\. Better translate it "those saved from
time to time." It was a continuous revival, day by day. \Sōzō\
like \sōtēria\ is used for "save" in three senses (beginning,
process, conclusion)
, but here repetition is clearly the point of
the present tense.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 2)