[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 2)

2:1 {Be strengthened} (\endunamou\). Present passive imperative
of \endunamoō\. See already 1Ti 1:12; Ro 4:20; Php 4:13; Eph
6:10. "Keep on being empowered," "keep in touch with the power."
{In the grace that is in Christ Jesus} (\en tēi chariti tēi en
Christōi Iēsou\)
. Where the power is located. Christ is the
dynamo for power only when and while we keep in touch with him.

2:2 {From me} (\par' emou\). As in 1:13. Paul was Timothy's
chief teacher of Christ. {Among many witnesses} (\dia pollōn
. Plutarch has \dia\ in this sense and Field (_Ot.
suggests that it is a legal phrase "supported by many
witnesses." Not mere spectators, but testifiers. See Paul's use
of \dia\ 1Th 4:2; 2Co 2:4; Ro 2:27; 14:20. Paul in 1Co 15:1-8
gives many witnesses of the resurrection of Christ. {Commit thou}
(\parathou\). Second aorist middle imperative of \paratithēmi\
(1Ti 1:18) to deposit, same metaphor as \parathēkē\ in
1:12,14. "Deposit thou." {Faithful} (\pistois\). "Trustworthy,"
"reliable," as in 1Ti 1:12 of Paul himself. {Able} (\hikanoi\).
Capable, qualified, as in 1Co 15:9; 2Co 2:16; 3:5. {Others
(\kai heterous\). Not necessarily "different," but "others
in addition." This is the way to pass on the torch of the light
of the knowledge of God in Christ. Paul taught Timothy who will
teach others who will teach still others, an endless chain of
teacher-training and gospel propaganda.

2:3 {Suffer hardship with me} (\sunkakopathēson\). See 1:8 for
this verb. The old preacher challenges the young one to share
hardship with him for Christ. {As a good soldier} (\hos kalos
. Paul does not hesitate to use this military
metaphor (this word only here for a servant of Christ) with which
he is so familiar. He had already used the metaphor in 1Co 9:7;
2Co 10:3f.; 1Ti 1:18. In Php 2:25 he called Epaphroditus "my
fellow-soldier" (\sunstratiōtēn mou\) as he did Archippus in Phm

2:4 {No soldier on service} (\oudeis strateuomenos\). "No one
serving as a soldier." See 1Co 9:7 for this old verb and 2Co
10:3; 1Ti 1:18 for the metaphorical use. {Entangleth himself}
(\empleketai\). Old compound, to inweave (see Mt 27:29 for
, in N.T. only here and 2Pe 2:20. Present middle
(direct) indicative. {In the affairs} (\tais pragmateiais\). Old
word (from \pragmateuomai\, Lu 19:13), business, occupation,
only here in N.T. {Of this life} (\tou biou\). No "this" in the
Greek, "of life" (course of life as in 1Ti 2:2, not existence
. {Him who enrolled him as a soldier} (\tōi
. Dative case after \aresēi\ (first aorist
active subjunctive of \areskō\, to please, 1Th 2:4, purpose
clause with \hina\)
of the articular first aorist active
participle of \stratologeō\, literary _Koinē_ word
(\stratologos\, from \stratos\ and \legō\), only here in N.T.

2:5 {If also a man contend in the games} (\ean de kai athlēi
. Condition of third class with present (linear) active
subjunctive of \athleō\, old and common verb (from \athlos\, a
, only this verse in N.T., but \sunathleō\ in Php 1:27.
Note sharp distinction between \athlēi\ (present subjunctive,
engage in a contest in general)
and \athlēsēi\ (first aorist
active subjunctive, engage in a particular contest)
. Not "except
he have contended," but simply "unless he contend" (in any given
"lawfully" (\nomimōs\). Old adverb, agreeably to the law,
in N.T. only here and 1Ti 1:8. {Is not crowned} (\ou
. Present passive indicative of \stephanoō\, old
verb (from \stephanos\, crown), in N.T. only here and Heb
2:7,9. One apodosis for two protases. The victor in the athletic
contests was crowned with a garland.

2:6 {The husbandman that laboureth} (\ton kopiōnta geōrgon\).
"The toiling tiller of the soil" (\geōrgon\, from \gē\ and
\ergō\, worker of the earth)
. See \geōrgion\ (field) in 1Co 3:9
and also 1Co 9:7. {First} (\prōton\). As is natural and right.
{To partake} (\metalambanein\). Old word as in Ac 2:46 to share
in. Paul elsewhere uses \metechō\ as in 1Co 9:12.

