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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 8)

8:1 {The grace} (\tēn charin\). As manifested in the collection
in the churches, poor as they were. The Romans had lacerated
Macedonia (Livy, XLV. 30).

8:2 {Proof} (\dokimēi\). Tests as of metals as in 2:9.
{Abundance} (\perisseia\). Late word from \perisseuō\, to
overflow. {Their deep poverty} (\hē kata bathous ptōcheia
. \Ptōcheia\ is old word from \ptōcheuō\, to be a beggar,
as of Jesus in 8:9 (from \ptōchos\, cowering in fear and
poverty, as in Lu 14:13, but ennobled by Christ as in Mt 5:3;
2Co 8:9)
. Poverty down deep. Strabo (LX 419) has \kata bathous\,
down to the bottom. {Liberality} (\haplotētos\). From \haplous\,
single, simple (Mt 6:22). "The passage from single-mindedness
or simplicity to liberality is not quite obvious" (Plummer).
Perhaps "heartiness" supplies the connecting link. See also

8:3 {Beyond their power} (\para dunamin\). "Alongside" with
accusative like \huper dunamin\ in 1:8. Field (_Ot. Nov_.)
quotes Josephus (_Ant_. iii. 6, 1) for \kata dunamin\ and \para
dunamin\ as here. Few give \kata dunamin\ (according to actual
. Paul commends this high pressure collection because of
the emergency. {Of their own accord} (\authairetoi\). Old verbal
adjective (\autos, hairetos\ from \haireomai\, to choose), of
their own initiative, voluntary. Only here and verse 17 in N.T.
Papyri often have \hekousiōs kai authairetōs\ (willingly and

8:4 {Beseeching us with much intreaty in regard of this grace}
(\meta pollēs paraklēseōs deomenoi hēmōn tēn charin\). Literally,
"with much intreaty begging of us the favour and the partnership
in the ministry to the saints." The accusative (\charin\) after
\deomai\ is unusual. By \charis\ Paul means the privilege of
giving (cf. Ac 24:27). Apparently Paul had been reluctant to
press the Macedonians because of their manifest poverty. They
demanded the right to have a share in it.

8:5 {We had hoped} (\ēlpisamen\). First aorist active indicative
of \elpizō\. "Expected," he means. They went beyond his hopes
about them. {First they gave their own selves} (\heautous edōkan
. First aorist active indicative of \didōmi\ (k aorist).
"Themselves they gave first." That is the explanation of the
generous giving.

8:6 {Insomuch that we exhorted Titus} (\eis to parakalesai hēmas
. Use of \eis to\ and the infinitive for result with
accusative of general reference (\hēmas\). See Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 1003. {He had made a beginning before}
(\proenērxato\). First aorist active indicative of the double
compound verb \pro-en-archomai\, still found only here and verse
10, to make a start before others. {Complete} (\epitelesei\)
First aorist (effective) active subjunctive of \epiteleō\, to
finish, with perfective use of \epi\ in composition.

8:7 {In this grace also} (\kai en tautēi tēi chariti\). This
gifted church (1Co 12-14) had fallen behind in the grace of
giving. Kindly irony in this allusion.

8:8 {Proving} (\dokimazōn\). Testing and so proving. {The
sincerity also of your love}
(\kai to tēs humeteras agapēs
. Old adjective, contraction of \genesios\ (\ginomai\),
legitimately born, not spurious. A collection is a test of one's
love for Christ, not the only test, but a real one.

8:9 {Though he was rich} (\plousios ōn\). Concessive present
participle \ōn\ from \eimi\, to be. {Be became poor}
(\eptōcheusen\). Ingressive aorist active indicative of
\ptōcheuō\ (see verse 2 on \ptōcheia\). {Through his poverty}
(\tēi ekeinou ptōcheiāi\). Instrumental case, by means of. {Might
become rich}
(\ploutēsēte\). Ingressive first aorist active
subjunctive of \plouteō\, to be rich with \hina\ (that). See on
¯Lu 1:53; 1Co 4:8.

8:10 {Judgment} (\gnōmēn\). Deliberate opinion, but not a
"command" (\epitagē\ verse 8). Cf. 1Co 7:25. {A year ago}
(\apo perusi\) From last year. {Not only to do, but also to will}
(\ou monon to poiēsai, alla kai to thelein\). Articular
infinitives the objects of \proenērxasthe\ on which verb see
verse 6). That is to say, the Corinthians promised before any

8:11 {The readiness to will} (\hē prothumia tou thelein\). Old
word from \prothumos\ (\pro, thumos\), forwardness, eagerness
(Ac 17:11). They were quick to pledge. {The completion also}
(\kai to epitelesai\). The finishing also (articular first aorist
active infinitive)
. {Out of your ability} (\ek tou echein\). "Out
of the having," literally, and so, "out of what you can give"
(verse 12).

