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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 1)

1:1 _The Title_ is simply _Acts_ (\Praxeis\) in Aleph, Origen,
Tertullian, Didymus, Hilary, Eusebius, Epiphanius. _The Acts of
the Apostles_ (\Praxeis apostolōn\) is the reading of B D (Aleph
in subscription)
Athanasius, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian,
Eusebius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Theodoret, Hilary. _The Acts of the
Holy Apostles_ (\Praxeis tōn hagiōn apostolōn\) is read by A2 E G
H A K Chrysostom. It is possible that the book was given no title
at all by Luke, for it is plain that usage varied greatly even in
the same writers. The long title as found in the Textus Receptus
(Authorized Version) is undoubtedly wrong with the adjective
"Holy." The reading of B D, "_The Acts of the Apostles_," may be
accepted as probably correct.

{The former treatise} (\ton men prōton\). Literally, the first
treatise. The use of the superlative is common enough and by no
means implies, though it allows, a third volume. This use of
\prōtos\ where only two are compared is seen between the Baptist
and Jesus (Joh 1:15), John and Peter (Joh 20:4). The idiom is
common in the papyri (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 662, 669). The
use of \men solitarium\ here, as Hackett notes, is common in
Acts. It is by no means true that \men\ requires a following \de\
by contrast. The word is merely a weakened form of \mēn\=surely,
indeed. The reference is to the "first treatise" and merely
emphasizes that. The use of \logos\ (word) for treatise or
historical narrative is common in ancient Greek as in Herodotus 6
and 9. Plato (_Phaedo_, p. 61 B) makes a contrast between
\muthos\ and \logos\. {I made} (\epoiēsamēn\). Aorist middle
indicative, the middle being the usual construction for mental
acts with \poieō\. {O Theophilus} (\O Theophile\). The
interjection \O\ here as is common, though not in Lu 1:3. But
the adjective \kratiste\ (most excellent) is wanting here. See
remarks on Theophilus on ¯Lu 1:3. Hackett thinks that he lived
at Rome because of the way Acts ends. He was a man of rank. He
may have defrayed the expense of publishing both Luke and Acts.
Perhaps by this time Luke may have reached a less ceremonious
acquaintance with Theophilus. {Which Jesus began} (\hōn ērxato
. The relative is attracted from the accusative \ha\ to
the genitive \hōn\ because of the antecedent \pantōn\ (all). The
language of Luke here is not merely pleonastic as Winer held.
Jesus "began" "both to do and to teach" (\poiein te kai
. Note present infinitives, linear action, still going
on, and the use of \te--kai\ binds together the life and
teachings of Jesus, as if to say that Jesus is still carrying on
from heaven the work and teaching of the disciples which he
started while on earth before his ascension. The record which
Luke now records is really the Acts of Jesus as much as the Acts
of the Apostles. Dr. A. T. Pierson called it "The Acts of the
Holy Spirit," and that is true also. The Acts, according to Luke,
is a continuation of the doings and teachings of Jesus. "The
following writings appear intended to give us, and do, in fact,
profess to give us, that which Jesus _continued_ to do and teach
after the day in which he was taken up" (Bernard, _Progress of
Doctrine in the N.T._)

1:2 {Until the day in which} (\achri hēs hēmeras\). Incorporation
of the antecedent into the relative clause and the change of case
\hēi\ (locative) to \hēs\ (genitive). {Was received up}
(\anelēmpthē\). First aorist passive indicative of \analambanō\.
Common verb to lift anything up (Ac 10:16) or person as Paul
(Ac 20:13). Several times of the Ascension of Jesus to heaven
(Mr 16:19; Ac 1:2,11,22; 1Ti 3:16) with or without "into
heaven" (\eis ton ouranon\). This same verb is used of Elijah's
translation to heaven in the LXX (2Ki 2:11). The same idea,
though not this word, is in Lu 24:51. See Lu 9:51 for
\analēmpsis\ of the Ascension. {Had given commandment}
(\enteilamenos\). First aorist middle participle of \entellō\
(from \en\ and \tellō\, to accomplish), usually in the middle,
old verb, to enjoin. This special commandment refers directly to
what we call the commission given the apostles before Christ
ascended on high (Joh 20:21-23; Mt 28:16-20; Mr 16:15-18; 1Co
15:6; Lu 24:44-49)
. He had given commands to them when they were
first chosen and when they were sent out on the tour of Galilee,
but the immediate reference is as above. {Through the Holy
(\dia pneumatos hagiou\). In his human life Jesus was
under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. This applies to the choice
of the apostles (Lu 6:13) and to these special commands before
the Ascension. {Whom he had chosen} (\hous exelexato\). Aorist
middle indicative, not past perfect. The same verb
(\eklexamenos\) was used by Luke in describing the choice of the
twelve by Jesus (Lu 6:13). But the aorist does not stand "for"
our English pluperfect as Hackett says. That is explaining Greek
by English. The Western text here adds: "And ordered to proclaim
the gospel."

