Aorist Participles Active and Middle
Use of Participles (continued)
The Negatives o and m.

241. Vocabulary
gagn, having led, 2nd aor. act. part. ofg.
pqanon, I died, 2nd aor. of poqnskw.
perqjn, I answered, aor. indic., pass. in form,
of pokrnomai.
epn, having said, 2nd aor. act. part. of lgw.
lqn, having come, 2nd aor. part. of rcomai.
negkn, having borne, having brought, 2nd aor. act. part. of frw (the 1st aorist, negka, is commoner in the indicative).
dn having seen, 2nd aor.act. part. of blpw (or act. part. of rw).

242. The declension of lsav, lsasa, lsan, having loosed, the aorist active participle of lw, is as follows:




243. Like the present active participle, the aorist active participle is declined according to the third declension in the masculine and neuter, and according to the first declension in the feminine.

244. The characteristic sa, which, it will be remembered is the sign of the aorist system (the third of the principal parts), appears throughout. This sa, as in the rest of the aorist system, is added to the verb stem.

245. The augment, however, appears only in the indicative mood. Thus, although the aorist active indicative of lw is lusav, the aorist active participle is not lsav, , but lsav, and although the aorist active indicative of kow is kousa the aorist active participle is not kosav but kosav.

246. The declension of lusmenov, j, on, having loosed for himself, the aorist middle participle of lw, is as follows:


247. Like the present middle and passive participle, the aorist middle participle (the aorist passive is quite differ-


ent) is declined like an ordinary adjective of the second and first declension.

248. Like the aorist active participle and the rest of the aorist system, the aorist middle participle is formed on the aorist stem. The characteristic aa appears throughout.

249. The declension of dn, dosa, dn, having seen, the second aorist active participle of blpw (it may also be regarded as coming from rw), is as follows:

M. F.N.
M. F.N.

250. It will be observed that the second aorist active participle is declined like the present active participle except that it has an irregular accent. The accent on the first form does not follow the verb rule of recessive accent, but is on the ultima. Thereafter the noun rule is followed, the accent remaining on the same syllable throughout except in the genitive plural feminine, where 51 comes into play.

251. It will be remembered that the augment appears only in the indicative mood. It must therefore be dropped


from the third of the principal parts before the aorist participle can be formed. In irregular verbs like blpw (rw) the dropping of the augment in the second aorist sometimes gives difficulty. The third of the principal parts of blpw (rw) is edon. Without the augment the second aorist stem is d-, for i was here irregularly augmented to ei. On the other hand, the second aorist participle of lgw is epn (epon being the second aorist indicative), because here ep- was the second aorist stem and being regarded as long enough already was not changed at all for the augment.

252. Except in the case of a few such verbs, where the dropping of the augment from the third of the principal parts in order to get the aorist stem to which the -wn is added to form the participle, might give difficulty, the student is expected to perform the necessary processes for himself. Thus if a form poqann is found in the exercises, the student is expected to see that this form is the participle of a second aorist of which the indicative (with the augment) is pqanon. This form, since the verb is irregular, will be found in the general vocabulary.

253. The second aorist middle participle is declined exactly like the present middle participle, and differs from the present middle participle only because it is formed on the second aorist stem instead of on the present stem. Thus labmenov is the second aorist middle participle of lambnw, labon being the second aorist active indicative (third of the principal parts).

Use of the Aorist Participle

In accordance with the principle formulated in 233, that the tense of the participle is relative to the time of the leading verb, the aorist participle denotes action prior to


the action denoted by the leading verb, whether the action denoted by the leading verb is past, present or future.


(1) pstolov epn tata n t er blpei tn krion, the apostle having said these things in the temple is seeing the Lord. Here epn, the aorist participle, denotes action prior to the action denoted by blpw. Compare Example (1) in 232.

(2) epn tata plqen, having said these things he went away. The literal translation of the participle is here perfectly possible. But it would be more idiomatic English to translate, when he had said these things he went away, or after he had said these things he went away. Compare lgwn tata plqen, he went away saying these things or while he was saying these things he went away. Notice that when a Greek present participle is translated by a temporal clause in English, the English word that introduces the temporal clause is naturally while, and when it is an aorist participle that is to be translated into English, the English word introducing the temporal clause is naturally when or after. In the case of the aorist participle, the verb in the English temporal clause will often be perfect ("has seen", etc.) or pluperfect ("had seen", etc.)perfect when the leading verb is present or future, and pluperfect when the leading verb is past.

(3) epn tata prcetai, having said these things he goes away, or after he has said these things he goes away.

(4) proslqon at epnti tata, they came to him after he had said these things. Here the literal translation of the participle would be absolutely impossible in English, because in the English sentence they came to him having said these things, the having said would agree not with him but with the subject of the sentence, they, and the sentence would be a translation, not of proslqon


at epnti tata but of proslqon at epntev tata. Compare with proslqon at epnti tata the sentence proslqon at lgonti tata, which means they came to him while he was saying these things.

(5) lqntev prv tn krion ymeqa atn, having come to the Lord we shall see Him, or when (or after) we have come to the Lord we shall see Him.

255. The aorist participle can of course be used attributively or substantively with the article (see 234, 235) .


(1) maqjtv kosav tata n t er lqen ev tn
, the having-heard-these-things-in-the-temple disciple
went into the house or the disciple who heard
had heard
things in the temple went into the house. On the other hand, maqjtv kosav tata n t er lqen ev tn okon would mean the disciple, when he had heard these things in the temple, went into the house.

(2) kosav tata plqen, the having-heard-these-things
man went away, or, he
the one
the man
who heard
had heard
heard these things went away. On the other hand kosav tata plqen would mean having heard these things he went away or when he had heard these things he went away. In the former sentence kosav tells what man we are talking about, while kosav without the article merely adds a detail about a person who is designated in some other way or not designated at all.

3) edon tov epntav tata, I saw the having-said-these things

men went away, or I saw

the ones
the men

who had said these things.


256. The Negatives

o is the negative of the indicative, m is the negative of the other moods, including the infinitive and the participle.

Example: m pistewn o szetai, the not-believing one is not saved, or he who does not believe is not saved. Here m negatives the participle pistewn, and o negatives the indicative szetai.

257. Exercises
I. 1. labntev tata par tn pisteuntwn ev tn krion xlqomen ev tn rjmon. 2. pista esin a dexmenai tov diwkomnouv p to rcontov. 3. edomen atov ka mnontav n t ok ka xelqntav x ato. 4. o dntev tn krion lqon prv tov gagntav tn maqjtn k to ero. 5. tata pomen per to ssantov mv. 6. oto esin o krxantev t eagglion, ll@ keno esin o dixantev tov pisteontav. 7. prosenegkntev t kur tn diwkmenon p to rcontov to ponjro plqete ev llon tpon. 8. proslqon t kur lqnti ev t ern. 9. psteusav ev atn epnta tata. 10. tata epon xelqn k tv kkljsav. 11. m dn tn krion ok psteusen ev atn. 12. tata epen krion ti n n t d tov xelqosin k to okou, ka poreuomnoiv met@ ato. 13. kosantev t legmena p to kurou psteusan ev atn. 14. edomen tov genomnouv maqjtv to kurou ka ti mnontav n t lpdi atwn t prt. 15. t tkna t labnta tata p tn kousntwn to kurou edon atn, ti nta n t ok. 16. dosai atai tn kjrxanta t eagglion keno lqon prv atn rcmenon ev tn okon. 17. o ggeloi o pesntev k to orano ponjro san. 18. dntev tov ti ntav n t er kruxan atov tn basilean to qeo.


19. taÂta ‡pekr°qj to²v prosenegkoÂsin aÇtþ t t™kna. 20. ‡pÐlqomen mÑ ¸dçntev tèn did€zanta Óm‚v.

II. 1. Those who have not seen the apostle do not know him. 2. I did not see him who had believed on the Lord. 3. I saw him after he had believed on the Lord, but ye saw him while he was still in the kingdom of the Evil One. 4. Having heard these things we believed on Him who had died in behalf of us. 5. We came to those who were going in the way. 6. We shall see the apostle after we have gone into this house. 7. Those men said to those who had gone into the house that the Lord is good. 8. While we were saying them things we were going into our house. 9. When they had received these gifts from the ones who had brought them, they came together into the church. 10. These are the women who received the one who had taught them. 11. When these men had seen the Lord, they were brought to the rulers. 12. The disciples who had come into the church were baptized by the apostles who had seen the Lord. 13. The blind man who had received this man was with those who were persecuting him. 14. The demons that were being cast out said this to him who was casting them out: 15. As we were going through the desert, we taught those who were with us. 16. We saw the servant when he had believed on the Lord and was still in the house.



Aorist Passive Participle
Genitive Absolute


grafev, having been written, 2nd aor. pass. part. of grfw declined like a 1st aor. pass. part.).
adv., there.
or eqv, adv., immediately.

mtion, t, a garment.
oka, , a house ( a synonym of okov).
paidon, t, a little child.
sunagwg, , a synagogue.
stratitjv, o, , a soldier.
fulak, , a guard, a prison.

259. The declension of luqev, luqea, luqn, having been loosed, the aorist passive participle of lw, is as follows:



260. Like the present active participle and the aorist active participle, the aorist passive participle is declined according to the third declension in the masculine and neuter, and according to the first declension in the feminine.

261. The characteristic -qe, which it will be remembered is the sign of the aorist passive system (the sixth of the principal parts), appears throughout. This -qe, as in the rest of the aorist passive system, is added to the verb stem.

262. The augment, of course, must be dropped (from the sixth of the principal parts) before the aorist passive participle can be formed. Compare 251, 252.

263. The aorist passive participle has an irregular accent, the accent in the nominative singular masculine not being recessive. In the other forms of the declension the rule of noun accent is followed, except of course in the genitive plural feminine, where 51, 228 come into play.

264. Like the other aorist participles, the aorist passive participle denotes action prior to the time of the leading verb; and to it applies also all that has been said about the attributive and substantive uses of the participle.

(1) kbljqnta t daimnia p to kurou plqen ev tn qlassan, the demons, having been cast out by the Lord, went away into the sea, or { when / after } the demons had been cast out by the Lord, they went away into the sea.
(2) gerqnti k nekrn proslqon at, they came to Him after He had been raised from the dead.


