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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Corinthians: Chapter 12)

12:1 {Now concerning spiritual gifts} (\peri de tōn
. Clearly one of the items asked about in the letter
to Paul (7:1) and introduced precisely as the problem of meats
offered to idols (8:1). This question runs to the end of
chapter 14. Plainly much trouble had arisen in Corinth in the
exercise of these gifts.

12:2 {Ye were led away} (\apagomenoi\). The copula \ēte\ is not
expressed (common ellipsis) with the participle (periphrastic
imperfect passive)
, but it has to be supplied to make sense. Some
scholars would change \hote\ (when) to \pote\ (once) and so
remove the difficulty. {Unto those dumb idols} (\pros ta eidōla
ta aphōna\)
. "Unto the idols the dumb." See Ps 95:5-7 for the
voicelessness (\a-phōna\, old adjective, without voice, \phōnē\)
of the idols. Pagans were led astray by demons (1Co 10:19f.).
{Howsoever ye might be led} (\hōs an ēgesthe\). Rather, "as often
as ye were led." For this use of \hōs an\ for the notion of
repetition, regular _Koinē_ idiom, see Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
974. Cf. \hopou an\ in Mr 6:56.

12:3 {Wherefore I give you to understand} (\dio gnōrizō humin\).
Causative idea (only in Aeschylus in old Greek) in papyri (also
in sense of recognize)
and N.T., from root \gnō\ in \ginōskō\, to
know. {Speaking in the Spirit of God} (\en pneumati theou
. Either sphere or instrumentality. No great distinction
here between \laleō\ (utter sounds) and \legō\ (to say). {Jesus
is anathema}
(\anathema Iēsous\). On distinction between
\anathema\ (curse) and \anathēma\ (offering Lu 21:5) see
discussion there. In LXX \anathēma\ means a thing devoted to God
without being redeemed, doomed to destruction (Le 27:28f.; Jos
6:17; 7:12)
. See 1Co 16:22; Ga 1:8f.; Ro 9:3. This blasphemous
language against Jesus was mainly by the Jews (Ac 13:45; 18:6).
It is even possible that Paul had once tried to make Christians
say \Anathema Iēsous\ (Ac 26:11). {Jesus is Lord} (\Kurios
. The term \Kurios\, as we have seen, is common in the
LXX for God. The Romans used it freely for the emperor in the
emperor worship. "Most important of all is the early
establishment of a polemical parallelism between the cult of
Christ and the cult of Caesar in the application of the term
\Kurios\, 'lord.' The new texts have here furnished quite
astonishing revelations" (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient
East_, p. 349)
. Inscriptions, ostraca, papyri apply the term to
Roman emperors, particularly to Nero when Paul wrote this very
letter (_ib._, p. 353f.): "One with 'Nero Kurios' quite in the
manner of a formula (without article, like the 'Kurios Jesus' in
1Co 12:3." "The battle-cries of the spirits of error and of
truth contending at Corinth"(Findlay)
. One is reminded of the
demand made by Polycarp that he say \Kurios Caesar\ and how each
time he replied \Kurios Iēsous\. He paid the penalty for his
loyalty with his life. Lighthearted men today can say "Lord
Jesus" in a flippant or even in an irreverent way, but no Jew or
Gentile then said it who did not mean it.

12:4 {Diversities} (\diaireseis\). Old word for distinctions,
differences, distributions, from \diaireō\, to distribute, as
\diairoun\ (dividing, distributing) in verse 11. Only here in
the N.T. {Of gifts} (\charismatōn\). Late word and chiefly in
Paul (cf. Ro 12:6) in N.T. (except 1Pe 4:19), but some
examples in papyri. It means a favour (from \charizomai\)
bestowed or received without any merit as in Ro 1:11.

12:5 {Of ministrations} (\diakoniōn\). This old word is from
\diakonos\ and has a general meaning of service as here (Ro
and a special ministration like that of Martha (Lu
and the collection (1Co 16:15; 2Co 8:4).