1:3 {To whom also} (\hois kai\). He chose them and then also
manifested himself to these very same men that they might have
personal witness to give. {Shewed himself alive} (\parestēsen
heauton zōnta\)
. To the disciples the first Sunday evening (Mr
16:14; Lu 24:36-43; Joh 20:19-25)
, the second Sunday evening
(Joh 20:26-29), at the Sea of Tiberias (Joh 21:1-23), on the
mountain in Galilee (Mt 28:16-20; Mr 16:15-18; 1Co 15:6), to
the disciples in Jerusalem and Olivet (Lu 24:44-53; Mr 16-19f.;
Ac 1:1-11)
. Luke uses this verb \paristēmi\ 13 times in the Acts
both transitively and intransitively. It is rendered by various
English words (present, furnish, provide, assist, commend). The
early disciples including Paul never doubted the fact of the
Resurrection, once they were convinced by personal experience. At
first some doubted like Thomas (Mr 16:14; Lu 24:41; Joh 20:24f.;
Mt 28:17)
. But after that they never wavered in their testimony
to their own experience with the Risen Christ, "whereof we are
witnesses" Peter said (Ac 3:15). They doubted at first, that we
may believe, but at last they risked life itself in defence of
this firm faith. {After his passion} (\meta to pathein auton\).
Neat Greek idiom, \meta\ with the articular infinitive (second
aorist active of \paschō\)
and the accusative of general
reference, "after the suffering as to him." For \pathein\ used
absolutely of Christ's suffering see also Ac 17:3; 26:23. {By
many proofs}
(\en pollois tekmēriois\). Literally, "in many
proofs." \Tekmērion\ is only here in the N.T., though an old and
common word in ancient Greek and occurring in the _Koinē_
(papyri, etc.). The verb \tekmairō\, to prove by sure signs, is
from \tekmar\, a sign. Luke does not hesitate to apply the
definite word "proofs" to the evidence for the Resurrection of
Christ after full investigation on the part of this scientific
historian. Aristotle makes a distinction between \tekmērion\
(proof) and \sēmeion\ (sign) as does Galen the medical writer.
{Appearing} (\optanomenos\). Present middle participle from late
verb \optanō\, late _Koinē_ verb from root \optō\ seen in
\opsomai, ōphthēn\. In LXX, papyri of second century B.C.
(Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 83). Only here in
the N.T. For \optasia\ for vision see Ac 26:19; Lu 1:22; 24:23.
{By the space of forty days} (\di' hēmerōn tesserakonta\). At
intervals (\dia\, between) during the forty days, ten appearances
being known to us. Jesus was not with them continually now in
bodily presence. The period of forty days is given here alone.
The Ascension was thus ten days before Pentecost when the Holy
Spirit came. Moses was in the mount forty days (Ex 24:18) and
Jesus fasted forty days (Mt 4:2). In the Gospel of Luke 24 this
separation of forty days between the Resurrection and the
Ascension is not drawn. {The things concerning the Kingdom of
(\ta peri tēs basileias tou theou\). This phrase appears 33
times in Luke's Gospel, 15 times in Mark, 4 times in Matthew who
elsewhere has "the kingdom of heaven," once in John, and 6 times
in Acts. No essential distinction is to be drawn between the two
for the Jews often used "heaven" rather than "God" to avoid using
the Tetragrammaton. But it is noticeable how the word kingdom
drops out of Acts. Other words like gospel (\euaggelion\) take
the place of "kingdom." Jesus was fond of the word "kingdom" and
Luke is fond of the idiom "the things concerning" (\ta peri\).
Certainly with Jesus the term "kingdom" applies to the present
and the future and covers so much that it is not strange that the
disciples with their notions of a political Messianic kingdom
(Ac 1:6) were slow to comprehend the spiritual nature of the
reign of God.