(3) o didacqntev p to posttlou lqon ev tn okon,
the having-been-taught-by-the-apostle men came into the the men house, or

the men
the ones
who had been taught by the apostle those came into the house.

265. The following summary will serve for the review of what has been learned thus far about the participles:

I. The Participles
Present Act. lwn = loosing.
Mid. lumenov = loosing for himself.
Pass. lumenov = being loosed.
Aorist Act. lsav = having loosed.
Mid. lusmenon = having loosed for himself.
Pass. luqev = having been loosed.
II. Article with Participle
Present Act. lwn,
the loosing man.
= the man who looses.
the one who looses.
he who looses.
Mid. lumenov,
the loosing-for-himself man.
= lthe man who looses for himself
the one who looses for himself.
he who looses for himself.
Pass. lumenov,
the being-loosed man.
= the man who is being loosed.
the one who is being loosed.
he who is being loosed.


Act. lsav,the having-loosed =man. the man who (has) loosed.
the one who (has) loosed.
he who (has) loosed.
Mid. lusmenov, the having-loosed =for-himself man the man who (has) loosed for himself
the one who (has) loosed for himself.
he who (has) loosed for himself.
Pass. luqev, the having-been-=loosed man.
the man who
has been
the one who
has been
he who
has been
266. The Genitive Absolute

A noun or pronoun with a participle often stands out of connection with the rest of the sentence in the construction called the genitive absolute.


epntwn tata tn postlwn o maqjta plqon, the apostles having said these things, the disciples went away. Here epntwn tn postlwn stand in the genitive absolute. postlwn is not the subject of any verb, the subject of the only finite verb in the sentence being maqjta , nor has it any other connection with the framework of the sentence. It is therefore absolute (the word means "loosed" or "separated"). In the English translation, the apostles having said is in the absolute case, which in English grammar is called the nominative absolute. But this nominative absolute is very much less common in English than the genitive absolute is in Greek.


Usually, therefore, it is better to translate the Greek genitive absolute by a clause, thus giving up any attempt at a "literal" translation. For example, instead of the "literal" translation of the sentence just given, it would have been better to translate, when (or after) the apostles had said these things, the disciples went away. Of course all that has already been said about the tense of the participle applies to the participle in the genitive absolute as well as in other constructions.

It should be noticed that the genitive absolute is normally used only when the noun or pronoun going with the participle is different from the subject of the finite verb. Thus in the sentence, epntev tata o pstoloi plqon, the apostles, having said these things, went away, or when the apostles had said these things they went away; the word pstoloi has a construction in the sentence; it is the subject of the leading verb plqon. Therefore it is not "absolute." But in the former example it is not the apostles but some one else that is represented as performing the action denoted by the leading verb. Hence, in that former example postlwn is not the subject of the sentence but genitive absolute.

(2) lgontov ato tata o maqjta plqon, while he was saying these things, the disciples went away. Compare lgwn tata plqen, while he was saying these things he went away or he went away saying these things.

(3) tn maqjtn didacqntwn p to kuroi xlqon ev tn rjmon o doloi, when the disciples had been taught by the Lord, the servants went out into the desert. Compare of o maqjta didacqntev p to kurou xlqon ev tn rjmon, when the disciples had been taught by the Lord, they went out into the desert.


267. Exercises

I. 1. poreuq™ntov to ˆrcontov prèv tèn kÀrion o³ doÂloi eºpon taÂta to²v maqjta²v. 2. poreuqe±v prèv aÇtoÁv é ˆrcwn p°steusen e¸v tèn kÀrion. 3. pisteus€ntwn Ãmòn e¸v tèn kÀrion eÇqÁv p°steuse ka± é ˆrcwn. 4. e¸selqçntov e¸v tÑn o¸k°an to gerq™ntov Ãpè to kur°ou o³ maqjta± qaÀmasan. 5. kbljq™ntov aÇto k tÒv sunagwgÒv sunÐcqjsan o³ ˆrcìntev. 6. kbljq™nta k tÒv sunagwgÒv d°daxen aÇtèn é kÀriov. 7. e¸pçntov taÂta to pneÀmatov to ƒg°ou o³ maqjta± kÐruxan tèn lçgon to qeoÂ. 8. to²v qerapeuqe²sin Ãp@ aÇto e¹pete ¿Ðmata lp°dov ka± zwÒv. 9. lqçntov toÀtou e¸v tÑn o¸k°an aÇto eÇq™wv e¹ponmen to²v ˆlloiv t ¿Ðmata t paraljmfq™nta ‡pè to kur°ou. 10. bljq™ntev e¸v fulakÑn di tè eÇagg™lion tè kjrucqšn aÇto²v Ãpè to ‡postçlou dçxasan ke² tèn sðsanta aÇtoÀv. 11. ‡naljmfq™ntov aÇto e¸v oÇranèn e¸sÒlqon o³ maqjta± e¸v tÑn o¸k°an aÇtòn. 12. d™xasqe toÁv kbljq™ntav k tÒv sunagwgÒv ka± tv dexam™nav aÇtoÁv e¸v tv o¸k°av aÇtòn. 13. aÊta° e¸sin a³ diwcqe²sai ka± œti diwkçmenai Ãpè tòn ‡rcçntwn. 14. aÈtj st±n Ó lp±v Ó kjrucqe²sa n tþ kçsmû Ãpè tòn ¸dçntwn tèn kÀrion. 15. tòn stratiwtòn diwx€ntwn Óm‚v e¸v tÑn o¸k°an d™xanto Óm‚v o³ íntev ke². 16. diwcq™ntav Óm‚v Ãpè tòn stratiwtòn d™xanto o³ íntev n tÞ o¸k°‹. 17. e¸sercom™nû soi e¸v tÑn o¸k°an prosÒlqon o³ ˆrcontev, e¸selqçnta1 1 dš x™balon. 18. taÂta mšn eºpon aÇto²v prosf™rousi t paid°a tþ kur°û, ke²na dš prosenegkoÂsin. 19. poreuom™nou mšn to kur°ou met tòn maqjtòn aÇto žlegon o³ ‡pçstoloi taÂta, lqçntov dš e¸v tÑn o¸k°an ke²na. 20. taÂta eºpon Ãm²n žti oÊsin met@ moÂ.

II. 1. When the soldiers had taken the garments from the children, the disciples were cast out of the house.


2. When the disciples had been cast out of the synagogue, they came to us. 3. While we were coming into our house, the Lord said these things to the rulers. 4. The Lord said those things to you, both while ye were with Him in the way and after ye had come to the ruler. 5. Those who had heard the apostle saying these things saw the house which had been destroyed by the soldiers. 6. When the rulers had heard the things which were being said by the Lord, they persecuted the disciples. 7. While the disciples were being persecuted by the rulers, the apostles were going into another house. 8. Those who went into the house of the ruler were my brothers. 9. When our names have been written into the book of life, we shall see the Lord. 10. Having been brought to the Lord by these disciples we see Him for ever. 11. These are the rulers who have become disciples of Thee. 12. When the apostle had been cast into prison, the disciples who had heard these things went away into another place. 13. After those women had been cast into prison, we went away into the .desert. 14. When those who had been cast into prison had seen the man who had been raised up, they marvelled and believed on the Lord. 15. When the disciples had led to the Lord those who had been persecuted on account of Him, those servants came to us bringing good gifts. 16. Those who have not received this hope from God will not enter into the kingdom of heaven.



The Subjunctive Mood.

268. Vocabulary
martnw, I sin.
dikaiosnj, , righteousness.
n, conditional particle, with subjunctive, if.
e, with indicative, if.
eaggelzomai, dep. with middle forms, I preach the gospel, I preach the gospel to (with acc. of the thing preached and either aec. or dat. of the person to whom it is preached).
na, conj., with subjunctive, in order that.
lav, , a people.
loipv, , n, adj . remaining; o loipo, the rest ( = the remaining persons).
makriov, , n, adj., blessed.
martura, , a witnessing, a testimony, a witness.
mjd, and not, nor, not even (with moods other than the indicative); mjd....mjd, neither .. nor.
mjkti, no longer (with moods other than the indicative).
clov, , b, a crowd, a multitude.

269. The subjunctive mood occurs only in the present and aorist tenses (except for very rare occurrences of the perfect). It has primary personal endings throughout, even in the aorist (which, it will be remembered, is a secondary tense). The personal endings are preceded throughout by a long variable vowel w/j instead of the short variable vowel o/e which occurs in the present indicative.

270. The present active subjunctive of lw is as follows:

Sing. 1. lw
2. lv
3. l
Plur. 1. lwmen
2. ljte
3. lwsi(n)


271. The present middle and passive subjunctive of lw is as follows:

Sing.1. lwmai
2. l
3. ljtai
Plur.1. lumeqa
2. ljsqe
3. lwntai

272. It will be observed that these present subjunctive forms are like the present indicative forms except that a long vowel comes immediately after the stem, while in the indicative there is a short vowel-w of the subjunctive standing instead of the o of the indicative, and e of the subjunctive standing instead of the a of the indicative. The only exceptions are (1) in the present active, third person plural, where w in the subjunctive stands instead of ou in the indicative, and (2) in the present middle and passive, second person singular, where the indicative already has j (in l).

273. The -wsi(n) of the third person plural active may have the movable n.

274. The aorist active subjunctive is as follows:
Sing.1. lsw
2. lsv
3. lsj
Plur.1. lswmen
2. lsjte
3. lswsi(n)

275. The aorist middle subjunctive is as follows:
Sing. 1. lswmai
2. ls
3. lsjtai
Plur.1. lusmeqa
2. lsjsqe
3. lswntai

276. It will be observed that the endings (with variable vowel) are exactly the same in the aorist active and middle


subjunctive as they are in the present active and middle subjunctive. But these endings (with variable vowel) are in the aorist added to the aorist stem, whereas in the present they are added to the present stem. The s makes all the difference.

277. There is in the aorist subjunctive of course no augment (see §245) .

278. The second aoriat active and middle subjunctive is conjugated exactly like the first aorist subjunctive. Of course, however, it is formed on the second aorist stem.

