[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 9)

9:1 {Superfluous} (\perisson\). All the same he does write. "The
writing" (\to graphein\) ought to be superfluous.

9:2 {I glory} (\kauchōmai\). Present middle indicative. I still
am glorying, in spite of the poor performance of the Corinthians.
{Hath been prepared} (\pareskeuastai\). Perfect passive
indicative of \paraskeuazō\, to make ready, "stands prepared."
{Stirred up} (\ērethise\). First aorist active indicative of
\erethizō\ (from \erethō\, to excite), to excite in a good sense
here, in a bad sense in Col 3:21, the only N.T. examples. {Very
many of them}
(\tous pleionas\). The more, the majority.

9:3 {I sent} (\epempsa\). Not literary plural with this
epistolary aorist as in 18,22. {That ye may be prepared} (\hina
pareskeuasmenoi ēte\)
. Perfect passive subjunctive in the final
clause, "that ye may really be prepared," "as I said" (\kathōs
and not just say that ye are prepared. Paul's very
syntax tells against them.

9:4 {If there come with me any of Macedonia and find you
(\ean elthōsin sun emoi Makedones kai heurōsin humas
. Condition of third class (undetermined, but
stated as a lively possibility)
with \ean\ and the second aorist
active subjunctive (\elthōsin, heurōsin\), a bold and daring
challenge. \Aparaskeuastos\ is a late and rare verbal adjective
from \paraskeuazō\ with \a\ privative, only here in the N.T.
{Lest by any means we should be put to shame} (\mē pōs
kataischunthōmen hēmeis\)
. Negative purpose with first aorist
passive subjunctive of \kataischunō\ (see on ¯7:14) in the
literary plural. {That we say not, ye} (\hina mē legōmen
. A delicate syntactical turn for what he really has in
mind. He does wish that they become ashamed of not paying their
pledges. {Confidence} (\hupostasei\). This word, common from
Aristotle on, comes from \huphistēmi\, to place under. It always
has the notion of substratum or foundation as here; 11:17; Heb
1:3. The papyri give numerous examples (Moulton and Milligan's
of the word for "property" in various aspects. So
in Heb 11:1 "faith is the title-deed of things hoped for." In
the LXX it represents fifteen different Hebrew words.

9:5 {I thought} (\hegēsamēn\). Epistolary aorist again. See Php
2:25 for the expression here. {Go before} (\proelthōsin\).
Second aorist active of \proerchomai\. Go to you before I come.
{Make up beforehand} (\prokatartisōsi\). Late and rare double
compound verb \prokatartizō\ (in Hippocrates). Only here in N.T.
See \katartizō\ in 1Co 1:10. {Your afore-promised bounty} (\tēn
proepēggelmenēn eulogian humōn\)
. "Blessing" (\eulogia\)
literally, but applied to good deeds also as well as good words
(Ge 33:11). Note third use of "pro" before. He literally rubs
it in that the pledge was overdue. {That the same might be ready}
(\tautēn hetoimēn einai\). Here the infinitive alone (\einai\) is
used to express purpose without \hōste\ or \eis to\ or \pros to\
with the accusative of general reference (\tautēn\). The feminine
form \hetoimēn\ is regular (1Pe 1:5) though \hetoimos\ also
occurs with the feminine like the masculine (Mt 25:10). {And
not of extortion}
(\kai mē hōs pleonexian\). "And not as
covetousness." Some offerings exhibit covetousness on the part of
the giver by their very niggardliness.

9:6 {Sparingly} (\pheidomenōs\). Late and rare adverb made from
the present middle participle \pheidomenos\ from \pheidomai\, to
spare. It occurs in Plutarch (Alex. 25).

9:7 {He hath purposed} (\proēirētai\). Perfect middle indicative
of \proaireomai\, to choose beforehand, old verb, here only in
N.T. Permanent purpose also. {Not grudgingly} (\mē ek lupēs\).
The use of \mē\ rather than \ou\ shows that the imperative
\poieitō\ (do) or \didotō\ (give) is to be supplied. Not give as
out of sorrow. {Or of necessity} (\ē ex anagkēs\). As if it were
like pulling eye-teeth. {For God loveth a cheerful giver}
(\hilaron gar dotēn agapāi ho theos\). Our word "hilarious" comes
from \hilaron\ which is from \hilaos\ (propitious), an old and
common adjective, only here in N.T.