1:4 {Being assembled together with them} (\sunalizomenos\).
Present passive participle from \sunalizō\, an old verb in
Herodotus, Xenophon, etc., from sun, with, and \halizō\, from
\halēs\, crowded. The margin of both the Authorized and the
Revised Versions has "eating with them" as if from \sun\ and
\hals\ (salt). Salt was the mark of hospitality. There is the
verb \halisthēte en autōi\ used by Ignatius _Ad Magnes_. X, "Be
ye salted in him." But it is more than doubtful if that is the
idea here though the Vulgate does have _convescens illis_ "eating
with them," as if that was the common habit of Jesus during the
forty days (Wendt, Feine, etc.). Jesus did on occasion eat with
the disciples (Lu 24:41-43; Mr 16:14). {To wait for the promise
of the Father}
(\perimenein tēn epaggelian tou patros\). Note
present active infinitive, to keep on waiting for (around,
. In the Great Commission on the mountain in Galilee this
item was not given (Mt 28:16-20). It is the subjective
genitive, the promise given by the Father (note this Johannine
use of the word)
, that is the Holy Spirit ("the promise of the
Holy Spirit," objective genitive)
. {Which ye heard from me} (\hēn
ēkousate mou\)
. Change from indirect discourse (command),
infinitives \chōrizesthai\ and \perimenein\ after \parēggeilen\
to direct discourse without any \ephē\ (said he) as the English
(Italics). Luke often does this (_oratior ariata_). Note also the
ablative case of \mou\ (from me). Luke continues in verse 5
with the direct discourse giving the words of Jesus.

1:5 {Baptized with water} (\ebaptisen hudati\) {and with the Holy
(\en pneumati baptisthēsesthe hagiōi\). The margin has "in
the Holy Ghost" (Spirit, it should be). The American Standard
Version renders "in" both with "water" and "Holy Spirit" as do
Goodspeed (American Translation) and Mrs. Montgomery (Centenary
. John's own words (Mt 3:11) to which Jesus
apparently refers use \en\ (in) both with water and Spirit. There
is a so-called instrumental use of \en\ where we in English have
to say "with" (Re 13:10 \en machairēi\, like \machairēi\, Ac
. That is to say \en\ with the locative presents the act as
located in a certain instrument like a sword (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 589f.)
. But the instrumental case is more common
without \en\ (the locative and instrumental cases having the same
. So it is often a matter of indifference which idiom is
used as in Joh 21:8 we have \tōi ploiariōi\ (locative without
. They came {in} (locative case without \en\) the boat. So
in Joh 1:31 \en hudati baptizōn\ baptizing in water. No
distinction therefore can be insisted on here between the
construction \hudati\ and \en pneumati\ (both being in the
locative case, one without, one with \en\)
. Note unusual position
of the verb \baptisthēsesthe\ (future passive indicative) between
\pneumati\ and \hagiōi\. This baptism of the Holy Spirit was
predicted by John (Mt 3:11) as the characteristic of the
Messiah's work. Now the Messiah himself in his last message
before his Ascension proclaims that in a few days the fulfilment
of that prophecy will come to pass. The Codex Bezae adds here
"which ye are about to receive" and "until the Pentecost" to
verse 5. {Not many days hence} (\ou meta pollas tautas
. A neat Greek idiom difficult to render smoothly into
English: "Not after many days these." The litotes (not many=few)
is common in Luke (Lu 7:6; 15:13; Ac 17:27; 19:11; 20:12; 21:39;
28:14; 28:2)
. The predicate use of \tautas\ (without article) is
to be noted. "These" really means as a starting point, "from
these" (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 702). It was ten days hence.
This idiom occurs several times in Luke (Lu 24:21; Ac 24:21),
as elsewhere (Joh 4:18; 2Pe 3:1). In Lu 2:12 the copula is
easily supplied as it exists in Lu 1:36; 2:2.