12:6 {Of workings} (\energēmatōn\). Late word, here only in N.T.,
the effect of a thing wrought (from \energeō\, to operate,
perform, energize)
. Paul uses also the late kindred word
\energeia\ (Col 1:29; 2:12) for efficiency. {Who worketh all
things in all}
(\ho energōn ta panta en pasin\). Paul is not
afraid to say that God is the Energy and the Energizer of the
Universe. "I say that the magnet floats in space by the will of
God" (Dr. W. R. Whitney, a world figure in science). This is his
philosophic and scientific theory of the Cosmos. No one has shown
Paul's philosophy and science to be wrong. Here he is speaking
only of spiritual gifts and results as a whole, but he applies
this principle to the universe (\ta panta\) in Col 1:16 (of
and in Ro 11:36 (of God). Note the Trinity in these
verses: the same Spirit (verse 4), the same Lord (Jesus) in
verse 5, the same God (the Father) in verse 6.

12:7 {Manifestation} (\phanerōsis\). Late word, in papyri, in
N.T. only here and 2Co 4:2, from \phaneroō\, to make manifest
(\phaneros\). Each instance of the whole (verse 6) is
repeatedly given (\didotai\, present passive indicative of
. {To profit withal} (\pros to sumpheron\). See on
6:12; 10:23,33 for Paul's guiding principle in such matters.

12:8 {To one} (\hōi men\). Demonstrative \hos\ with \men\ in
dative case, to this one. The distribution or correlation is
carried on by \allōi de\ (verses 8,9,10), \heterōi de\ (verses
for variety, nine manifestations of the Spirit's work in
verses 8-10. {The Word of wisdom} (\logos sophias\). Old words.
\Logos\ is reason, then speech. Wisdom is intelligence, then
practical action in accord with it. Here it is speech full of
God's wisdom (2:7) under the impulse of the Spirit of God. This
gift is placed first (revelation by the Spirit). {The word of
(\logos gnōseōs\). This gift is insight (illumination)
according to (\kata\) the same Spirit.

12:9 {Faith} (\pistis\). Not faith of surrender, saving faith,
but wonder-working faith like that in 13:2 (Mt 17:20; 21:21).
Note here \en tōi autōi pneumati\ (in the same Spirit) in
contrast with \dia\ and \kata\ in verse 8. {Gifts of healings}
(\charismata iamatōn\). \Iama\, old word from \iaomai\, common in
LXX, in N.T. only in this chapter. It means acts of healing as in
Ac 4:30 (cf. Jas 5:14) and Lu 7:21 (of Jesus). Note \en\
here as just before.