279. The aorist passive subjunctive is as follows:

Sing. 1.
Plur. 1.

280. The aorist passive subjunctive, like the aorist passive indicative, has active personal endings. The endings (with the variable vowel) are exactly like those in the present active subjunctive. But the rule of verb accent seems to be violated--the accent does not seem to be recessive. This apparent irregularity is due to the fact that there has been contraction, the -qe of the aoriat passive stem having been contracted with the following vowels in accordance with the rules which will be given in §316. But for present purposes the peculiarity of the,aecent may simply be learned without any further attention being given to the reason far it.

281. Before the aorist subjunctives can be formed from the principal parts given in the vocabulary, the augment must-be dropped in the manner explained in §§251, 252.


    282.               Present Subjunctive of  em

    Learn the present subjunctive of em in 602.

    283.               The Tenses in the Subjunctive

    In the subjunctive mood there is absolutely no distinction of time between the tenses; the aorist tense does not refer to past time and the present subjunctive does not necessarily refer to present time. The distinction between the present and the aorist concerns merely the manner in which the action is regarded. The aorist subjunctive refers to the action without saying anything about its continuance or repetition, while the present subjunctive refers to it as continuing or as being repeated. Thus na lsw means simply in order that I may loose, while na lw means in order that I may be loosing, or the like. But ordinarily it is quite impossible to bring out the difference in an English translation. The present and the aorist subjunctive will usually have to be translated exactly alike. The student should use the aorist in the exercises unless he sees some reason for using the present, since the aorist presents the action in a simpler way, without any added thought of its duration.

    284.               The Negative of the Subjunctive

    The negative of the subjunctive is m, in accordance with the rule given in 256.

    285.               The Hortatory Subjunctive

    The first person plural of the subjunctive is used in exhortations.
    Example: pisteswmen ev tn krion, let us believe on the Lord.


The Subjunctive in Purpose Clauses

Purpose is expressed by na with the subjunctive.

Examples: (1) rcmeqa na dwmen atn, we come in order that we may see him. (2) lqomen na dwmen atn, we came in order that we might see him.

287. na, in order that, with the subjunctive, must be distinguished sharply from ti, that, with the indicative. The latter introduces indirect discourse.

Example: Compare lgousin ti ginskousi tn krion , they say that they know the Lord, with toto lgousin na kowsin o maqjta, they say this in order that the disciples may hear.

The Subjunctive in Future Conditions

288. Future conditions are expressed by n with the subjunctive; other conditions by ewith the indicative.1



(1) n eslqwmen ev tn okan ymeqa, if we go into the house, we shall see the Lord. Here n eslqwmen clearly refers to the future. Compare e maqjta smen to kurou swqjsmeqa, if we are disciples of the Lord,


we shall be saved. Here the meaning is, if it is now a fact that we are disciples of the Lord, we shall be saved. Hence e¸ ....... smen refers to present time.

(2) n did€skjte toÁv ‡delfoÁv pisto° ste did€skaloi, if you teach the brethren, you are faithful teachers. Here the meaning is, if at any time you shall be engaged in teaching the brethren, you are faithful teachers. n did€skjte here refers to an indefinite future. Compare e¸ did€skete toÁv ‡delfoÁv pisto° ste di€skaloi, if you are teaching the brethren, you are faithful teachers. Here the meaning is, if the work in which you are now engaged is that of teaching the brethren, you are faithful teachers. It should be observed that. in order to distinguish with the indicative from &v with the subjunctive, it is often advisable to choose the periphrastic present in English to translate the present indicative after . Thus if you are teaching is a present condition, while if you teach is usually a future condition.

289. The above examples will show that the difference between the two kinds of conditions here treated concerns only the protasis (the if-clause). Various moods and tenses can stand in the apodosis (the conclusion) after either kind of protasis. A hortatory subjunctive, for example, can stand after a simple present condition. For examplee¸ maqjta° smen to kur°ou di€skwmen toÁv ‡delfoÀv, if we are disciples of the Lord [i.e., if that is now a fact], let us teach the brethren.

290. It should also be noticed that one cannot always tell from the mere form of the English sentence whether a condition is present or future. Thus in modern colloquial English we often use the present indicative to express a future condition. For example, in the sentence, if it rains


to-morrow, we shall not go to the picnic, if it rains clearly refers to the future and would be n with the subjunctive in Greek. It is the meaning of the English sentence, then, and not the mere form, which should be noticed in determining what the Greek shall be.

291. Exercises

I. 1. n eaggelismeqa mv lmyesqe swtjran ka lpda. 2. n m dxjsqe tn martupan mn, o swqsqe. . n m d otov tn krion, o pistesei ev atn. 4. e kjrssetai mn ti gaqv stin kriov, gaqo men ka mev, na didskwmen tov loipov. 5. ejggelismjn atov na swqsin ka cwin zwn. 6. mjkti martwmen, na gemeqa maqjta pisto. 7. makrio esin o cloi, n koswsin t mat mou. 8. n eslqwsin ev kenjn tn okan o pisteontev ev tn krion, eaggelismeqa atov ke. 9. kjrxamen tot t la t mata tv zwv, na dxwntai tn lqeian ka swqsin. 10. proslqwmen t dnti tn krion, na didx mv per ato. 11. tata epntwn atn n t er o kosantev dxanto t legmena, na kjrxwsin at ka tov loipov. 12. pisteswmen ev tn poqanta pr mn, na gry t nmata mn ev t biblon tv zwv. 13. lesomai prv tn ssant me, na m lw tv ntolv ato mjd porewmai n tav dov to qantou. 14. tata epon n t er, na o kosantev swqsin p tn martin atn ta cwsin tn dikaiosnjn to qeo. 15. e edete tata n tav mraiv tav kakav, yesqe t at ka nn ka ev tn ana. 16. n m didacqv p to kurou, o gns atn ev tn ana. 17. lwn tv ntolv to qeo ok cei lpda, n m pistry prv tn krion. 18. tata parlaben p to poqanntov pr ato, na paralabntev at o loipo swqsin ka ato. 19. sunelqntev ev tn okan dexmeqa tn marturan


to eÇaggelisam™nou Óm‚v. 20. diwx€ntwn tòn stratiwtòn toÁv ‡g°ouv ´na mÑ pisteÀswsin e¸v tèn sðsanta aÇtoÀv, sunÒlqon oÆtoi e¸v tÑn sunagwgÐn.

II. 1. Let us receive the witness of these men, in order that we may be saved. 2. If we do not turn to the Lord, we shall not know Him. 3. If the Lord prepares a place for us, we shall enter into heaven. 4. If we received this commandment from the Lord, let us preach the gospel to the multitudes. 5. If these men are disciples of the Lord, they will not persecute the saints. 6. If these rulers persecute those who believed on the Lord, they will not come to the Lord in order that they may be saved? If he sees the woman who received the saints, he will take the little children from her. 8. When the disciples had said these things to the saints, they were taught by the Lord in order that they might sin no longer. 9. If the Son of Man came in order that He might save sinners, let us receive His witness. 10. If we know the Lord, let us not persecute His saints nor cast them out of the synagogue. 11. If the crowds who have heard the Lord see Him in that synagogue, they will come to Him in order that He may say to them words of hope. 12. Unless1 3 He says these things to the multitudes, they will not be saved. 13. If thou seest in that night the one who saved thee, the ruler will persecute thee, in order that thou mayest not preach the gospel to the others. 14. The Lord came to us, in order that we might preach the gospel to you. 15. The faithful servants came, in order that they might bring to us those garments.



The Present and Aorist Infinitives
The Articular Infinitive. Indirect Discourse
Proper Names


de², impersonal verb, used only in third person, it is necessary (takes the accusative and infinitive).
žxesti(n), impersonal verb, used only in third person, it is lawful (with dative of the person for whom "it is lawful").
q™lw, I wish.
@IjsoÂv, @IjsoÂ, é, Jesus.
@Iouda²ov, é, a Jew
keleÀw, I command.
kðmj, Ó, a village
m™llw, I am about (to do something), I am going (to do something).
ìfe°lw, I owe, I ought.
p€scw, I suffer.
prç, prep. With gen., before.
swtjr°a, Ó, salvation.
Farisar²ov, é, a Pharisee.
Cristçv, é, Christ; é Cristçv, Christ, or the Messiah

293. The present and aorist infinitives of lÀw are as follows:
Present Aorist
Act.lÀein, to loose. Act. lÂsai, to loose.
Mid.lÀesqai, to loose
for one's self.
Mid. lÀsasqai, to loose
for one's self.
Pass.lÀesqai, to be loosed Pass. luqÒnai, to be loosed.

294. It will be observed that the present infinitives are formed upon the present stem, the aoriat active and middle infinitives upon the aorist stem (with the characteristic -sa),


and the aorist passive infinitive upon the aorist passive stem (with the characteristic -qe lengthened to -qj).

295. The first aorist active infinitive is accented upon the penult, even where this involves an exception to the rule of verb accent. Thus pistesai, to believe, not psteusai. The accent of the aorist passive infinitive is also irregular.

296. The second aorist active infinitive of lepw is lipen, and the second aorist middle infinitive is lipsqai. These are like the present infinitives in their endings except for the irregular accent. They are formed, of course, upon the second aorist stem.

297. The present infinitive of em is enai.

298. The infinitive is a verbal noun. In many cases the use of the Greek infinitive is so much like that of the infinitive in .English as to call for no comment. Thus qlw koein tn lgon means I wish to hear the word. Here the English is a literal translation of the Greek.

299. There is ordinarily no distinction of time between the tenses in the infinitive, but the distinction is the same as that which prevails in the subjunctive. The present infinitive refers to the action in its continuance or as repeated; the aorist infinitive refers to it in no such special way. It is usually impossible to bring out the distinction in an English translation.

300. The negative of the infinitive is m.

The Articular Infinitive

301. The Greek infinitive, being a verbal noun, can have the article, like any other noun. It is treated as an indeclinable neuter noun and so has the neuter article.


302. The infinitive with the article can stand in moat of the constructions in which any other noun can stand. Thus kalçn sti tè ‡poqane²n Ãpšr tòn ‡delfòn, means the act of dying in behalf of the brethren is good, or, less literally, it is good to die in behalf of the brethren. Here tè ‡poqane²n is a noun in the nominative case, being the subject of the verb stin.