1:6 {They therefore} (\hoi men oun\). Demonstrative use of \hoi\
with \men oun\ without any corresponding \de\ just as in 1:1
\men\ occurs alone. The combination \men oun\ is common in Acts
(27 times). Cf. Lu 3:18. The \oun\ is resumptive and refers to
the introductory verses (1:1-5), which served to connect the
Acts with the preceding Gospel. The narrative now begins. {Asked}
(\ērōtōn\). Imperfect active, repeatedly asked before Jesus
answered. {Lord} (\kurie\). Here not in the sense of "sir" (Mt
, but to Jesus as Lord and Master as often in Acts
(19:5,10, etc.) and in prayer to Jesus (7:59). {Dost thou
(\ei apokathistaneis\). The use of \ei\ in an indirect
question is common. We have already seen its use in direct
questions (Mt 12:10; Lu 13:23 which see for discussion),
possibly in imitation of the Hebrew (frequent in the LXX) or as a
partial condition without conclusion. See also Ac 7:1; 19:2;
21:37; 22:25. The form of the verb \apokathistanō\ is late (also
omega form for the old and common
\apokathistēmi\, double compound, to restore to its former state.
As a matter of fact the Messianic kingdom for which they are
asking is a political kingdom that would throw off the hated
Roman yoke. It is a futuristic present and they are uneasy that
Jesus may yet fail to fulfil their hopes. Surely here is proof
that the eleven apostles needed the promise of the Father before
they began to spread the message of the Risen Christ. They still
yearn for a political kingdom for Israel even after faith and
hope have come back. They need the enlightenment of the Holy
Spirit (Joh 14-16) and the power of the Holy Spirit (Ac

1:7 {Times or seasons} (\chronous ē kairous\). "Periods" and
"points" of time sometimes and probably so here, but such a
distinction is not always maintained. See Ac 17:26 for
\kairous\ in the same sense as \chronous\ for long periods of
time. But here some distinction seems to be called for. It is
curious how eager people have always been to fix definite dates
about the second coming of Christ as the apostles were about the
political Messianic kingdom which they were expecting. {Hath set}
(\etheto\). Second aorist middle indicative, emphasizing the
sovereignty of the Father in keeping all such matters to himself,
a gentle hint to people today about the limits of curiosity. Note
also "his own" (\idiāi\) "authority" (\exousiāi\).

1:8 {Power} (\dunamin\). Not the "power" about which they were
concerned (political organization and equipments for empire on
the order of Rome)
. Their very question was ample proof of their
need of this new "power" (\dunamin\), to enable them (from
\dunamai\, to be able)
, to grapple with the spread of the gospel
in the world. {When the Holy Ghost is come upon you}
(\epelthontos tou hagiou pneumatos eph' humas\). Genitive
absolute and is simultaneous in time with the preceding verb
"shall receive" (\lēmpsesthe\). The Holy Spirit will give them
the "power" as he comes upon them. This is the baptism of the
Holy Spirit referred to in verse 5. {My witnesses} (\mou
. Correct text. "Royal words of magnificent and Divine
assurance" (Furneaux). Our word martyrs is this word \martures\.
In Lu 24:48 Jesus calls the disciples "witnesses to these
things" (\martures toutōn\, objective genitive). In Ac 1:22 an
apostle has to be a "witness to the Resurrection" of Christ and
in 10:39 to the life and work of Jesus. Hence there could be no
"apostles" in this sense after the first generation. But here the
apostles are called "my witnesses." "His by a direct personal
relationship" (Knowling). The expanding sphere of their witness
when the Holy Spirit comes upon them is "unto the uttermost part
of the earth" (\heōs eschatou tēs gēs\). Once they had been
commanded to avoid Samaria (Mt 10:5), but now it is included in
the world program as already outlined on the mountain in Galilee
(Mt 28:19; Mr 16:15). Jesus is on Olivet as he points to
Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, the uttermost (last, \eschatou\) part
of the earth. The program still beckons us on to world conquest
for Christ. "The Acts themselves form the best commentary on
these words, and the words themselves might be given as the best
summary of the Acts" (Page). The events follow this outline
(Jerusalem till the end of chapter 7, with the martyrdom of
Stephen, the scattering of the saints through Judea and Samaria
in chapter 8, the conversion of Saul, chapter 9, the spread of
the gospel to Romans in Caesarea by Peter (chapter 10), to Greeks
in Antioch (chapter 11), finally Paul's world tours and arrest
and arrival in Rome(chapters 11 to 28)