12:10 {Workings of miracles} (\energēmata dunameōn\). Workings of
powers. Cf. \energōn dunameis\ in Ga 3:5; Heb 2:4 where all
three words are used (\sēmeia\, signs, \terata\, wonders,
\dunameis\, powers)
. Some of the miracles were not healings as
the blindness on Elymas the sorcerer. {Prophecy} (\prophēteia\).
Late word from \prophētēs\ and \prophēmi\, to speak forth. Common
in papyri. This gift Paul will praise most (chapter 1Co 14).
Not always prediction, but a speaking forth of God's message
under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. {Discernings of spirits}
(\diakriseis pneumatōn\). \Diakrisis\ is old word from \diakrinō\
(see 11:29) and in N.T. only here; Ro 14:1; Heb 5:14. A most
needed gift to tell whether the gifts were really of the Holy
Spirit and supernatural (cf. so-called "gifts" today) or merely
strange though natural or even diabolical (1Ti 4:1; 1Jo 4:1f.).
{Divers kinds of tongues} (\genē glōssōn\). No word for "divers"
in the Greek. There has arisen a great deal of confusion
concerning the gift of tongues as found in Corinth. They prided
themselves chiefly on this gift which had become a source of
confusion and disorder. There were varieties (kinds, \genē\) in
this gift, but the gift was essentially an ecstatic utterance of
highly wrought emotion that edified the speaker (14:4) and was
intelligible to God (14:2,28). It was not always true that the
speaker in tongues could make clear what he had said to those who
did not know the tongue (14:13): It was not mere gibberish or
jargon like the modern "tongues," but in a real language that
could be understood by one familiar with that tongue as was seen
on the great Day of Pentecost when people who spoke different
languages were present. In Corinth, where no such variety of
people existed, it required an interpreter to explain the tongue
to those who knew it not. Hence Paul placed this gift lowest of
all. It created wonder, but did little real good. This is the
error of the Irvingites and others who have tried to reproduce
this early gift of the Holy Spirit which was clearly for a
special emergency and which was not designed to help spread the
gospel among men. See on ¯Ac 2:13-21; 10:44-46; 19:6. {The
interpretation of tongues}
(\hermēneia glōssōn\). Old word, here
only and 14:26 in N.T., from \hermēneuō\ from \Hermēs\ (the god
of speech)
. Cf. on \diermēneuō\ in Lu 24:27; Ac 9:36. In case
there was no one present who understood the particular tongue it
required a special gift of the Spirit to some one to interpret it
if any one was to receive benefit from it.

12:11 {Worketh} (\energei\). The same word that was used in verse
6 of God. {Severally} (\idiāi\). Separately. {Even as he will}
(\kathōs bouletai\). Hence there is no occasion for conceit,
pride, or faction (4:7).

12:12 {So also is Christ} (\houtōs kai ho Christos\). One would
naturally expect Paul here to say \houtōs kai to sōma tou
Christou\ (so also is the body of Christ). He will later call
Christ the Head of the Body the Church as in Col 1:18,24; Eph
5:23,30. Aristotle had used \sōma\ of the state as the body
politic. What Paul here means is Christ as the Head of the Church
has a body composed of the members who have varied gifts and
functions like the different members of the human body. They are
all vitally connected with the Head of the body and with each
other. This idea he now elaborates in a remarkable manner.

12:13 {Were we all baptized into one body} (\hēmeis pantes eis
hen sōma ebaptisthēmen\)
. First aorist passive indicative of
\baptizō\ and so a reference to a definite past event with each
of them of different races, nations, classes, when each of them
put on the outward badge of service to Christ, the symbol of the
inward changes already wrought in them by the Holy Spirit (Ga
3:27; Ro 6:2ff.)
. {And were all made to drink of one Spirit}
(\kai pantes hen pneuma epotisthēmen\). First aorist passive
indicative of \potizō\, old verb, to give to drink. The
accusative \hen pneuma\ is retained in the passive as often with
verbs that in the active take two accusatives. The reference is
to a definite act in the past, probably to the inward experience
of the Holy Spirit symbolized by the act of baptism.

12:14 {Is not one member} (\ouk estin hen melos\). The point
sounds like a truism, but it is the key to the whole problem of
church life both local and general. Vincent refers to the fable
of the body and the members by Menenius Agrippa (Livy, II, 32),
but it was an old parable. Socrates pointed out how absurd it
would be if feet and hands should work against one another when
God made them to cooperate (Xen., _Mem_. II. iii. 18). Seneca
alludes to it as does Marcus Aurelius and Marcus Antoninus.

12:15 {If the foot shall say} (\ean eipēi ho pous\). Condition of
third class (\ean\ and second aorist subjunctive \eipēi\). In
case the foot say. {I am not of the body} (\ouk eimi ek tou
. I am independent of the body, not dependent on the
body. {It is not therefore not of the body} (\ou para touto ouk
estin ek tou sōmatos\)
. Thinking or saying so does not change the
fact. \Para touto\ here means "alongside of this" (cf. IV Macc.
and so "because of," a rare use (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
. The two negatives (\ou--ouk\) do not here destroy one
another. Each retains its full force.

