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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Corinthians: Chapter 11)

11:1 {Imitators of me} (\mimētai mou\). In the principle of
considerate love as so clearly shown in chapters 1Co 8-10 and
in so far as (\kathōs\) Paul is himself an imitator of Christ.
The preacher is a leader and is bound to set an example or
pattern (\tupos\) for others (Tit 2:7). This verse clearly
belongs to the preceding chapter and not to chapter 11.

11:2 {Hold fast the traditions} (\tas paradoseis katechete\).
Hold down as in 15:2. \Paradosis\ (tradition) from \paradidōmi\
(\paredōka\, first aorist active indicative) is an old word and
merely something handed on from one to another. The thing handed
on may be bad as in Mt 15:2f. (which see) and contrary to the
will of God (Mr 7:8f.) or it may be wholly good as here. There
is a constant conflict between the new and the old in science,
medicine, law, theology. The obscurantist rejects all the new and
holds to the old both true and untrue. New truth must rest upon
old truth and is in harmony with it.

11:3 {But I would have you know} (\thelō de humas eidenai\). But
I wish you to know, censure in contrast to the praise in verse
2. {The head of Christ is God} (\kephalē tou Christou ho
. Rather, God is the head of Christ, since \kephalē\ is
anarthrous and predicate.

11:4 {Having his head covered} (\kata kephalēs echōn\).
Literally, having a veil (\kalumma\ understood) down from the
head (\kephalēs\ ablative after \kata\ as with \kata\ in Mr
5:13; Ac 27:14)
. It is not certain whether the Jews at this time
used the _tallith_, "a four-corned shawl having fringes
consisting of eight threads, each knotted five times" (Vincent)
as they did later. Virgil (_Aeneid_ iii., 545) says: "And our
heads are shrouded before the altar with a Phrygian vestment."
The Greeks (both men and women) remained bareheaded in public
prayer and this usage Paul commends for the men.

11:5 {With her head unveiled} (\akatakaluptōi tēi kephalēi\).
Associative instrumental case of manner and the predicative
adjective (compound adjective and feminine form same as
, "with the head unveiled." Probably some of the women
had violated this custom. "Amongst Greeks only the \hetairai\, so
numerous in Corinth, went about unveiled; slave-women wore the
shaven head--also a punishment of the adulteress" (Findlay). Cf.
Nu 5:18. {One and the same thing as if she were shaven} (\hen
kai to auto tēi exurēmenēi\)
. Literally, "One and the same thing
with the one shaven" (associative instrumental case again,
Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 530)
. Perfect passive articular
participle of the verb \xuraō\, later form for the old \xureō\.
It is public praying and prophesying that the Apostle here has in
mind. He does not here condemn the act, but the breach of custom
which would bring reproach. A woman convicted of adultery had her
hair shorn (Isa 7:20). The Justinian code prescribed shaving
the head for an adulteress whom the husband refused to receive
after two years. Paul does not tell Corinthian Christian women to
put themselves on a level with courtesans.

11:6 {Let her also be shorn} (\kai keirasthō\). Aorist middle
imperative of \keirō\, to shear (as sheep). Let her cut her hair
close. A single act by the woman. {If it is a shame} (\ei de
. Condition of first class assumed to be true.
\Aischron\ is old adjective from \aischos\, bareness, disgrace.
Clearly Paul uses such strong language because of the effect on a
woman's reputation in Corinth by such conduct that proclaimed her
a lewd woman. Social custom varied in the world then as now, but
there was no alternative in Corinth. {To be shorn or shaven} (\to
keirasthai kai xurasthai\)
. Articular infinitives subject of
copula \estin\ understood, \keirasthai\ first aorist middle,
\xurasthai\ present middle. Note change in tense. {Let her be
(\katakaluptesthō\). Present middle imperative of old
compound \kata-kaluptō\, here alone in N.T. Let her cover up
herself with the veil (down, \kata\, the Greek says, the veil
hanging down from the head)

11:7 {The image and glory of God} (\eikōn kai doxa theou\).
Anarthrous substantives, but definite. Reference to Ge 1:28;
2:26 whereby man is made directly in the image (\eikōn\) of God.
It is the moral likeness of God, not any bodily resemblance.
Ellicott notes that man is the glory (\doxa\) of God as the crown
of creation and as endowed with sovereignty like God himself.
{The glory of the man} (\doxa andros\). Anarthrous also, man's
glory. In Ge 2:26 the LXX has \anthrōpos\ (Greek word for both
male and female)
, not \anēr\ (male) as here. But the woman
(\gunē\) was formed from the man (\anēr\) and this priority of
the male (verse 8) gives a certain superiority to the male. On
the other hand, it is equally logical to argue that woman is the
crown and climax of all creation, being the last.