1:9 {As they were looking} (\blepontōn autōn\). Genitive
absolute. The present participle accents the fact that they were
looking directly at Jesus. {He was taken up} (epērthē). First
aorist passive indicative of \epairō\, old and common verb
meaning to lift up. In Lu 24:51 we have "he was borne up"
(\anephereto\) and in Ac 1:2, 1:11; 1Ti 3:6 "was received up"
(\anelēmpthē\). {Received} (\hupelaben\). Second aorist active
indicative of \hupolambanō\, literally here "took under him." He
seemed to be supported by the cloud. "In glory" Paul adds in 1Ti
3:16. {Out of their sight} (\apo tōn ophthalmōn autōn\). From
their eyes (\apo\ with ablative case).

1:10 {Were looking steadfastly} (\atenizontes ēsan\).
Periphrastic imperfect active of \atenizō\, a late intensive verb
(intensive \a\ and \teinō\, to stretch). Common in Acts and also
in Lu 4:20; 22:56 as well as Ac 10:4, which see. {As he went}
(\poreuomenou autou\). Genitive absolute of present middle
participle. They saw him slipping away from their eyes as the
cloud bore him away. {Stood by them} (\pareistēkeisan autois\).
Past perfect active indicative of \paristēmi\ and intransitive
(note \i\ in B instead of \ei\ for augment, mere itacism).

1:11 {Who also} (\hoi kai\). Common use of \kai\ pleonastic to
show that the two events were parallel. This is the simplest way
from Homer on to narrate two parallel events. {Why?} (\ti\).
Jesus had told them of his coming Ascension (Joh 6:62; 20:17)
so that they should have been prepared. {This Jesus} (\houtos ho
. _Qui vobis fuit eritque semper Jesus, id est, Salvator_
(Corn. a Lapide). The personal name assures them that Jesus will
always be in heaven a personal friend and divine Saviour
(Knowling). {So in like manner} (\houtōs hon tropon\). Same idea
twice. "So in which manner" (incorporation of antecedent and
accusative of general reference)
. The fact of his second coming
and the manner of it also described by this emphatic repetition.

1:12 {Olivet} (\Elaiōnos\). Genitive singular. Vulgate
_Olivetum_. Made like \ampelōn\. Here only in the N.T., usually
\to oros tōn Elaiōn\ (the Mount of Olives), though some MSS. have
Olivet in Lu 19:29; 21:37. Josephus (_Ant_. VII. 9, 2) has it
also and the papyri (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p.
. {A sabbath day's journey off} (\Sabbatou echōn hodon\).
Luke only says here that Olivet is a Sabbath day's journey from
Jerusalem, not that Jesus was precisely that distance when he
ascended. In the Gospel Luke (24:50) states that Jesus led them
"over against" (\heōs pros\) Bethany (about two miles or fifteen
. The top of Olivet is six furlongs or three-fourths of
a mile. The Greek idiom here is "having a journey of a Sabbath"
after "which is nigh unto Jerusalem" (\ho estin eggus
, note the periphrastic construction. Why Luke
mentions this item for Gentile readers in this form is not known,
unless it was in his Jewish source. See Ex 16:29; Nu 35:5; Jos
3:4. But it does not contradict what he says in Lu 24:50,
where he does not say that Jesus led them all the way to Bethany.