2:7 {Consider} (\noei\). Present active imperative of \noeō\, old
verb, to put your mind (\nous\) on. See Eph 3:4 and like
command in 1Co 10:15. {Understanding} (\sunesin\).
"Comprehension" (from \suniēmi\, to send together, to grasp). See
Col 1:9; 2:2. This is a blessed promise that calls for

2:8 {Risen from the dead} (\egēgermenon ek nekrōn\). Perfect
passive participle of \egeirō\, still risen as the perfect tense
shows in 1Co 15:4,12-20. Predicate accusative. "Remember Jesus
Christ as risen from the dead." This is the cardinal fact about
Christ that proves his claim to be the Messiah, the Son of God.
Christ is central for Paul here as in Php 2:5-11. {Of the seed
of David}
(\ek spermatos Daueid\). The humanity of Christ as in
Ro 1:3; Php 2:7f. {According to my gospel} (\kata to euaggelion
. Paul's very phrase in Ro 2:16; 16:25. Not a written
gospel, but my message. See also 1Co 15:1; 2Co 11:7; Ga 1:11;
2:2; 1Ti 1:11.

2:9 {Wherein} (\en hōi\). In my gospel. {I suffer hardship}
(\kakopathō\). "I suffer evil." Old compound (\kakon, paschō\),
elsewhere in N.T., 4:5; Jas 5:13. {Unto bonds} (\mechri
. "Up to bonds." A common experience with Paul (2Co
11:23; Php 1:7,13,14; Col 4:18)
. {As a malefactor} (\hōs
, old compound (\kakon, ergō\, doer of evil), in N.T.
only here and Lu 23:32ff. (of the robbers). One of the charges
made against Paul. {Is not bound} (\ou dedetai\). Perfect passive
indicative of \deō\, to bind. Old verb. See 1Co 7:27,39; Ro
7:2. I am bound with a chain, but no fetters are on the word of
God (Pauline phrase; 1Th 2:13; 1Co 14:36; 2Co 2:17; Php 1:14;
Tit 2:5)

2:10 {For the elect's sake} (\dia tous eklektous\). "Because of
the elect." God's elect (Ro 8:33; Col 3:12; Tit 1:1) for whom
Paul suffered so much (Col 1:6; 12:15; Php 2:17; Eph 3:1,13).
{That they also may obtain} (\hina kai autoi tuchōsin\). Purpose
clause with second aorist (effective) active subjunctive of
\tugchanō\ with genitive. "They as well as I," Paul means. {The
(\tēs sōtērias\). The final salvation "with eternal
glory" (\meta doxēs aiōniou\). This phrase only here and 1Pe
5:10, but in 2Co 4:17 we have "eternal weight of glory."

2:11 {Faithful is the saying} (\pistos ho logos\). The saying
which follows here though it can refer to the preceding as in
1Ti 4:9. See 1Ti 1:15. It is possible that from here to the
end of 13 we have the fragment of an early hymn. There are four
conditions in these verses (11-13), all of the first class,
assumed to be true. Parallels to the ideas here expressed are
found in 2Th 1:5; 1Co 4:8; 2Co 7:3; Ro 6:3-8; Col 3:1-4. Note
the compounds with \sun\ (\sunapethanomen\, {we died with}, from
\sunapothnesko\ as in 2Co 7:3; \sunzēsomen\, {we shall live
, from \sunzaō\ as in 2Co 7:3; \sumbasileusomen\, {we
shall reign with}
, from \sumbasileuō\ as in 1Co 4:8)
. For
\hupomenomen\ (we endure) see 1Co 13:7 and for \apistoumen\ (we
are faithless)
see Ro 3:3. The verb \arneomai\, to deny
(\arnēsometha\, we shall deny, \arnēsetai\, he will deny,
\arnēsasthai\, deny, first aorist middle infinitive)
is an old
word, common in the Gospels in the sayings of Jesus (Mt 10:33;
Lu 12:9)
, used of Peter (Mr 14:70), and is common in the
Pastorals (1Ti 5:8; Tit 2:12; 2Ti 3:5). Here in verse 13 it
has the notion of proving false to oneself, a thing that Christ
"cannot" (\ou dunatai\) do.

2:14 {That they strive not about words} (\mē logomachein\). Word
apparently coined by Paul from \logomachia\ (1Ti 6:4 which
, a back formation in that case. A mere war of words
displeases Paul. (Tit 3:9). {Useful} (\chrēsimon\). Late and
rare word from \chraomai\, here only in N.T. {To the subverting}
(\epi katastrophēi\). Old word (from \katastrephō\, to turn down
or over)
, here only in N.T. (except 2Pe 2:6 in some MSS., not
in Westcott and Hort)
." Because of the overthrow" (result \epi\,
not aim)
, useless for this reason. Such war of words merely
upsets the hearers.