11:9 {For the woman} (\dia tēn gunaika\). Because of (\dia\ with
accusative case)
the woman. The record in Genesis gives the man
(\anēr\) as the origin (\ek\) of the woman and the reason for
(\dia\) the creation (\ektisthē\, first aorist passive of
\ktizō\, old verb to found, to create, to form)
of woman.

11:10 {Ought} (\opheilei\). Moral obligation therefore (\dia
touto\, rests on woman in the matter of dress that does not (\ouk
opheilei\ in verse 7)
rest on the man.)
{To have a sign of
(\exousian echein\). He means \sēmeion exousias\
(symbol of authority) by \exousian\, but it is the sign of
authority of the man over the woman. The veil on the woman's head
is the symbol of the authority that the man with the uncovered
head has over her. It is, as we see it, more a sign of subjection
(\hypotagēs\, 1Ti 2:10) than of authority (\exousias\).
{Because of the angels} (\dia tous aggelous\). This startling
phrase has caused all kinds of conjecture which may be dismissed.
It is not preachers that Paul has in mind, nor evil angels who
could be tempted (Ge 6:1f.), but angels present in worship (cf.
1Co 4:9; Ps 138:1)
who would be shocked at the conduct of the
women since the angels themselves veil their faces before Jehovah
(Isa 6:2).

11:11 {Howbeit} (\plēn\). This adversative clause limits the
preceding statement. Each sex is incomplete without (\chōris\,
apart from, with the ablative case)
the other. {In the Lord} (\en
. In the sphere of the Lord, where Paul finds the
solution of all problems.

11:12 {Of} (\ek\) {--by} (\dia\). Ever since the first creation
man has come into existence by means of (\dia\ with genitive) the
woman. The glory and dignity of motherhood. Cf. _The Fine Art of
Motherhood_ by Ella Broadus Robertson.

11:13 {Is it seemly?} (\prepon estin;\). Periphrastic present
indicative rather than \prepei\. See on ¯Mt 3:15. Paul appeals
to the sense of propriety among the Corinthians.

11:14 {Nature itself} (\hē phusis autē\). He reenforces the
appeal to custom by the appeal to nature in a question that
expects the affirmative answer (\oude\). \Phusis\, from old verb
\phuō\, to produce, like our word nature (Latin _natura_), is
difficult to define. Here it means native sense of propriety (cf.
Ro 2:14)
in addition to mere custom, but one that rests on the
objective difference in the constitution of things.

11:15 {Have long hair} (\komāi\). Present active subjunctive of
\komaō\ (from \komē\, hair), old verb, same contraction
(\-aēi=āi\) as the indicative (\aei = āi\), but subjunctive here
with \ean\ in third class condition. Long hair is a glory to a
woman and a disgrace to a man (as we still feel). The long-haired
man! There is a papyrus example of a priest accused of letting
his hair grow long and of wearing woollen garments. {For a
(\anti peribolaiou\). Old word from \periballō\ to
fling around, as a mantle (Heb 1:12) or a covering or veil as
here. It is not in the place of a veil, but answering to (\anti\,
in the sense of \anti\ in Joh 1:16)
, as a permanent endowment
(\dedotai\, perfect passive indicative).

11:16 {Contentious} (\philoneikos\). Old adjective (\philos,
, fond of strife. Only here in N.T. If he only existed in
this instance, the disputatious brother. {Custom} (\sunētheian\).
Old word from \sunēthēs\ (\sun, ēthos\), like Latin _consuetudo_,
intercourse, intimacy. In N.T. only here and 8:7 which see. "In
the sculptures of the catacombs the women have a close-fitting
head-dress, while the men have the hair short" (Vincent).

11:17 {This} (\touto\). Probably the preceding one about the
head-dress of women, and transition to what follows. {I praise
you not}
(\ouk epainō\). In contrast to the praise in 11:2.
{For the better} (\eis to kreisson\). Neuter articular
comparative of \kratus\, but used as comparative of \kalos\,
good. Attic form \kreitton\. {For the worse} (\eis to hēsson\).
Old comparative from \hēka\, softly, used as comparative of
\kakos\, bad. In N.T. only here and 2Co 12:15.