1:13 {Into the upper chamber} (\eis to huperōion\). The upstairs
or upper room (\huper\ is upper or over, the adjective
, the room upstairs where the women staid in Homer,
then a room up under the flat roof for retirement or prayer (Ac
, sometimes a large third story room suitable for
gatherings (Ac 20:9). It is possible, even probable, that this
is the "large upper room" (\anōgeon mega\) of Mr 14:15; Lu
22:12. The Vulgate has _coenaculum_ for both words. The word is
used in the N.T. only in Acts. It was in a private house as in
Lu 22:11 and not in the temple as Lu 24:53 might imply,
"continually" (\dia pantos\) these words probably meaning on
proper occasions. {They were abiding} (\ēsan katamenontes\).
Periphrastic imperfect active. Perfective use of \kata\, to abide
permanently. It is possible that this is the house of Mary the
mother of John Mark where the disciples later met for prayer (Ac
. Here alone in the N.T., though old compound. Some MSS.
here read \paramenontes\. This could mean constant residence, but
most likely frequent resort for prayer during these days, some
being on hand all the time as they came and went. {Simon the
(\Simon ho Zēlōtēs\). Called Simon the Cananaean (\ho
in Mt 10:4, Mr 3:18, but Zealot in Lu 6:16 as
here giving the Greek equivalent of the Aramaic word because Luke
has Gentiles in mind. The epithet (member of the party of
clung to him after he became an apostle and
distinguishes him from Simon Peter. See Vol. I on the Gospel of
Matthew for discussion of the four lists of the apostles. {Judas
the son of James}
(\Joudas Iakōbou\). Literally, Judas of James,
whether son or brother (cf. Jude 1:1) we do not really know.
"Of James" is added to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot (Joh
. However we take it, he must be identified with the
Thaddaeus (=Lebbaeus) of Mark and Matthew to make the list in the
third group identical. No name appears in Acts for that of Judas

1:14 {With one accord} (\homothumadon\). Old adverb in \-don\
from adjective \homothumos\ and that from \homos\, same, and
\thumos\, mind or spirit, with the same mind or spirit. Common in
ancient Greek and papyri. In the N.T. eleven times in Acts and
nowhere else save Ro 15:6. See Mt 18:19. {Continued} (\ēsan
. Periphrastic imperfect active of
\proskartereō\, old verb from \pros\ (perfective use) and
\kartereō\ from \karteros\, strong, steadfast, like the English
"carry on." Already in Mr 3:9 which see and several times in
Acts and Paul's Epistles. They "stuck to" the praying (\tēi
proseuchēi\, note article)
for the promise of the Father till the
answer came. {With the women} (\sun gunaixin\). Associative
instrumental case plural of \gunē\ after \sun\. As one would
expect when praying was the chief work on hand. More women
certainly included than in Lu 8:2; Mr 15:40f.; Mt 27:55f.; Lu
23:49; Mr 15:47; Mt 27:61; Lu 23:55f.; Mr 16:1; Mt 28:1; Lu
24:1f.; Joh 20:1, 11-18; Mt 28:9f. There were probably other
women also whose testimony was no longer scouted as it had been
at first. Codex Bezae adds here "and children." {And Mary the
mother of Jesus}
(\kai Mariam tēi mētri tou Iēsou\). A delicate
touch by Luke that shows Mary with her crown of glory at last.
She had come out of the shadow of death with the song in her
heart and with the realization of the angel's promise and the
prophecy of Simeon. It was a blessed time for Mary. {With his
(\sun tois adelphois autou\). With his brothers, it
should be translated. They had once disbelieved in him (Joh
. Jesus had appeared to James (1Co 15:7) and now it is a
happy family of believers including the mother and brothers
(half-brothers, literally) of Jesus. They continue in prayer for
the power from on high.

1:15 {Brethren} (\adelphōn\). Codex Bezae has "disciples."
{Multitude of persons} (\ochlos onomatōn\). Literally, multitude
of names. This Hebraistic use of \onoma\=person occurs in the LXX
(Nu 1:2; 18:20; 3:40,43; 26:53) and in Re 3:4; 11:13.
{Together} (\epi to auto\). The word "gathered" is not in the
Greek here, but it does occur in Mt 22:34 and that is
undoubtedly the idea in Lu 17:35 as in Ac 2:1,44,47; 1Co
11:20; 14:23. So also here. They were in the same place (\to
. {About a hundred and twenty} (\hōs hekaton eikosi\). A
crowd for "the upper room." No special significance in the number
120, just the number there.