303. Of particular importance is the use of the articular infinitive after prepositions.

Examples: met tè lÂsai, in or during the process of loosing; n tþ lÀein, on account of the fact of being loosed; met tè luqÒnai, after the fact of being loosed; prè to lÂsai, before the act of loosing; e¸v tè lÂsai, into the act of loosing. This last preposition, e¸v, is very frequently used with the articular infinitive to express purpose. If one act is done so as to get into another act, it is done for the purpose of that other act. Thus e¸v tè lÂsai means in order to loose.

304. So far, the infinitive has been viewed as a noun. But it is also part of a verb, and as part of a verb it can-have not only, as the participle can, adverbial modifiers and a direct object, but also, unlike the participle, a subject. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative case.

(1) n tþ l™gein aÇtoÁv taÂta, in (or during) the circumstance that they were saying these things = while they were saying these things. Here aÇtoÀv is the subject of the infinitive l™gein and taÂta is the direct object of it.

(2) met tè ‡poluqÒnai tèn íclon ‡pÒlqen é kÀriov, after the circumstance that the crowd was dismissed, the Lord went away, or after the crowd had been dismissed, the Lord


went away. The same thought might have been expressed by ‡poluq™ntov to íclou ‡pÒlqen Ó kÀriov.

(3) di dš tè l™gesqai toÂto Ãpè tòn íclwn ‡pÒlqen é ‡pçstolov, and on account of the circumstance that this was being said by the crowds, the apostle went away, or because this was being said by the crowds, the apostle went away.

(4) taÂta dš eºpon Ãm²n e¸v tè mÑ gen™sqai Ãm‚v doÀlouv tÒv ƒmart°av, and these things 1 said to you, with the ten-) dency toward the result that you should not become servants of sin, or and these things I said to you in order that you might not become servants of sin.

305. It will be observed that the articular infinitive with prepositions is usually to be translated into English by a clause introduced by a conjunction. But it must not be supposed that the details of such translation have anything to do with the details of the Greek original. It is rather the total idea expressed by the Greek phrase which is transferred into a totally different idiom.

Indirect Discourse

306. Indirect discourse is sometimes expressed by the accusative and infinitive.

Example: žlegon o³ ˆnqrwoi aÇtèn e¸nai tèn profÐtjn, the men were saying that he was the prophet.

307. But usually indirect discourse is expressed by êti with the indicative. The usage is exactly like that in English except for the following important difference:

308. In indirect discourse in Greek, in part contrary to the English usage, the same mood and tense are retained as those which stood in the direct discourse lying back of the indirect.



(1) l™gei êti bl™pei tèn ‡pçstolon, he says that he sees the apostle. Here the direct discourse lying back of the indirect is 1 see the apostle, for such are the actual words of the speaker; such are the words which would have stood in the quotation if quotation marks had been used. In this sentence there is no difference between the Greek and the English usage.

(2) eºpen êti bl™pei tèn ‡pçstolon, he said that he saw the apostle. Here #Xiaec is in the present tense because the direct discourse lying back of the indirect discourse is 1 see the apostle-those were the actual words of the speaker. The tense of the direct discourse, 1 see, is retained in the indirect discourse (though of course the person is changed). English, on the other hand, changes the tense in the indirect discourse, when the leading verb is in past time. Thus, although a perfectly literal translation was possible in (1) it is impossible in (2).

(3) eºpen é maqjtÑv êti eºden tèn ‡pçstolon, the disciple said that he had seen the apostle. Here the direct discourse was I saw the apostle, or I have seen the apostle . English throws the tense in the indirect discourse a step further back (had seen instead of saw or has seen); Greek retains the same tense.

(4) eºpen êti íyetai tèn ‡pçstolon, he said that he would see the apostle. The direct discourse was I shall see. English changes shall to would (or should with the first person); Greek retains the same tense.

Proper Names

309. Proper names (spelled with a capital letter) often have the article. Of course the article must be omitted in an English translation.


310. The declension of HIjsov, , Jesus is as follows:

N. HIjsov
G. HIjso
D. HIjso
A. HIjson
V. HIjso

311. Certain nouns, referring to persons or things which instead of being only one of a class are quite unique, are treated as proper nouns, the article being either inserted or omitted. So qev or qev, God; pnema or pnema, the Spirit; ksmov, the world; nmov or nmov, the Law.


I. 1. ok xestn soi cein atn. 2. kelesav d tov clouv poluqanai xlqen ev tn rjmon. 3. ok stin kaln laben tn rton tn tknwn ka kbalen atn. 4. rxato d HIjsov lgein tov HIoudaoiv ti de atn pelqen. 5. mllei gr uv to nqrpou rcesqai n dx met tn gglwn ato. 6. e qlei met@ mo lqen, de atn poqanen. 7. kaln so stin ev zwn`n eselqen. 8. n d t lgein me toto pese t pnema t gion p@ atov. 9. met d t gerqnai tn krion dwxan o HIoudaoi tov maqjtv ato. 10. pr d to bljqnai ev fulakn tn proftjn bptizon o maqjta to HIjso tov rcomnouv prv atov 11. di d t nai atn ke sunlqon o HIoudaoi. 12. qlw gr den mv, na lbjte dron gaqn, ev t gensqai mv maqjtv pistov. 13. pqanen pr atn HIjsov ev t swqnai atov. 14. pemyen qev tn HIjson, na poqn pr mn, ev t doxzein mv tn ssanta mv. 15. epen tuflv ti blpei tov nqrpouv. 16. epen HIjsov ti lesetai n t basile ato.


17. tata legen pstolov ti n n sark, ev t pistesai ev tn HIjson tov koontav. 18. kelesav mv HIjsouv lqen ev tn kmjn eqv pluse tn clon. 19. swqntev p to HIjso felomen ka pscein di t noma ato. 20. n t pscein mv tata legon o delfo ti blpousi tn HIjson.

II. 1. While Jesus was preaching the gospel to the people, the Pharisees were commanding the soldiers to bring Him. 2. After Jesus had commanded the crowds to go away, His disciples came to Him. 3. If we wish to see Jesus, let us go into this village. 4. They said that it was lawful for them to take these garments. 5. They saw that it was necessary for the Son of Man to suffer these things. 6. After Jesus had said these things to the Pharisees, the multitudes went away. 7. On account of our not being disciples of Jesus, the ruler will command us to go away. 8. After salvation had been proclaimed to the people, Jesus taught His disciples. 9. We ought when we suffer these things to pray to the One who has saved us. 10. We shall be saved in that hour, because we have believed on the name of Jesus. 11. Those who had come into that village saw that Jesus was in the house. 12. Let us not sin, for God will not receive into His kingdom those who sin and do not turn to Him. 13. While these men were praying to God, the soldiers were persecuting the Church. 14. And when they had entered into this village, they said that they wished to see Jesus. 15. This woman came to see the works of the Christ. 16. The men were brought to Jesus Christ in order that He might heal them.



Contract Verbs

‡gap€w, I love (the most frequent and the loftiest word for I love in the New Testament.
I follow, (takes the dative).
Galila°a, Ó, Galilee.
djlçw, I show, I make manifest.
eÇlog™w, I bless.
eÇcarist™w, I give thanks.
zjt™w, I seek.
qewr™w, I behold.
kal™w, kal™sw, k€lesa, -, -, klÐqjn, I call.
lal™w, I speak
parakal™w, I exhort, I comfort.
peripat™w, I walk.
poi™w, I do, I make.
proskun™w, I worship (usually takes the dative).
staurçw, I crucify.
tjr™w, I keep.
tim€w, I honor.
fil™w, I love (denotes a love akin to friendship. The word is much less frequent in the New Testament than ‡gap€w.)
cðra, Ó, a country.

Rules of Contraction1

314. Two vowels or a vowel and a diphthong are often united into a single long vowel or diphthong. The process by which they are united is called contraction.


315. It must not be supposed, however, that contraction always takes place when two vowels or a vowel and a diphthong (even in the combinations set forth in the following rules) come together within a word.

316. The rules of contraction are as follows:

I. Vowel with Vowel

1. An open and a close vowel, when the open vowel comes first, are united in the diphthong which is composed of the two vowels in question.
Example: e-i makes ei. It must be observed, however, that when the close vowel comes before the open vowel, a diphthong is never formed. Thus i-e (for example, in ³erçn) is always two syllables, never a diphthong.

2. Two like vowels form the common long. Examples: a-a makes long a ; e-j makes j; o-w makes w. 3. But e-a makes ei and o-o makes ou. This rule forms an exception to rule 2.

4. An o- sound (o or w) overcomes a, e, or j (whether the o- sound comes first or second), and forms w.
Examples: a-o makes w; e-w makes w.

5. But e-o and o-e make ou. This rule forms an exception to rule 4.

6. When a and e or j come together, whichever one comes first overcomes the other, and forms its own long.

Examples: a-e and a-j make long a; e-a makes j.

II. Vowel with Diphthong

1. A vowel disappears by absorption before a diphthong that begins with the same vowel.
Examples: e-ei makes ei; o-ou makes ou.


2. When a vowel comes before a diphthong that does not begin with the same vowel, it is contracted with the diphthong's first vowel. The diphthong's second vowel disappears, unless it is i, in which case it becomes subscript.

Examples: a-ei makes (a is first contracted with a in accordance with I 6, and then the i becomes subscript); a-ou makes w (a is contracted with o by I 4, and the u disappears); e-ou makes ou (e is contracted with o by I 5, and u disappears).

3. But o-ei and o-Û make oi.

III. Accent of Contract Syllables

1. If either of the contracted syllables had an accent, the resulting syllable receives an accent. If the resulting syllable is a penult or an antepenult, the general rules of accent (see §11) .will always tell which kind of accent it has. If the resulting syllable is an ultima it has a circumflex.