11:18 {First of all} (\prōton men\). There is no antithesis
(\deuteron de\, secondly, or \epeita de\, in the next place)
expressed. This is the primary reason for Paul's condemnation and
the only one given. {When ye come together in the church}
(\sunerchomenōn hēmōn en ekklēsiāi\). Genitive absolute. Here
\ekklēsia\ has the literal meaning of assembly. {Divisions}
(\schismata\). Accusative of general reference with the
infinitive \huparchein\ in indirect discourse. Old word for
cleft, rent, from \schizō\. Example in papyri for splinter of
wood. See on 1:10. Not yet formal cleavages into two or more
organizations, but partisan divisions that showed in the
love-feasts and at the Lord's Supper. {Partly} (\meros ti\).
Accusative of extent (to some part) like \panta\ in 10:33. He
could have said \ek merous\ as in 13:9. The rumours of strife
were so constant (I keep on hearing, \akouō\).

11:19 {Must be} (\dei einai\). Since moral conditions are so bad
among you (cf. chapters 1 to 6). Cf. Mt 18:7. {Heresies}
(\haireseis\). The schisms naturally become {factions} or
{parties}. Cf. strifes (\erides\) in 1:11. See on ¯Ac 15:5 for
\haireseis\, a choosing, taking sides, holding views of one
party, heresy (our word). "Heresy is theoretical schism, schism
practical heresy." Cf. Tit 3:10; 2Pe 2:1. In Paul only here and
Ga 5:20. {That} (\hina\). God's purpose in these factions makes
{the proved ones} (\hoi dokimoi\) become {manifest} (\phaneroi\).
"These \haireseis\ are a magnet attracting unsound and unsettled
minds" (Findlay). It has always been so. Instance so-called
Christian Science, Russellism, New Thought, etc., today.

11:20 {To eat the Lord's Supper} (\Kuriakon deipnon phagein\).
\Kuriakos\, adjective from \Kurios\, belonging to or pertaining
to the Lord, is not just a biblical or ecclesiastical word, for
it is found in the inscriptions and papyri in the sense of
imperial (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 358), as
imperial finance, imperial treasury. It is possible that here the
term applies both to the \Agapē\ or Love-feast (a sort of church
supper or club supper held in connection with, before or after,
the Lord's Supper)
and the Eucharist or Lord's Supper. \Deipnon\,
so common in the Gospels, only here in Paul. The selfish conduct
of the Corinthians made it impossible to eat a Lord's Supper at

11:21 {Taketh before} (\prolambanei\). Before others. Old verb to
take before others. It was conduct like this that led to the
complete separation between the Love-feast and the Lord's Supper.
It was not even a common meal together (\koinon deipnon\), not to
say a Lord's \deipnon\. It was a mere {grab-game}. {This one is
(\hos de peināi\). Demonstrative \hos\. Nothing is left
for him at the love-feast. {Another is drunken} (\hos de
. Such disgusting conduct was considered shameful in
heathen club suppers. "Hungry poor meeting intoxicated rich, at
what was supposed to be a supper of the Lord" (Robertson and
. On \methuō\, to be drunk, see on ¯Mt 24:49; Ac 2:15.

11:22 {What? Have ye not houses?} (\Mē gar oikias ouk echete;\)
The double negative (\mē--ouk\) in the single question is like
the idiom in 9:4f. which see. \Mē\ expects a negative answer
while \ouk\ negatives the verb \echete\. "For do you fail to have
houses?" Paul is not approving gluttony and drunkenness but only
expressing horror at their sacrilege (despising, \kataphroneite\)
of the church of God. {That have not} (\tous mē echontas\). Not
those without houses, but those who have nothing, "the have-nots"
(Findlay) like 2Co 8:12, in contrast with \hoi echontes\ "the
haves" (the men of property). {What shall I say to you?} (\ti
eipō humin;\)
Deliberative subjunctive that well expresses Paul's

11:23 {For I received of the Lord} (\ego gar parelabon apo tou
. Direct claim to revelation from the Lord Jesus on the
origin of the Lord's Supper. Luke's account (Lu 22:17-20) is
almost identical with this one. He could easily have read I
Corinthians before he wrote his Gospel. See 15:3 for use of
both \parelabon\ and \paredōka\. Note \para\ in both verbs. Paul
received the account from (\para--apo\) the Lord and passed it on
from himself to them, a true \paradosis\ (tradition) as in
11:2. {He was betrayed} (\paredideto\). Imperfect passive
indicative (irregular form for \paredidoto\, Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 340)
. Same verb as \paredōka\ (first aorist active
indicative just used for "I delivered")

11:24 {When he had given thanks} (\eucharistēsas\). First aorist
active participle of \eucharisteō\ from which word our word
Eucharist comes, common late verb (see on ¯1:14). {Which is for
(\to huper humōn\). \Klōmenon\ (broken) of the Textus
Receptus (King James Version) is clearly not genuine. Luke (Lu
has \didomenon\ (given) which is the real idea here. As a
matter of fact the body of Jesus was not broken (Joh 19:36).
The bread was broken, but not the body of Jesus. {In remembrance
of me}
(\eis tēn emēn anamnēsin\). The objective use of the
possessive pronoun \emēn\. Not my remembrance of you, but your
remembrance of me. \Anamnēsis\, from \anamimnēskō\, to remind or
to recall, is an old word, but only here in N.T. save Lu 22:19
which see.