2:15 {Give diligence} (\spoudason\). First aorist active
imperative of \spoudazō\, old word, as in 1Th 2:17; Ga 2:10.
{To present} (\parastēsai\). First aorist active infinitive of
\paristēmi\ as in Col 1:22,28. {Approved unto God} (\dokimon
tōi theōi\)
. Dative case \theōi\ with \dokimon\, predicate
accusative, old adjective (from \dechomai\), for which see 1Co
11:19; 2Co 10:18. {A workman} (\ergatēn\). See 2Co 11:3; Php
3:2. {That needeth not to be ashamed} (\anepaischunton\). Late
double compound verbal adjective (\a\ privative, \epaischunō\),
in Josephus and here alone. {Handling aright} (\orthotomounta\).
Present active participle of \orthotomeō\, late and rare compound
(\orthotomos\), cutting straight, \orthos\ and \temnō\), here
only in N.T. It occurs in Pr 3:6; 11:5 for making straight
paths (\hodous\) with which compare Heb 12:13 and "the Way" in
Ac 9:2. Theodoret explains it to mean ploughing a straight
furrow. Parry argues that the metaphor is the stone mason cutting
the stones straight since \temnō\ and \orthos\ are so used. Since
Paul was a tent-maker and knew how to cut straight the rough
camel-hair cloth, why not let that be the metaphor? Certainly
plenty of exegesis is crooked enough (crazy-quilt patterns) to
call for careful cutting to set it straight.

2:16 {Shun} (\periistaso\). See Tit 3:9. {Babblings}
(\kenophōnias\). See 1Ti 6:20. {Will proceed} (\prokopsousin\).
Future active of \prokoptō\, "will cut forward." See Ga 1:14; Ro
13:12. {Further in ungodliness} (\epi pleion asebeias\). "To
more of ungodliness." See Ro 1:18; 1Ti 2:2.

2:17 {Will eat} (\nomēn hexei\). "Will have (future active of
pasturage or increase" (\nomē\, old word from \nemō\, to
pasture, in N.T. only here and Joh 10:9)
. {As doth gangrene}
(\hōs gaggraina\). Late word (medical writers and Plutarch), only
here in N.T. From \graō\ or \grainō\, to gnaw, to eat, an eating,
spreading disease. Hymenaeus is probably the one mentioned in
1Ti 1:20. Nothing is known of Philetus.

2:18 {Men who} (\hoitines\). "The very ones who." {Have erred}
(\ēstochēsan\). "Missed the mark." First aorist active indicative
of \astocheō\, for which see 1Ti 1:6; 6:21. {That the
resurrection is past already}
(\anastasin ēdē gegonenai\). Second
perfect active infinitive of \ginomai\ in indirect assertion
after \legontes\ (saying) with the accusative of general
reference (\anastasin\). {Overthrow} (\anatrepousin\). See Tit

2:19 {Howbeit} (\mentoi\). Strong adversative, "however." {Firm}
(\stereos\). Old adjective, solid, compact, in N.T. only here,
1Pe 5:9; Heb 5:12,14. See \stereōma\ in Col 2:5. For
\themelios\ see 1Co 3:11; Rom 15:20; 1Ti 6:19. Cf. \hedraiōma\
in 1Ti 3:15. {Seal} (\sphragis\). See 1Co 9:2; Ro 4:11.
{Knoweth} (\egnō\). Timeless aorist active indicative of
\ginōskō\. Quotation from Nu 16:5. {Let every one depart}
(\apostētō pās\). Paraphrase of Nu 16:27; Isa 26:13; 52:11; Jer
20:9. Second aorist active imperative of \aphistēmi\
(intransitive use), "Let every one stand off from." Probably
another echo of the rebellion of Korah.

2:20 {In a great house} (\en megalēi oikiāi\). Metaphor of a
palace. He doubtless has the Kingdom of God in mind, but he works
out the metaphor of a great house of the rich and mighty.
{Vessels} (\skeuē\). Old word \skeuos\. See Ro 9:21 for the
same double use as here. {Of gold} (\chrusā\). Old contracted
adjective \chruseos\, only here by Paul. {Of silver} (\argurā\).
Old contracted adjective \argureos\, in N.T. here, Ac 19:24; Re
9:20. {Of wood} (\xulina\). Old adjective, in N.T. only here and
Re 9:20. {Of earth} (\ostrakina\). Late adjective, from
\ostrakon\, baked clay, in LXX, in N.T. only here and 2Co 4:7.