Examples: (1) fil™omen makes filoumen, in accordance with I 5. Since one of the two syllables that united to make ou had an accent, ou must have an accent. The general rules of accent declare that if the ultima is short, a long penult, if accented at all, must have the circumflex. Hence filoÂmen is correct. (2) timaçmeqa makes timwmeqa in accordance with I 4. Since one of the two syllables that united to make m had an accent, co must have an accent. But in accordance with the general rules of accent only an acute can stand on an antepenult. Therefore timðmeqa is correct. (3) djlçeiv makes djloiv in accordance with II 3. Since one of the two syllables that united to make of had an accent, oi must have an accent. The general rules of accent will permit either an acute or a circumflex to stand on a long ultima. But the present rule gives special guidance. Therefore djlo²v is correct.


2. If neither of the contracted syllables had an accent, the resulting syllable receives none. Example: f°lee makes filei in accordance with I 3. Since neither of the two syllables that unite to make ei is accented, ei receives no accent, and f°lei is correct.

Present System of Contract Verbs

317. The student should write out in the uncontraeted forms the present system (present tense in all moods studied thus far, and imperfect tense) of tim€w, I honor, fil™w, I love, and djlçw, I make manifest, and should then write the contract form opposite to each uncontracted form, applying the rules of contraction. The results can be tested by the conjugation of these verbs which is given in §§590-592.

318. It should be observed that there are two exceptions to the rules: (1) the present active infinitive of verbs in -aw is contracted from -€ein to -‚n instead of to Žn, and (2) the present active infinitive of verbs in -ow is contracted from o-ein to -oÂn instead of to -o²n.

319. Contraction is carried out in all the forms of the declension of the participles.

320. In general, the uncontracted forms of these verbs in -€w and -çw do not occur in the New Testament. The reason why the uncontracted forms, and not the contract forms, of the present active indicative first person singular are given in the lexicons is that the uncontracted forms must be known before the verb can be conjugated, since it makes a great difference for the conjugation whether timò, for example, is contracted from tim€w, tim™w, or timçw.


Principal Parts of Verbs in -€w, ™w, and çw

321. Verbs whose stems end in a vowel regularly lengthen that vowel (a as well as a being lengthened to j) before the tense suffixes (e.g. the -so/e of the future system, the -sa of the first aorist system, and the -qe of the aorist passive system). Thus the principal parts of tim€w, so far as we have learned them, are tim€w, timÐsw, et°mjsa, --, --, etimÐqjn (not tim€w, tim€sw, etc.); the principal parts of fil™w are fil™w filÐsw, etc.; and the principal parts of djlçw are djlðw, djlðsw, etc. It should be observed that this lengthening of the final vowel of the stem of these "contract" verbs has nothing to do with contraction. The contraction appears only in the present system.

322. It is very important that the student should learn to reverse the process involved in this rule. Thus, if a form fanerwqe°v be found in the Greek-English exercises, the student should first say to himself that the -qe in f€erwqe°v is evidently the sign of the aorist passive system. The verb stem without the tense suffix would be fanerw-. But since the final vowel of the verb stem is lengthened before the tense suffix -qe, the verb stem was fanero- and the verb was fanerçw. Or if a form ×rwtðqj be found, the student should first say to himself that the -qj is evidently the ending of the aorist passive indicative, third person singular, like elÀqj. But the aorist passive indicative has the augment, which if the verb begins with a vowel consists in the lengthening of that vowel. Therefore, to get the verb, the j at the beginning of ×rwtðqj must be shortened. But j is the long of either a or e. It cannot be determined, therefore, whether the verb began a or e. Again, j just before the -qj in ×rwtÐqj was the lengthened form of the verb stem. The verb stem therefore ended in either a or e. Accordingly there are four possibilities as to the verb


from which rwtqj may be found to have come; rwtqj may be found to have come from rwtw, rwtw, rwtw, or rwtw. Trying each of these in the lexicon we discover that the last is correct.

323. kalw is an exception to the rule just given. It does not lengthen the final e of the stem before the s of the future and aorist systems. The aorist passive, moreover, is irregularly formed.


I. 1. ok elogsei qev tn m peripatonta kat tv ntolv to @Ijso. 2. o gapmenoi p; to @Ijso gapsi tn agapnta atov. 3. lalontov to @Ijso tov kolouqosin rxato rcwn parakalen atn pelqen. 4. kolouqsantev t lalsanti tata zjtswmen tn okon ato. 5. e agapmen tn qen, tjrmen tv entolv auto ka poimen t lalomena mn p to @Ijso. 6. toto poisantov to @Ijso llei per ato qerapeuqev t akolouqonti cl. 7. qeroun o pstoloi t rga t poiomena p @Ijso n t peripaten atov sn at. 8. met t bljqnai ev fulakn tn proftjn okti perieptei @Ijsov n t cr eken. 9. o gapntev tn qen poiosi tv entolv ato. 10. tata pooun t @Ijso ka o qerapeuqntev p@ ato. 11. ztoun atn o cloi, na qewrsi t poiomena p@ ato. 12. o filosi tn @Ijson o m poiontev tv ntolv ato. 13. gapmen tn qen n tav kardaiv mn gapntev ka tov delfov. 14. tata lljsen @Ijsov tov kolqosin at ti peripatn met@ atn n t cr tn @Ioudawn. 15. n m peripatmen kat tv ntolv to @Ijso, o qewrsomen t prswpon ato. 16. met t kalsai atov tn @Ijson okti perieptoun n tav dov to ponjro od pooun t


ponjr. 17. tata poiete mn di t gapn mav tn kalsanta mv ev tn basilean ato. 18. t @Ijso lalsanti tata met t gerqnai k nekrn poseknjsan o kljqntev p' ato. 19. eqeroun tn @Ijson stauromenon po tn stratiwtn a kolouqsasai at k tv Galilaav. 20. o qewrsomen autn en m akolouqmen aut peripatonti n t Galila.

II. 1. Those things spake Jesus to those who were following Him out of Galilee. 2. I was beholding Him who had loved me and died in behalf of me. 3. Let us worship the One who does these things and bless His holy name. 4. Those who were beholding Him as He was walking in Galilee were saying that they did not wish to follow Him. 5. Having followed Jesus as He was walking in Galilee, they beheld Him also after He had been raised up from the dead. 6. Let us seek the One who has spoken to us words of hope. 7. Let us bless the name of the One who walked with us in the world and was crucified in behalf of us. 8. If thou followest Him who does these things, thou wilt behold Him in His glory. 9. If we do not love those who bless us we will not love those who do evil things. 10. He loves us and makes manifest to us His glory, in order that we may bless God for ever. 11. While the multitudes were following Jesus and were hearing the things which were being spoken by Him, the rulers were saying that they did not love Him. 12. I will show to those who have followed me the things which have been shown to me by Jesus. 13. These are those who love Jesus and beheld His works and were called into His kingdom. 14. His brother exhorted him to follow Jesus in order that he might be with Him for ever. 15. This parable we speak to those who love God and keep His commandments. 16. This is the child that blesses God and loves Him.



Future and First Aorist Active and Middle of Liquid Verbs.
Future of e¸m°. Reflexive Pronouns

325. Vocabulary
‡llÐlwn, reciprocal pron., of each other, of one another.
‡poqanoÂmai, I shall die, dep. Fut. of ‡poqnÐskw.
‡poktenò, ‡p™kteina,
fut. and aor. of ‡pokte°nw, I kill.
‡postelò, ‡p™steila, fut. and aor. of ‡post™llw, I send.
‡rò, Úra, fut. and aor. of a¹rw, I take up, I take away.
balò, I shall throw, I shall cast, fut. of b€llw.
reflexive pron., of himself.
gerò, Øgeira, fut. and aor. of ge°rw, I raise up.
mautoÂ, reflexive pron., of myself.
p°, prep. with gen., over, on, at the time of; with dat., on, on the basis of, at; with acc., on, to, against (p°, is an exceedingly common, but a rather difficult, preposition. Its various uses must be learned by observation in reading).
žsomai, I shall be, fut. of e¸m°.
menò, žmeina,
fut. and aor. of m™nw, I remain.
metano™w, I repent.
seautoÂ, reflexive pron., of thyself.
spe°rw, sperò, žspeira, --, --, sp€rjn, I sow.
fob™omai, dep. with passive forms, I am afraid, I fear, I am afraid of.

326. Liquid verbs are verbs whose stems end in l, m, n, or r, these consonants being called liquids.


327. The Future of Liquid Verbs

The future active and middle of liquid verbs is formed, not by adding -so/e, as is the case with other verbs, but by adding -eo/e, to the verb stem. The a contracts with the following variable vowel, in accordance with the rules of contraction given in the preceding lesson. Thus the future active and middle of liquid verbs is conjugated exactly like the present of verbs in -ew.

328. The future active indicative of kr°nw, I judge, is as follows:

Sing. 1. krinò
2. krine²v
3. krine²
Plur. 1. krinoÂmen
2. krine²te
3. krinoÂsi(n)

329. It will be observed that the only way in which the future active indicative in the three persons of the singular and in the third person plural is distinguished (in appearance) from the present active indicative of kr°nw is by the accent.

330. - The future middle indicative of kr°nw is as follows:


1. krinoÂmai
2. krinÞ
3. krine²tai
Plur. 1. krinoÀmeqa
2. krine²sqe
3. krinoÂntai

331. It will be remembered (see §157) that the verb stem is often disguised in the present system. Thus the future of a liquid verb is often distinguished from the present by something more than the addition of the e.

Example: The future of b€llw is balò, bal- and not ball- being the verb stem. Even krinò really differs from the present kr°nw in that the i is short in the future and


long in the present. But even that distinction does not prevail in the case of mnw.

332. Some verbs have liquid stems in the future but not in other tenses.

Example: The future of lgw is r.

The First Aorist of Liquid Verbs

333. The first aorist active and middle of liquid verbs is formed not by adding -sa to the verb stem but by adding -a alone and making changes within the body of the word, the verb stem usually being lengthened (e lengthened not to j but to ei). The conjugation, in all the moods, is like the conjugation of other first aorists.

Examples: (1) The first aorist active of mnw, I remain, is meina (indic.), menw (subj.), menai (infin.) and menav (part.). (2) The first aorist active of postllw, , I send, is psteila, (indic.), postelw (subj.), postelai (infin.) and postelav (part.).