1:16 {Brethren} (\andres adelphoi\). Literally, men, brethren or
brother men. More dignified and respectful than just "brethren."
Demosthenes sometimes said \Andres Athēnaioi\. Cf. our "gentlemen
and fellow-citizens." Women are included in this address though
\andres\ refers only to men. {It was needful} (\edei\). Imperfect
tense of the impersonal \dei\ with the infinitive clause (first
aorist passive)
and the accusative of general reference as a
loose subject. Peter here assumes that Jesus is the Messiah and
finds scripture illustrative of the treachery of Judas. He
applies it to Judas and quotes the two passages in verse 20
(Ps 69:25; 109:8). The Holy Spirit has not yet come upon them,
but Peter feels moved to interpret the situation. He feels that
his mind is opened by Jesus (Lu 24:45). It is a logical, not a
moral, necessity that Peter points out. Peter here claims the
Holy Spirit as speaking in the scriptures as he does in 2Pe
1:21. His description of Judas as "guide" (\hodēgou\) to those
who seized (\sullabousin\) Jesus is that of the base traitor that
he was. This very verb occurs in Lu 22:54 of the arrest of

1:17 {Was numbered} (\katērithmenos ēn\). Periphrastic past
perfect passive indicative of \katarithmeō\, old verb, but here
only in the N.T. (perfective use of \kata\). {Received his
(\elachen ton klēron\). Second aorist active indicative
of \lagchanō\, old verb, to obtain by lot as in Lu 1:9; Joh
19:24, especially by divine appointment as here and 2Pe 2:1.
\Klēros\ also means lot, an object used in casting lots (Ac
, or what is obtained by lot as here and 8:21, of eternal
salvation (Ac 26:18; Col 1:12), of persons chosen by divine
appointment (1Pe 5:3). From this latter usage the Latin
_cleros, clericus_, our clergy, one chosen by divine lot. So
Peter says that Judas "obtained by lot the lot of this ministry"
(\diakonias\) which he had when he betrayed Jesus. The Master
chose him and gave him his opportunity.

1:18 {Now this man} (\Houtos men oun\). Note \men oun\ again
without a corresponding \de\ as in 1:6. Verses 18,19 are a
long parenthesis of Luke by way of explanation of the fate of
Judas. In verse 20 Peter resumes and quotes the scripture to
which he referred in verse 16. {Obtained} (\ektēsato\). First
aorist middle indicative of \ktaomai\, to acquire, only in the
middle, to get for oneself. With the covenant money for the
betrayal, acquired it indirectly apparently according to Mt
26:14-16; 27:3-8 which see. {Falling headlong} (\prēnēs
. Attic form usually \pranēs\. The word means, not
"headlong," but "flat on the face" as opposed to \huptios\ on the
back (Hackett). Hackett observes that the place suits admirably
the idea that Judas hung himself (Mt 27:5) and, the rope
breaking, fell flat on his face and {burst asunder in the midst}
(\elakēsen mesos\). First aorist active indicative of \laskō\ old
verb (here only in the N.T.), to clang, to crack, to crash, like
a falling tree. Aristophanes uses it of crashing bones. \Mesos\
is predicate nominative referring to Judas. {Gushed out}
(\exechuthē\). First aorist passive indicative of \ekcheō\, to
pour out.

1:19 {Language} (\dialektōi\). Not a dialect of the Greek, but a
different language, the Aramaic. So also in 2:6; 21:40.
\Dialektos\ is from \dialegomai\, to converse, to speak between
two (\dia\). {Akeldama} (\Hakeldamach\). This Aramaic word Peter
explains as "the field of blood." Two traditions are preserved:
one in Mt 27:7 which explains that the priests purchased this
potter's field with the money which Judas flung down as the price
of the blood of Jesus. The other in Acts describes it as the
field of blood because Judas poured out his blood there. Hackett
and Knowling argue that both views can be true. "The ill-omened
name could be used with a double emphasis" (Hackett).