11:25 {After supper} (\meta to deipnēsai\). \Meta\ and the
articular aorist active infinitive, "after the dining" (or the
as in Lu 22:20. {The new covenant} (\hē kainē
. For \diathēkē\ see on ¯Mt 26:28. For \kainos\ see on
¯Lu 5:38; 22:20. The position of \estin\ before \en tōi haimati\
(in my blood) makes it a secondary or additional predicate and
not to be taken just with \diathēkē\ (covenant or will). {As oft
as ye drink it}
(\hosakis an pinēte\). Usual construction for
general temporal clause of repetition (\an\ and the present
subjunctive with \hosakis\)
. So in verse 26.

11:26 {Till he come} (\achri hou elthēi\). Common idiom (with or
without \an\)
with the aorist subjunctive for future time
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 975). In Lu 22:18 we have \heōs hou
elthēi\. The Lord's Supper is the great preacher (\kataggellete\)
of the death of Christ till his second coming (Mt 26:29).

11:27 {Unworthily} (\anaxiōs\). Old adverb, only here in N.T.,
not genuine in verse 29. Paul defines his meaning in verse
29f. He does not say or imply that we ourselves must be
"worthy" (\axioi\) to partake of the Lord's Supper. No one would
ever partake on those terms. Many pious souls have abstained from
observing the ordinance through false exegesis here. {Shall be
(\enochos estai\). Shall be held guilty as in Mt 5:21f.
which see. Shall be guilty of a crime committed against the body
and blood of the Lord by such sacrilege (cf. Heb 6:6; 10:29).

11:28 {Let a man prove himself} (\dokimazetō anthrōpos heauton\).
Test himself as he would a piece of metal to see if genuine. Such
examination of one's motives would have made impossible the
disgraceful scenes in verses 20ff.

11:29 {If he discern not the body} (\mē diakrinōn to sōma\).
So-called conditional use of the participle, "not judging the
body." Thus he eats and drinks judgment (\krima\) on himself. The
verb \dia-krinō\ is an old and common word, our {dis-cri-minate},
to distinguish. Eating the bread and drinking the wine as symbols
of the Lord's body and blood in death probes one's heart to the
very depths.

11:30 {And not a few sleep} (\kai koimōntai hikanoi\). Sufficient
number (\hikanoi\) are already asleep in death because of their
desecration of the Lord's table. Paul evidently had knowledge of
specific instances. A few would be too many.

11:31 {But if we discerned ourselves} (\ei de heautous
. This condition of the second class, determined as
unfulfilled, assumes that they had not been judging themselves
discriminatingly, else they would not be judged (\ekrinometha\).
Note distinction in the two verbs.

11:32 {Ye are chastened of the Lord} (\hupo tou Kuriou
. On this sense of \paideuō\, from \pais\, child,
to train a child (Ac 7:22), to discipline with words (2Ti
, to chastise with scourges see on ¯Lu 23:16 (Heb 12:7),
and so by afflictions as here (Heb 12:6). \Hupo tou Kuriou\ can
be construed with \krinomenoi\ instead of with \paideuometha\.
{With the world} (\sun tōi kosmōi\). Along with the world.
Afflictions are meant to separate us from the doom of the wicked
world. Final use of \hina mē\ here with \katakrithōmen\ (first
aorist passive subjunctive)

11:33 {Wait one for another} (\allēlous ekdechesthe\). As in Joh
5:3; Ac 17:16. That is common courtesy. Wait in turn. Vulgate
has _invicem expectate_.

11:34 {At home} (\en oikōi\). If so hungry as all that (verse
. {The rest} (\ta loipa\). He has found much fault with this
church, but he has not told all. {I will set in order}
(\diataxomai\). Not even Timothy and Titus can do it all.
{Whensoever I come} (\hōs an elthō\). Common idiom for temporal
clause of future time (conjunction like \hōs\ with \an\ and
aorist subjunctive \elthō\)

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Corinthians: Chapter 11)