9:8 {Is able} (\dunatei\). Late verb, not found except here;
13:3; Ro 14:4. So far a Pauline word made from \dunatos\, able.
{All sufficiency} (\pāsan autarkeian\). Old word from \autarkēs\
(Php 4:11), common word, in N.T. only here and 1Ti 6:6). The
use of this word shows Paul's acquaintance with Stoicism. Paul
takes this word of Greek philosophy and applies it to the
Christian view of life as independent of circumstances. But he
does not accept the view of the Cynics in the avoidance of
society. Note threefold use of "all" here (\en panti, pantote,
pāsan\, in everything, always, all sufficiency)

9:9 {As it is written} (\kathōs gegraptai\). Ps 92:3,9. Picture
of the beneficent man. {He hath scattered abroad} (\eskorpisen\).
First aorist active indicative of \skorpizō\, to scatter, _Koinē_
verb for \skedannumi\ of the Attic. Probably akin to \skorpios\
(scorpion) from root \skarp\, to cut asunder. See on ¯Mt 12:30.
It is like sowing seed. {To the poor} (\tois penēsin\). Old word
from \penamai\, to work for one's living. Latin _penuria_ and
Greek \peinaō\, to be hungry, are kin to it. Only N.T. instance
and to be distinguished from \ptōchos\, beggar, abjectly poor.

9:10 {Supplieth} (\epichorēgōn\). Late _Koinē_ compound verb from
\epi\ and \chorēgeō\, just below (1Pe 4:11). \Chorēgos\ is old
word for leader of a chorus (\choros, hēgeomai\) or
chorus-leader. The verb means to furnish a chorus at one's own
expense, then to supply in general. N.T. examples of
\epichorēgeō\ are 2Co 9:10; Ga 3:15; Col 2:19; 2Pe 1:5. {Shall
(\plēthunei\). Future active indicative of \plēthunō\,
old verb from \plēthus\, fulness. Cf. Ac 6:1. {Fruits}
(\genēmata\). Correct reading (from \ginomai\, to become) and not
\gennēmata\ (from \gennaō\, to beget). This spelling is supported
by LXX where Thackeray shows that \genēmata\ in LXX refers to
vegetables and \gennēmata\ to animals. The papyri support this
distinction (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_).

9:11 {Enriched} (\ploutizomenoi\). Present passive participle of
\ploutizō\ for which see on ¯1Co 1:5; 2Co 6:10 only other N.T.
examples. {Liberality} (\haplotēta\). See on ¯8:2. Anacoluthon
with nominative participle too far from \perisseuēte\ for
agreement. More like the independent use of the participle.

9:12 {Service} (\leitourgias\). Old word from \leōs\ (people,
, \leitos\ like \dēmosios\, public, and \ergon\, work. So
public service either in worship to God (Lu 1:23) or
benefaction to others (2Co 9:12; Php 2:30). Our word liturgy is
this word. {Filleth up} (\estin prosanaplērousa\). Present active
periphrastic indicative of double compound verb \prosanaplēroō\,
_Koinē_ word, here and 11:9 only in N.T., to fill up by adding
to. The Corinthians simply added to the total from others. {Unto
(\tōi theōi\). Dative case and with a certain suddenness as
at close of verse 11, really a parenthesis between in the
somewhat tangled sentence.

9:13 {Seeing that they glorify God} (\doxazontes ton theon\).
Anacoluthon again. The nominative participle used independently
like \ploutizomenoi\ in verse 11. {Obedience} (\hupotagēi\).
Late and rare word from \hupotassō\, to subject, middle to obey.
Only in Paul in N.T. {Of your confession} (\tēs homologias
. Old word from \homologeō\ (\homologos, homou, legō\), to
say together. It is either to profess (Latin _profiteor_, to
declare openly)
or to confess (Latin _confiteor_, to declare
fully, to say the same thing as another)
. Both confess and
profess are used to translate the verb and each idea is present
in the substantive. Only the context can decide. Actions speak
louder than words. The brethren in Jerusalem will know by this
collection that Gentiles make as good Christians as Jews. {For
the liberality of your contribution}
(\haplotēti tēs koinōnias\).
This is the point that matters just now. Paul drives it home. On
this use of \koinōnia\ see on ¯8:4.

9:14 {While they themselves long after you} (\autōn
. Genitive absolute of present active participle
of \epipotheō\ (5:2). {In you} (\eph' humin\). Upon you.

9:15 {Thanks be to God} (\charis tōi theōi\). Third time (verses
. {For his unspeakable gift} (\epi tēi anekdiēgētōi
autou dōreāi\)
. One of Paul's gems flashed out after the somewhat
tangled sentence (verses 10-14) like a gleam of light that
clears the air. Words fail Paul to describe the gift of Christ to
and for us. He may have coined this word as it is not found
elsewhere except in ecclesiastical writers save as a variant (B
for \adiēgēton\ in Aristeas 99 (\thaumasmon anekdiēgēton\,
"wonder beyond description," Moulton and Milligan's
. See similar word in Ro 11:33 (\anexichniasta\,
and Eph 3:8.

[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 9)