334. Of course liquid verbs may have second aorists or irregular aorists. So the aorist of bllw is a second aorist balon. Some verbs, moreover, may have a present stem ending in a liquid, and yet not be liquid verbs. Thus lambnw is not a liquid verb, the verb stem being lab-. The student is reminded again that one cannot always predict what the various tense systems of a Greek verb will be. The lexicon must be consulted.

335. Future Indicative of em. The future indicative of em, I am, is as follows:


It will be observed that the conjugation is just like that of the future middle of lw, except that in the third person singular the variable vowel is omitted, stai standing instead of setai.

336. The English Preparatory Use of "There"

The word there is sometimes put before the verb in an English sentence without any special force except as an indication that the subject is to follow the verb. This "preparatory" there is not translated at all in Greek.


(1) car stai n oran, there shall be joy in heaven. (2) san maqjta n t ok, there were disciples in the house.

Declension of Reflexive Pronouns

337. The declension of mauto, v of myself, the reflexive pronoun of the first person, is as follows:


337. The declension of seauto, v, of thyself, the reflexive pronoun of the second person, is as follows:



339. The declension of mauto, v, o of himself, of herself, of itself, the reflexive pronoun of the third person, is as follows:

Sing. Plur.
M. F. N. M. F. N.

340. It will be observed that the declension of the reflexive pronouns is like that of atv, except that there is no nominative case and in the reflexive pronouns of the first and second persons no neuter gender.

341. In the plural, autn, which originally belonged only to the pronoun auto of the third person; is made to do duty for all three persons.

342. Use of Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that refer back to the subject of the clause.

Examples: (1) o lal per mauto, I do not speak concerning myself; (2) o doxzeiv seautn, thou dost not glorify thyself; (3) ok cei zwn n aut, he has not life in himself ; (4) doxzete autov, ye glorify yourselves.
343. Reciprocal Pronoun

The reciprocal pronoun is lllwn, of one another, of each other. It occurs in the New Testament only in the forms lllwn, of one another, llloiv to or for one another, and lllouv, one another (blpousin lllouv, they see one another).


344. Exercises

I. 1. o gr autov kjrssomen ll Cristn HIjson krion autov d dolouv mn di HIjson. 2. gerav tn krion HIjson gere mv sn HIjso. 3. epen maqjtv ti poqanetai pr to HIjso. 4. ok geromen ato autov, d HIjsov gere mv n t sct mr 5. eqv ren ponjrv t par tn dn sparn. 6. n gapte lllouv, sesqe maqjta to poqanntov pr n. 7. n pistesjte ev tn HIjson, met ato menete ev tn ana. 8. gapn tn un gap ka tn postelanta atn. 9. car stai p t matwl t p t mata to HIjso metanosanti. 10. o poktenantev tn HIjson ka dixantev tov maqjtv ato kbalosi ka mv. 11. pistryantev otoi p tn qen meinan n t kkljs ato. 12. gerantov to qeo tov nekrov smeqa sn t kur ev tov anav tn anwn. 13. ok ev mautn psteusa, ll ev tn krion. 14. xestin mn laben dra p lllwn, ll ok poktenai od dixai lllouv. 15. otov mn stin rcwn poktenav tov proftav, kenov d stin martwlv metnosav p t mata to HIjso. 16. n d toto epwmen kat ato, fobomeqa tov clouv, lgousi gr enai ato proftjn. 17. postele prv atov didasklouv ka proftav, na metanoswsin ka fobntai tn qen. 18. makrio esin oc o autov doxzontev ll o doxzontev tn postelanta tn un ato ev tn ksmon. 19 rcomnou prv atov to HIjso peripatontov p tv qalssjv fobonto o dntev atn maqjta. 20. tata pomen tov postalesi prv mv proftaiv

II. 1. When Jesus has taken away our sins we shall be holy for ever. 2. Let us not begin to say 1 5 in ourselves that


we do not know Him. 3. We shall not fear the ruler who killed the prophets, for God will send His angels to us. 4. When the soldiers had killed Jesus our Lord, we were afraid and went away from Him. 5. He said that it was not necessary for us to see each other. 6. If ye persecute and kill those who are being sent to you, ye shall no longer be the people of God? 7. The multitudes went away, but those who remained said that He had the words of life. 8. When Jesus had spoken these things and had sent His disciples into the villages of Galilee, the Pharisees were afraid of the people. 9. Having killed Jesus they will cast out of their synagogues those who have believed on Him. 10. The apostle himself did not save himself, but God was the One who saved him. 11. When the Lord had spoken this parable, those rulers said that they would kill those who had been sent by Him. 12. Unless Jesus himself sends us we shall not be disciples of Him. 13. Unless ye repent ye will remain in sin forever. 14. He who said this word to the One who sent the apostles will say the same word also to those who have been sent by Him. 15. Those good disciples, having loved those who were following Jesus, will love also those who follow His apostles. 16. Those who saw Him as He was walking in Galilee will behold Him in heaven for ever.



More Nouns of the Third Declension
Adjectives of the Third Declension in -jv, -ev

345. Vocabulary
ljqv, v, adj., true.
nr, ndrv, , a man (nr is a man as, distinguished from women and children; nqrwpov is a human being as distinguished from other beings).
rcierev, rcierwv, , a chief priest.
basilev, basilwv, , a king.
gnov, gnouv, t, a race, kind.
grammatev, grammatwv, , a scribe.
qnov, qnouv, t, a nation; plur., -ta qnj the nations, the Gentiles.
erev, erwv, , a priest.
mtjr, mjtrv, , a mother.
rov, rouv, t, a mountain
patr, patrv, , a father.
pstiv, pstewv, , faith.
plrjv, ev, adj., full.
pliv, plewv, , a city.
criv, critov, , grace.

346. Before studying the present lesson, the student should review the paradigms in Lesson XVII.

347. The declension of criv, critov, , grace, is as follows:


348. This noun differs from those in §211, in that the accusative singular ending is -n instead of -a. The final t of the stem (c€rit) drops out before the -n. If c€riv were declined like lp°v the accusative singular would be c€rita.

349. The declension of pçliv, pçlewv (stem poli-), a city, is as follows:

Sing. N.
Plur. N. V.

350. The final i of the stem is changed to a except in the nominative, accusative and vocative singular. pçlei in the dative singular is contracted from pçle-ei and pçleiv in the nominative plural from pçle-ev, in accordance with the rules of contraction given in Lesson XXIII. The accusative plural has -eiv, instead of eav or (as the rules of contraction would require) -jv. The accusative singular has instead of -a the u- ending which appears in certain other third declension nouns such as c€riv. The genitive singular ending is -wv instead of -ov. The accent in the genitive singular and plural of this class of nouns is the only exception to the rule that if the ultima is long the antepenult cannot be accented (see §11).

351. These third-declension nouns in -iv with genitives in -ewv, of which pçliv is an example, form a very important class of nouns in the New Testament. The nouns of this class are declined alike and are all of feminine gender.


352. The declension of gnov, gnouv, (stem genes-), t, a race, is as follows:


353. The final o of the stem (genes-) is dropped except in the nominative singular. The a which is then left at the end of the stem is contracted with the vowels of the regular third-declension endings, in accordance with the rules of contraction given in Lesson XXIII.

354. These third-declension nouns in -ov, -ouv, are declined alike, and are all of neuter gender.

355. The declension of, basilev, basilwv (stem basileu--), , is as follows:

N. V.

356. The final i of the stem is dropped before those endings which begin with a vowel. Contraction takes place in the dative singular and nominative plural. The genitive singular has -wv instead of -ov (compare pliv.). But the accusative singular has the a-ending, not the n-ending.

357. These nouns in -euv, -ewv are masculine.

358. Observe the declension of patr and of nr in 565.


359. The declension of other third-declension nouns will give little difficulty when once the genitive singular and the gender are known. Only the dative plural is sometimes troublesome, but the forms can at least be easily recognized when they occur.

360. The declension of ljqv, v, (stem aljqes-), true, is as follows:

M.F. N. M.F. N.

361. The final s of the stem is dropped in most of the forms, and contraction then takes place. Compare pliv, gnov, and basilev.

362. This is the first adjective studied thus far which is declined according to the third declension in the feminine as well as in the masculine and neuter.

363. Exercises

I. 1. 1. ljq sti t lalomena p to erwv totou. 2. sunelqntwn tn rcierwn ka grammatwn na apoktenwsi tn ndra toton, prosjxanto o maqjta n t er. 3. pekrqj basilev gaqv lgwn ti o qlei apoktenai toton. 4. criti d sqjsan kenoi o martwlo ka grqjsan n dx. 5. t gr criti swzmeqa di pstewv na doxzwmen tn qen. 6. dn t patra ka tn mjtra


ato n t plei meinen sn atov. 7. ev t qnj postelev tov post sou, na kjrsswsin atov t eagglion tv critv sou. 8. gaqv n otov nr ka plrjv pnematov gou ka pstewv. 9. dntev d tn crin to qeo pareklesan t qnj mnein n t criti sn car ka lpdi. 10. katabainntwn d atn k to rov llei tata HIjsov 11. gapswmen tov patpav ka tv mjtrav mn, na tjrswmen tn ntoln to qeo. 12. tn rcierwn dntwn tov sunercomnouv ev t koein to ndrv epon prv autov o rcontev ti de atv poqanen. 13, o basilev o ponjro pkteinan ka tov ndrav ka t kkna. 14. d qev geiren atov, na doxzwsin atn ev tn ana. 15. n m crin cwmen ka pistin ka lpda, o metanosousi t qnj p t lg mn. 16. tov ndrsi tov pemfqesin p to basilwv prosjngkamen tn patra ka tn mjtra mwn. 17. lqn prv tn basila tatjv tv crav pareklesav atn m poktenai tn ndra toton. 18. e ljq sti t legmena p tn kolouqjsntwn t ndr n t Falila poktenosin atn o pcierev. 19. di pstewv ssei tov pisteontav ev t noma ato. 20. dxanto d ka t qnj t ma to HIjso t ljqv.