1:20 {For it is written} (\gegraptai gar\). Luke here returns to
the address of Peter interrupted by verses 18,19. Perfect
passive indicative, the usual idiom in quoting scripture, stands
written. Ps 69 is often quoted as Messianic in Matthew and
John. {His habitation} (\hē epaulis autou\). Only here in the
N.T., a country house, cottage, cabin. {His office} (\tēn
episkopēn autou\)
. Our word bishopric (Authorized Version) is
from this word, office of bishop (\episcopos\). Only that is not
the idea here, but over-seership (\epi, skopeō\) or office as in
1Pe 2:12. It means to visit and to inspect, to look over. The
ecclesiastical sense comes later (1Ti 3:1).

1:21 {Must} (\dei\). Present necessity corresponding to the old
necessity (\edei\) about Judas (verse 16). This sentence in
verses 21,22 begins with \dei\. {That} (\hōi\). Locative case
of the relative attracted to the case of the antecedent. {Went in
and went out}
(\eisēlthen kai exēlthen\). Constative aorist
active. {With us} (\eph' hēmas\). {Over us}, the margin has it.
But the full phrase would be \eph' hēmas kai aph' hēmōn\. He came
to us and went from us (Knowling).

1:22 {Beginning} (\arxamenos\). Aorist middle participle of
\archō\, agreeing (nominative) with \ho kurios Iēsous\ (the Lord
. The ministry of Jesus began with the ministry of John.
Strictly speaking \arxamenos\ should be the accusative and agree
with \martura\ (witness) in verse 22, but the construction is a
bit free. The ministry of Jesus began with the baptism of John
and lasted until the Ascension. {A witness with us of his
(\martura tēs anastaseōs autou sun hēmin\). This
Peter considers the essential thing in a successor to Judas. The
one chosen should be a personal witness who can speak from his
own experience of the ministry, resurrection, and ascension of
the Lord Jesus. One can easily see that this qualification will
soon put an end to those who bear such personal testimony.

1:23 {They put forward two} (\estēsan duo\). First aorist active
indicative (transitive) of \histēmi\ (not intransitive second
aorist, though same form in the third person plural)
. Somebody
nominated two names, Justus and Matthias.

1:24 {Show us the one whom thou hast chosen} (\anadeixon hon
. First aorist active imperative of \anadeiknumi\, to
show up, make plain. First aorist middle indicative second person
singular of \eklegō\, to pick out, choose, select. In this prayer
they assume that God has made a choice. They only wish to know
his will. They call God the {heart-searcher} or {heart-knower}
(\kardiognōsta\, vocative singular), a late word, here and Ac
15:8 only in the N.T. Modern physicians have delicate apparatus
for studying the human heart.

1:25 {Apostleship} (\apostolēs\). Jesus had called the twelve
apostles. An old word for sending away, then for a release, then
the office and dignity of an apostle (Ac 1:25; Ro 1:5; 1Co 9:2;
Gal 2:8)
. {To his own place} (\eis ton topon ton idion\). A bold
and picturesque description of the destiny of Judas worthy of
Dante's _Inferno_. There is no doubt in Peter's mind of the
destiny of Judas nor of his own guilt. He made ready his own
berth and went to it.

1:26 {He was numbered} (\sunkatepsēphisthē\). To the Jews the lot
did not suggest gambling, but "the O.T. method of learning the
will of Jehovah" (Furneaux). The two nominations made a decision
necessary and they appealed to God in this way. This double
compound \sunkatapsēphizō\ occurs here alone in the N.T. and
elsewhere only in Plutarch (_Them_. 21) in the middle voice for
condemning with others. \Sunpsēphizō\ occurs in the middle voice
in Ac 19:19 for counting up money and also in Aristophanes.
\Psēphizō\ with \dapanēn\ occurs in Lu 14:28 for counting the
cost and in Re 13:18 for "counting" the number of the beast.
The ancients used pebbles (\psēphoi\) in voting, black for
condemning, white (Re 2:17) in acquitting. Here it is used in
much the same sense as \katarithmeō\ in verse 17.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 1)