12:16 Points explained precisely as in verse 15.

12:17 {If the whole body were an eye} (\ei holon to sōma
. The eye is the most wonderful organ and supremely
useful (Nu 10:31), the very light of the body (Lu 11:34). And
yet how grotesque it would be if there were nothing else but a
great round rolling eye! A big "I" surely! {The smelling} (\hē
. Old word from \osphrainomai\, to smell. Here alone
in N.T.

12:18 {But now} (\nun de\). But as things are, in contrast to
that absurdity. {Hath God set} (\ho theos etheto\). Second aorist
middle indicative. God did it and of himself. {Even as it pleased
(\kathōs ēthelēsen\). Why challenge God's will? Cf. Ro

12:19 {One member} (\hen melos\). Paul applies the logic of verse
17 to any member of the body. The application to members of the
church is obvious. It is particularly pertinent in the case of a
"church boss."

12:20 {Many members, but one body} (\polla melē, hen de sōma\).
The argument in a nutshell, in one epigram.

12:21 {Cannot say} (\ou dunatai eipein\). And be truthful. The
superior organs need the inferior ones (the eye, the hand, the
head, the feet)

12:22 {Nay, much rather} (\alla pollōi mallon\). Adversative
sense of \alla\, on the contrary. So far from the more dignified
members like the eye and the head being independent of the
subordinate ones like the hands and feet, they are "much more"
(_argumentum a fortiori_, "by much more" \pollōi mallon\,
instrumental case)
in need of therm. {Those members of the body
which seem to be more feeble are necessary}
(\ta dokounta melē
tou sōmatos asthenestera huparchein anagkaia estin\)
. Things are
not always what they seem. The vital organs (heart, lungs, liver,
are not visible, but life cannot exist without them.

12:23 {We bestow} (\peritithemen\). Literally, We place around as
if a garland (Mr 15:17) or a garment (Mt 27:28). {More
abundant comeliness}
(\euschēmosunēn perissoteran\). One need
only mention the mother's womb and the mother's breast to see the
force of Paul's argument here. The word, common in old Greek,
from \euschēmōn\ (\eu\, well, \schēma\, figure), here only in
N.T. One may think of the coal-miner who digs under the earth for
the coal to keep us warm in winter. So \aschēmōn\ (deformed,
, old word, here only in N.T., but see 7:36 for

12:24 {Tempered the body together} (\sunekerasen to sōma\). First
aorist active indicative of \sunkerannumi\, to mix together, old
word, but in N.T. only here and Heb 4:2. Plato used this very
word of the way God compounded (\sunekerasato\) the various
elements of the body in creating soul and body. Paul rejects the
idea of the later Gnostics that matter is evil and the physical
organs degrading. He gives a noble picture of the body with its
wonderful organs planned to be the temple of God's Spirit
(6:19) in opposition to the Epicurean sensualists in Corinth.
{To that part which lacked} (\tōi husteroumenōi\). It is a true
instinct that gives superior honour to the unseen organs of life.

12:25 {That there should be no schism} (\hina mē ēi schisma\).
Purpose of God in his plan for the body. Trouble in one organ
affects the whole body. A headache may be due to trouble
elsewhere and usually is. {Have the same care} (\to auto
. The very verb \merimnaō\ used by Jesus of our
anxiety (Mt 6:27,31). Paul here personifies the parts of the
body as if each one is anxious for the others. The modern
knowledge of the billions of cells in the body co-working for the
whole confirms Paul's argument.

12:26 {Suffer with it} (\sunpaschei\). Medical term in this sense
in Hippocrates and Galen. In N.T only here and Ro 8:17 (of our
suffering with Christ)
. One of Solon's Laws allowed retaliation
by any one for another's injuries. Plato (_Republic_, V, 462)
says the body politic "feels the hurt" as the whole body feels a
hurt finger. {Rejoice with it} (\sunchairei\). This is
fortunately true also. One may tingle with joy all over the body
thanks to the wonderful nervous system and to the relation
between mind and matter. See 13:6 for joy of love with truth.