II. 1. This is the race that killed those who believe on Jesus. 2. When the scribes had entered into that city, the disciples went away to the mountains. 3. We saw that the word which was being spoken by the man was true. 4. When the Lord had said this to the chief priests, the ruler marvelled. 5. The father of him who killed the men will kill also the children. 6. God will raise up from the dead those who have been saved by His grace. 7. Ye shall be saved by God through faith. 8. On account of the faith of the fathers and of the mothers the children will die in the evil city. 9. The city being itself full of sin has also a wicked king. 10. If we enter into those cities having our hearts full of grace and faith and hope, those who repent at our word will


see the King in His glory. 11. Jesus said to the scribes who were following that He was going into the holy city. 12. If we love the brethren we shall bless also the One who sent them into the nations. 13. The king said to my father that the chief priests and Pharisees wished to kill those who were following Jesus. 14. While Jesus was speaking these things in that wicked city, the chief priests were gathering together the soldiers in order that they might kill Him. 15. Those who have not the grace of God in their hearts have neither life nor hope. 16. If ye go into those cities and villages, ye shall see the king who killed your fathers and your mothers.



Declension of pv, polv, mgav, and Numerals.
Attributive and Substantive Uses of Prepositional Phrases
and of the Genitive. Accusative of
Extent of Time and Space

364. Vocabulary
do, two.
ev, ma, n, one.
x, six.
tov, touv, t, a year.
, conj., or.
qelon, imperfect indic. of qlw (with an apparently irregular augment, but another form of the verb was qlw).
, James.
kaqarv, , n, adj., clean, pure.
mgav, meglj, mga, adj., great.
mjdev, mjdema mjdn, no one, nothing (with moods other than the indicative).
lgov, j, on, adj., little, few.
odev, odema, odn, no one, nothing (with the indicative).
pv, psa, pn, adj., all every.
pentakisclioi, ai, a, five thousand.
pnte, indecl., five.
plqov, plqouv, t, a multitude.
polv poll, pol, adj., much, many.
pov, podv, , a foot.
stdian, t, (plural t stdia, but also masc. o stdioi), a stadium, a furlong.
tssarev, a, four.
trev, tra, three
v, adv., as; with numerals, about.

365. The declension of pv, psa, pn, adj., all, every, is as follows:


M.F. N. M.F. N.

366. The masculine and neuter stem is pant- and the word is declined nearly like the first aorist active participle of lw. But the accent is slightly irregular in the masculine and neuter, since it follows the rule for monosyllables of the third declension (see 221) in the singular but not in the plural.

The Use of pv

367. pv can stand in the predicate position with a noun that has the article. This usage corresponds so exactly with English as to call for little explanation.

Example: psa pliv, all the city.

368. But pv can also stand in the attributive position.

Example: psa pliv, the whole city; o pntev maqjta, the whole body of disciples, all the disciples.

369. With a singular noun, was often means every.

Example: pn rov, every mountain. was is frequently used with article and participle.

Examples: pv pistewn, everyone who believes; pntev o pisteontev, all those who believe; pnta t nta ke, all the things that are there.

370. Declension of polv and of mgav

Learn the declension of polv, poll, pol, much, many, great, and of mgav, meglj, mga, great, in 574, 575. It will be observed that except for the short forms in the


nominative, vocative and accusative, masculine and neuter singular, these two adjectives are declined like ordinary adjectives of the second and first declension.


371. The declension of ev, ma, n, one, is as follows:

372. The declension of odev, odema, odn, no one, and mjdev, mjdema, mjdn, no one, is like that of ev.

373. do, two, is indeclinable (the same for all cases and genders) except that it has a dative form dus(n).

374. The declension of trev, tra, three, and of tssarev, tssara, four, may be found in 588.

375. The other cardinal numerals up to diaksioi, two hundred, are indeclinable.

Attributive and Substantive Uses of Prepositional Phrases and of the Genitive

376. Prepositional phrases are frequently treated as attributive adjectives, being placed after the article.

Example: of o n ken t plei maqjta, or o maqjta o n kein t plei, the in-that-city disciples, or (by a free translation) the disciples who are [or, if the leading verb is past, were] in that city. Here the prepositional phrase takes the exact place of an attributive adjective. It will be remembered that of o gaqo maqjta or o maqjta o


gaqo means the good disciples (see 70). If in these two Greek phrases n t plei be substituted for the attributive adjective gaqo we have the idiom now under discussion.

377. Like other attributive adjectives, these prepositional phrases can be used substantively.

Example: As gaqo means the good men, so n t plei means the in-the-city men, or the men who are (or were) in the city.

378. A noun in the genitive case can be used in this same way.

Example: As o gaqo means the good men, so to HIjso means the of-Jesus men, the belonging-to-Jesus men,
the men
the ones
who belong to Jesus.

379. The genitive may indicate various relationships. Sometime it indicates sonship. Thus to Zebedaou may mean the son of Zebedee. The context must determine. All that is certainly implied in the Greek is that the person spoken of is connected in some way with Zebedee. The literal meaning of the phrase is the belonging-to-Zebedee man.

380. Notice that the disciples who are in the city may be expressed by maqjta ntev n t ple, the being-in-the-city disciples. But the ntev is not needed. So also those who are in the city might be ntev n t ple, the being-in-the-city people. But again the ntev is not needed. The prepositional phrase can be used as an attributive adjective just as well as the participle (with its modifiers) can.

381. All three of the idioms just discussed ( n t plei maqjta, n t plei, and o to HIjso) are


important. It should now be increasingly evident how much of Greek syntax is dependent on the distinction between the attributive and the predicate position. See 68-74.

382. Accusative of Extent of Space and Time

The accusative is used to express extent of space or time, answering the question how far? or how long

Examples: poreqjn met@ ato stdion n, I went with him one furlong; meina man mran, I remained one day.

383. Exercises

I. 1. menav sn at tj tra lqen ev kenjn tn plin. 2. dn d tov n t megl plei graye ka tov n t mikr.1 6 3. poreuqntev d o to HIakbou stadouv v pnte edon tn HIjson ka pntav tov met@ ato maqjtv. 4. kosantev d tata pnta o n t sunagwg epon ti qlousin den tn tata poionta. 5. qamasen pn t plqov n t blpein atov t poiomena p to HIjso. 6. ok meine man mran met do tj dn tn pstolon tn eaggelismenon atn. 7. tn rcierwn ntwn n ken t megl plei meinen HIjsov n t km mrav v pnte x. 8. de tov n tav plesin xelqen ev t rj. 9. qerapeuqntov p to HIjso to p tn tessrwn prosenecqntov at dxasan pntev o n t ok tn poisanta t megla tata. 10. pr d to lqen tov k tn plewn n HIjsov met tn maqjtn ato n t rm. 11. poiqj mn di@ ato ksmov ka pnta t n at, atv d gneto di@ mv v dolov. 12. toto pojsen na ss pntav tov pisteontav ev atn. 13. pv gapn tn qen gap ka tov delfov 14. suncqjsan pntev o n t plei na koswsi t legmena


p tn postlwn. 15. tata legon o n t ok psi tov rcieresi ka grammatesi d t ginskein atov pnta t per to @Ijso. 16. tata poei basilev tn @Ioudawn, qele gr poktenai t n t km paida. 17. odev ginskei pnta t n t ksm e m1 7 poisav t pnta. 18. swqsetai odeiv n m di pstewv: trjse gr odev psav tv ntolv to qeo. 19. proseucmeqa pr tn diwkntwn mv, na genmeqa uo to patrv mn to n oranov. 20. makrioi o kaqaro, ato gr tn qen yontai.

II. 1. The chief priests saw that all the things which were being spoken by Jesus were true. 2. In that place there were about five thousand men with many gifts and many garments. 3. Many are those that go down into the evil way, but few are those who walk in the ways of life. 4. If ye become disciples of me I will show you all things. 5. By the grace of God all we have become disciples of Jesus. 6. Through faith we have become children of our Father who is in heaven, for Jesus has saved us. 7. Let us do all the things that are in the law, according to the things that are being said to us by the prophets. 8. In that great city we saw three disciples of the Lord praying to their Father in heaven.2 8 9. When Jesus had called one of the three men who were in the boat, he spake to him all the things concerning the Kingdom of God. 10. We were in the same city one year, but Jesus sent us into all the villages which are in Galilee. 11. When Jesus had done all these great things, the Pharisees said that a demon was in Him. 12. When Jesus had spoken all these things to the multitudes who were in the cities and villages, He sent the disciples


pies in order that they might preach in the other cities also. 13. All the churches shall see the One who saved them through His grace and sent to them the apostles. 14. Many kings and priests shall say that all the things which have been spoken by Jesus are true. 15. We saw no one in that great city except one disciple and a few children. 16. Those who belonged to Jesus died on account of their faith.



Interrogative, Indefinite, and Relative Pronouns
Deliberative Questions
Conditional Relative Clauses

a¸t™w, I ask, I request.
e¸, whether, in indirect questions); the common meaning, if, has already been given.
perwt€w, I ask a question of, I question.
rwt€w, I ask a question, I ask a question, I ask (Originally rwt€w meant to ask in the sense of to request. But in New Testament Greek rwt€w is frequently used in the latter sense as well as in the former).
karpçv, é, a fruit.
kr°siv, kr°sewv, Ó, a judgment.
êpou, adv., where (relative).
êv, Ô, ê, rel. pron., who, which.
êtan, for ête ˆn, whenever (with subjunctive).
ête, adv., when (relative).
oÊn, conj., accordingly, therefore, then (postpositive, like d™ and g€r. See §91).
p°nw, p°omai, (very irregular future), žpion, I drink.
poÂ, adv., where? (interrogative).
pòv, how? (interrogative).
t°v, t°, interrogative pron., who?, which?, what?
tiv, ti, indefinite pron., someone, something, a certain one, a certain thing.
f€gomai, fut. (very irregular), žfagon, 2nd aor., of sq°w, I eat.


Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns

385. The declension of the interrogative pronoun, tv, t, who? which? what?, is as follows:


386. The declension is according to the third declension in all three genders, the masculine and feminine being alike throughout, and the neuter differing from the masculine and feminine only in the nominative and accusative.

387. The acute accent in the interrogative pronoun is never changed to the grave.

Example: t lgei; what does he say?