8:12 {Is there} (\prokeitai\). Lies before one. Old word.
{Acceptable} (\euprosdektos\). See on ¯6:2. {According as a man
(\katho ean echēi\). Indefinite comparative clause with
\ean\ and present subjunctive \echei\. Clearly God does not
expect us to give what we do not have. {Not according as he hath
(\ou katho ouk echei\). Note present indicative rather than
subjunctive because a specific case is presented. See 9:7; Mr

8:13 {Others may be eased} (\allois anesis\). "Release to
others." {Ye distressed} (\humin thlipsis\). "To you
tribulation." The verb \ēi\ (present subjunctive) with \hina\ is
not expressed.

8:14 {By equality} (\ex isotētos\). Old word from \isos\, fair,
equal. In N.T. only here and Col 4:1. {Abundancy}
(\perisseuma\). Late word from \perisseuō\ like \perisseia\
(verse 2) Cf. Mt 12:34. {Want} (\husterēma\). Late word from
\hustereō\, to be in want. See also 9:12; Lu 21:4 (cf.
\husterēsis\ in Mr 12:44)

8:16 {Which putteth} (\tōi didonti\). Present active articular
participle, "who is continually giving." Hence Titus is full of
zealous care for you.

8:17 {Very earnest} (\spoudaioteros\). "More earnest than
ordinarily," comparative adjective.

8:18 {We have sent with him} (\sunepempsamen met' autou\).
Epistolary aorist. {The brother} (\ton adelphon\). This may be,
probably is, Luke who may also be the brother of Titus (see also
according to a common Greek idiom where the article is
used as "his." But this idiom is not necessary. As a matter of
fact, we do not know who this brother is. {Is spread through all
the churches}
(\dia pasōn tōn ekklēsiōn\). No verb in the Greek

8:19 {But who was also appointed} (\alla kai cheirotonētheis\).
Anacoluthon. The first aorist passive participle
\cheirotonētheis\ is from \cheirotoneō\, old verb to stretch out
the hands (\cheir teinō\) and so to vote in public. The idea is
that this brother was chosen by the churches, not by Paul. Only
here in N.T. save Ac 14:23 where it means to appoint without
notion of raising the hands. In Ac 10:41 we have
\procheirotoneō\. {To travel with us} (\sunekdēmos\). Late word
for travelling companion. So in the inscriptions (\sun\, together
with, \ekdēmos\, away from home)

8:20 {Avoiding this} (\stellomenoi touto\). Present middle
participle of \stellō\, old verb, to set, to arrange. So
"arranging for ourselves this." {That any man should blame us}
(\mē tis hēmas mōmēsētai\). Literally, "lest any one blame us"
(negative purpose with \mē\ and first aorist middle subjunctive
of \mōmeomai\. See on ¯6:3, only other N.T. example)
. {Bounty}
(\hadrotēti\). Old word from \hadros\, thick, stout, ripe, rich,
great as in 1Ki 1:9; 2Ki 10:6. Only here in N.T.

8:21 {We take thought} (\pronoumen\). Old verb, to plan
beforehand (\pro-\) as in Ro 12:17; 1Ti 5:8. {But also in the
sight of men}
(\alla kai enōpion anthrōpōn\). It is not enough
for one's financial accounts to be honourable (\kala\) as God
sees them, but they should be so kept that men can understand
them also. A timely warning. Paul took the utmost pains that no
suspicion could be attached to him in this collection.

8:22 {Our brother} (\ton adelphon hēmōn\). Not Paul's personal
brother, but a brother in Christ, one whom Paul had tested and
was willing to trust. It may have been Tychicus or Apollos, but
we do not know.

8:23 {About Titus} (\huper Titou\). There is no verb expressed.
Supply "inquire." He endorses Titus up to the hilt. He is "my
partner" (\koinōnos emos\) and "fellow-worker" (\sunergos\).
{Messengers of the churches} (\apostoloi ekklēsiōn\). Apostles in
the general sense of "sent ones" (from \apostellō\, to send) by
the churches and responsible to the churches for the handling of
the funds. {The glory of Christ} (\doxa Christou\). Financial
agents, please observe.

8:24 {The proof of your love} (\tēn endeixin tēs agapēs humōn\).
There is a word here for pastors and deacons who try to protect
the churches from the denominational representatives of kingdom
causes. {In the face of the churches} (\eis prosōpon tōn
. A great host is pictured as watching how the
Corinthians will treat these duly accredited agents in the
collection (Titus and the other two brethren). It requires
courage to stand by such representatives of great causes before
stingy saints.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 8)