12:27 {Severally} (\ek merous\). See Ro 11:25 \apo merous\ (in
. Each has his own place and function in the body of Christ.

12:28 {God hath set some} (\hous men etheto ho theos\). See verse
18 for \etheto ho theos\. Note middle voice (for his own use).
Paul begins as if he means to say \hous men apostolous, hous de
prophētas\ (some apostles, some prophets), but he changes the
construction and has no \hous de\, but instead \prōton, deuteron,
epeita\ (first, second, then, etc.). {In the church} (\en tēi
. The general sense of \ekklēsia\ as in Mt 16:18 and
later in Col 1:18,24; Eph 5:23,32; Heb 12:23. See list also in
Eph 4:11. See on ¯Mt 10:2 for \apostolous\, the official title
given the twelve by Jesus, and claimed by Paul though not one of
the twelve. {Prophets} (\prophētas\). For-speakers for God and
Christ. See the list of prophets and teachers in Ac 13:1 with
Barnabas first and Saul last. Prophets are needed today if men
will let God's Spirit use them, men moved to utter the deep
things of God. {Teachers} (\didaskalous\). Old word from
\didaskō\, to teach. Used to the Baptist (Lu 3:12), to Jesus
(Joh 3:10; 13:13), and of Paul by himself along with
\apostolos\ (1Ti 2:7). It is a calamity when the preacher is no
longer a teacher, but only an exhorter. See Eph 4:11. {Then
(\epeita dunameis\). Here a change is made from the
concrete to the abstract. See the reverse in Ro 12:7. See these
words (\dunameis, iamētōn, glōssōn\) in verses 9,10 with
\glōssōn\, last again. But these two new terms (helps,
. {Helps} (\antilēmpseis\). Old word, from
\antilambanomai\, to lay hold of. In LXX, common in papyri, here
only in N.T. Probably refers to the work of the deacons, help
rendered to the poor and the sick. {Governments} (\kubernēseis\).
Old word from \kubernaō\ (cf. \Kubernētēs\ in Ac 27:11) like
Latin _gubernare_, our govern. So a governing. Probably Paul has
in mind bishops (\episcopoi\) or elders (\presbuteroi\), the
outstanding leaders (\hoi proistamenoi\ in 1Th 5:12; Ro 12:8;
\hoi hēgoumenoi\ in Ac 15:22; Heb 13:7,17,24)
. Curiously
enough, these two offices (pastors and deacons) which are not
named specifically are the two that survive today. See Php 1:1
for both officers.

12:29 {Are all} (\mē pantes\). The \mē\ expects a negative answer
with each group.

12:30 {Do all interpret?} (\mē pantes diermēneuousin?\). He adds
this query to the list in 28, but it is in 10.

12:31 {The greater gifts} (\ta charismata ta meizona\). Paul
unhesitatingly ranks some spiritual gifts above others. \Zēloō\
here has good sense, not that of envy as in Ac 7:9; 1Co 13:4.
{And a still more excellent way} (\kai eti kath' huperbolēn
. In order to gain the greater gifts. "I show you a way
_par excellence_," beyond all comparison (superlative idea in
this adjunct, not comparative)
, like \kath' huperbolēn eis
huperbolēn\ (2Co 4:17). \Huperbolē\ is old word from
\huperballō\, to throw beyond, to surpass, to excel (2Co 3:10;
Eph 1:19)
. "I show you a supremely excellent way." Chapter 1Co
13 is this way, the way of love already laid down in 8:1
concerning the question of meats offered to idols (cf. 1Jo
. Poor division of chapters here. This verse belongs with
chapter 1Co 13.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Corinthians: Chapter 12)