2:21 {If a man purge himself} (\ean tis ekkatharēi\). Paul drops
the metaphor of the house and takes up the individual as one of
the "vessels." Condition of third class with first aorist active
subjunctive of \ekkathairō\, old verb, to cleanse out, in LXX, in
N.T. only here and 1Co 5:7. {From these} (\apo toutōn\). From
the vessels for dishonour of verse 20. {Sanctified}
(\hēgiasmenon\). Perfect passive participle of \hagiazō\, for
which verb see 1Co 6:11. {Meet for the master's use}
(\euchrēston tōi despotōi\). Dative case \despotēi\ (for which
word see 1Ti 6:1)
with \euchrēston\, neuter singular like
\hēgiasmenon\ agreeing with \skeuos\. Old verbal adjective (\eu\
and \chraomai\, to use well)
, useful or usable for the master. In
N.T. only here and 4:11. See \achrēston\ in Phm 11.
{Prepared} (\hētoimasmenon\). Perfect passive participle of
\hetoimazō\, in a state of readiness, old and common word,
elsewhere by Paul only 1Co 2:9 (LXX).

2:22 {Youthful} (\neōterikas\). Literary _Koinē_ word (Polybius,
, only here in N.T. There are lusts peculiar to flaming
youth. {Flee} (\pheuge\). Present active imperative of \pheugō\,
old and common verb. In this sense see 1Co 6:18. {Follow after}
(\diōke\). Present active imperative of \diōkō\ as if in a chase
for which sense see 1Th 5:15. Steady pursuit of these virtues
like those in Ga 5:22. {Call on the Lord} (\epikaloumenon ton
. See 1Co 1:2; Ro 10:12-14.

2:23 {Ignorant} (\apaideutous\). Old verbal, here only in N.T.
(\a\ privative and \paideuō\). Untrained, uneducated,
"speculations of a half-educated mind" (Parry). {Refuse}
(\paraitou\). See 1Ti 4:7. {They gender strifes} (\gennōsin
. Present active indicative of old and common verb
\gennaō\ (Ro 9:11). "They beget battles." See 2:14.

2:24 {Must not strive} (\ou dei machesthai\). Rather, "it is not
necessary for him to fight" (in such verbal quibbles). The
negative \ou\ goes with \dei\, not with the infinitive
\machesthai\. {Gentle} (\ēpion\). Old word (from \epos\, speech),
affable, mild, in N.T. only here (and 1Th 2:7 in some MSS.; W.
H. have \nēpios\)
. {Teachable} (\didaktikon\). See 1Ti 3:2.
{Forbearing} (\anexikakon\). Late compound (from future of
\anechō\, \anexō\, and \kakon\, putting up with evil)
. Here only
in N.T.

2:25 {Correcting} (\paideuonta\). See Tit 2:12. "Schooling"
(Parry). {Oppose themselves} (\antidiatithemenous\). Present
middle (direct) participle of \antidiatithēmi\, late double
compound (Diodorus, Philo) to place oneself in opposition, here
only in N.T. {If peradventure God may give} (\mē pote dōiē ho
. Here Westcott and Hort read the late form of the second
aorist active optative of \didōmi\ for the usual \doiē\ as they
do in 1:18. But there it is a wish for the future and so
regular, while here the optative with \mē pote\ in a sort of
indirect question is used with a primary tense \dei\ (present)
and parallel with an undoubted subjunctive \ananēpsōsin\, while
in Lu 3:15 \mē pote eie\ is with a secondary tense. Examples of
such an optative do occur in the papyri (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
so that we cannot go as far as Moulton does and say that we
"must" read the subjunctive \dōēi\ here (_Prolegomena_, pp. 55,
. {Repentance} (\metanoian\). "Change of mind" (2Co 7:10; Ro
. {Unto the knowledge of the truth} (\eis epignōsin
. Paul's word "full knowledge" (Co 1:9).

2:26 {They may recover themselves} (\ananēpsōsin\). First aorist
active subjunctive of \ananēphō\, late and rare word, to be sober
again, only here in N.T., though \nēphō\ is in 1Th 5:6. {Out of
the snare of the devil}
(\ek tēs tou diabolou pagidos\). They
have been caught while mentally intoxicated in the devil's snare
(1Ti 3:7). See Ro 11:9 for \pagis\. {Taken captive}
(\ezōgrēmenoi\). Perfect passive participle of \zōgreō\, old
verb, to take alive (\zōos, agreō\), in N.T. only here and Lu
5:10 (of Peter). "Taken captive alive." {By him unto his will}
(\hup' autou eis to ekeinou thelēma\). This difficult phrase is
understood variously. One way is to take both \autou\ and
\ekeinou\, to refer to the devil. Another way is to take both of
them to refer to God. Another way is to take \autou\ of the devil
and \ekeinou\, of God. This is probably best, "taken captive by
the devil" "that they may come back to soberness to do the will
of God." There are difficulties in either view.

[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 2)