388. The declension of the indefinite pronoun, tiv, ti, some one, something, a certain one, a certain thing, is as follows:


389. The indefinite pronoun is declined like the interrogative pronoun except that all the forms of the indefinite pronoun are enclitic and receive an accent only when the rules in 92 so prescribe.


390. Both the interrogative and the indefinite pronouns can be used either with a noun or separately.

Examples: (1) t°na karpèn žcete; what fruit have yep (2) t° l™geiv; what dost thou say? (3) ˆnqrwpçv tiv, a certain man; (4) eºp™n tiv, a certain man said.

391. The accusative singular neuter, , of the interrogative pronoun is often used adverbially to mean why. Example: t° poie²te taÂta; why do ye do these things?

Indirect Questions

392. Indirect questions, like the ordinary form of indirect discourse (see §308), retain the same mood and tense as those which would have been found in the direct discourse lying back of the indirect.

393. The same interrogative words are commonly used in indirect questions as those which are used in direct questions.

Examples: ×rðtjsen aÇtèn t°v stin, he asked him who he was. The direct question lying back of the indirect was, t°v eº; who art thou? (2)eºpen aÇto²v po m™nei, he told them where he was abiding. The direct question which he was answering was po m™neiv; where art thou abiding

394. Deliberative Questions

The subjunctive is used in deliberative questions. A deliberative question is a question that expects an answer in the imperative mood.

Examples: (1) poiswmen toto m poiswmen; shall we do this or shall we not do it? The answer expected is in the imperative - do it or do not do it. (2) t poiswmen; what shall we dot The natural answer is do this or do that, or the like.


Sing. Plur.
M. F. N. M. F. N.







396. It will be observed that except for instead of n in the nominative and accusative singular neuter (compare autv and kenov) the declension of the relative pronoun is like that of a regular adjective of the second and first declension. The nominative singular feminine and the nominative plural masculine and feminine are like the corresponding forms of the article except that the article in those forms is proclitic.

397. Like other pronouns, the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender and number but has its own case in its own clause.

Example: (1) pstolov n edev aplqen, the apostle whom you saw went away; (2) ljq n pnta epen @Ijsov, all things which Jesus said were true; (3) maqjtv n gpjsen @Ijsov n en t ok, the disciple whom Jesus loved was in the house.

398. But where the antecedent of the relative pronoun is in the genitive or dative case and the relative pronoun itself would naturally be in the accusative case as the object of the verb in the relative clause, it is regularly attracted to the case of its antecedent.

Examples: pntwn d qaumazntwn p psin ov epoei epen prv tov maqjtv ato..., but when. all were


wondering at all the things which He was doing, He said to his disciples . . . . . Here oµv would have been accusative if it had retained the case which it would have had in its own clause. But it is attracted to the case of p‚sin.

399. The antecedent of the relative pronoun is frequently left unexpressed. Thus êv can mean he who; Ô, she who; ê, that which, what; , the men who, or they who; , the women who; „, the things which.

Examples: (1) oÇk žxest°n moi í q™lw poiÒsai, it is not lawful for me to do that which I wish (or to do what I wish). (2) ív gr oÇk žstin kaq@ Ãmòn Ãpšr Ãmòn stin, for he who is not against you is for you. In such a case essentially the same thought is expressed as by the article with participle- ív oÇk žstin is almost like é mÑ øn. But in many cases only the article with participle could be used. For example in the one who has could hardly be expressed in any way but by n tþ žconti. (3) žcw í q™lw, 1 have what I wish. Here the English word what is a short way of saying the thing which or that which and so is correctly translated by ê. Compare l™gw autþ t° žcw, I tell him what 1 have. Here the English word what is an interrogative word in an indirect question, and so is correctly translated by .

Conditional Relative Clauses

400. The indefinite relative clauses which in English axe marked by the suffix -ever added to the relative word (e. g., whoever, whichever, whatever, wherever, whenever), have in Greek ordinarily the subjunctive with the particle by or Up. This is one of the commonest uses of the subjunctive.

Examples: (1) ív g€r n q™lÛ tÑn yucÑn aÇto sòsai oÇ sðsei, for whoever wishes to save his life shall not save it; (2) ív ‰n pisteÀsÛ, whoever believes for.


shall believe] shall be saved; (3) ev n d@ plin eslqjte yesqe n at maqjtv, and into whatever city ye enter [or shall enter] ye shall see disciples in it; (4) pou n didskalov ke sontai ka o didaskmenoi p@ ato, wherever the teacher is there will be also those who are being taught by him.

401. It will be observed that the verb in the English translation of these conditional relative clauses can be either future indicative or present indicative. It often makes little difference which is used. In such clauses the present indicative in English frequently refers to future time.

402. Exercises

I. 1. v n m dxjtai mv toton o dxetai basilev 2. n poiswmen mn, poisete ka mev mn. 3. pwtsantv tinov atov t fg pekriqjsan at lgontev ti de atn fagen tn rton tn n t ok. 4. tnov1 9 stai tata pnta n t sct mr? 5. tan lq uv to nqrpou tnev sontai o pisteontev? 6. v n ls man tn ntoln poie ok xestin poien. 7. epen mn proftjv ti n meq' mn tata posa ka o eaggelismenoi mv. 8. n tiv p nekrn poreuq prv atov, metanosousin. 9, v n m kos tn profjtn od metanosei n tina d tn nekrn. 10. n pwsin ok stin ljq o lmyontai karpn tina to rgou atn. 11. legen ti n tiv gerq k nekrn metansousin. 12. rtjsan tn proftjn o n t Galila e o nekro kosousi tv fwnv to kurou. 13. epen on atouv ti n t krsei


kosousin pntev to kurou. 14. lqntev o Farisaoi ev tina kmjn pjrtjsan tov n at lgontev Po esin o to proftou? gr lgousi per atn o n t Galila ok stin ljq. 15. lege d perwtjqev T perwtv me? o gr qlw pokrnesqai soi odn.1 10 16. legen on tn maqjtn tiv t postl T poisei otov? d pstolov eqv pekrqj at lgwn Poisei qev qlei ka pnta qlei stn gaq. 17. blepe tn krion poionta tata qele ka atv poien.

II. 1. We did what those who were in the same city asked. 2. The priests whom we saw while they were still there asked us who those disciples were. 3. Whoever does not do what I say shall not receive from me what he asks. 4. A certain scribe went into the city in order that he might take the books which the prophets had written. 5. Into whatever nation we go, let us seek the disciples who are in it. 6. What shall we say concerning all these things? 7. They asked us what they should say concerning those in the city. 8. A certain man having come to Jesus said that he wished to be healed. 9. Whoever shall ask anything shall receive what he asks. 10. They asked Jesus what the will of God was. 11. Whoever kills his brother will come into the judgment. 12. Why then do you eat what it is not lawful to eat? 13. Whoever is not taught by the Lord will not know Him. 14. When the chief priests had seen what Jesus was doing they sent a certain messenger to the Pharisees. 15. Where shall we abide? For the night is coming and no one has said to us what we shall do.



The Imperative Mood

403. Vocabulary

gizw, I hallow, I sanctify
grv, , a field.
g, , earth, land (g has the circumflex accent throughout, because there has been contraction).
ggv, adv., near.
lew, I have mercy on, I pity
sov, j, on, rel. adj., as great as, as much as, as many as.
stiv, tiv, ti
(Plural otinev), indef. rel. pron., whoever, whichever, whatever (scarcely used except in the nominative case; sometimes used almost like the simple relative pronoun v) .
ov, tv, t, an ear.
fqalmv, , an eye.
sktov, sktouv, t, darkness.
dwr, datov, t water.
fv, fwtv, t light.

404. The imperative mood occurs in the New Testament almost exclusively in the present and aorist tenses.

405. The present imperative, active, middle, and passive, is formed on the present stem; the aorist imperative, active and middle, on the aorist stem; and the aorist passive imperative, on the aorist passive stem. There is of course no augment. See 245.

406. The imperative mood has no first person, but only second and third.


407. The present active imperative of lw is as follows:

Sing. 2.
lete, loose (thou)
lutwsan, let him loose.
Plur. 2.
lou, loose (ye).
lusqw, let them loose.

408. The present middle imperative of lw is as follows:

Sing. 2.
lou, loose (thou) for thyself.
lusqw, let him loose for himself
Plur. 2.
lesqe, loose (ye) for yourselves.
lusqwsan, let them loose for themselves.

409. The present passive imperative of lw is as follows:

Sing. 2.
lou, be (thou) loosed.
lusqw, let him be loosed
Plur. 2.
lesqe be (ye) loosed.
lusqwsan, let them be loosed.

410. It will be observed that the present active and the present middle and passive imperative have the variable vowel o/e

411. The aorist active imperative of lw is as follows:

Sing. 2.
lson, loose (thou).
lustw, let him loose.
Plur. 2.
lsate, loose (ye).
lustwsan, let them loose.

412. The aorist middle imperative of lw is as follows:

Sing. 2.
lsai, loose (thou) for thyself.
lussqw, let him loose for himself.
Plur. 2.
lsasqe, loose (ye) for yourselves.
lussqwsan, let them loose for themselves.

413. It will be observed that the aorist active and the aorist middle imperative have the characteristic -sa of the


aorist stem. This -sa is disguised only in lsan the second aorist active imperative, second person singular.

414. The aorist passive imperative of lw is as follows:

Sing. 2.
lqjti, be (thou) loosed.
luqtw, let him be loosed.
Plur. 2.
lqjte be (ye) loosed,
luqtwsan let them be loosed.

415. It will be observed that the aorist passive imperative has the characteristic -qe of the aorist passive stem. This -qe is lengthened to -qj.

416.The second aorist active imperative of lepw, I leave, is as follows:

Sing. 2.
lpe, leave (thou).
liptw, let him leave.
Plur. 2.
lpete, leave (ye).
liptwsan, let them leave.

417. The second aorist middle imperative of lepw, is as follows:

Sing. 2.
Plur. 2.

418. It will be observed that the second aorist active and the second sorist middle imperative are formed on the second aorist stem. They have the same endings as the present imperative.

419. The second aorist middle imperative second person singular (e. g. lipo) always has an irregular accent, instead of following the rule of recessive accent.

Further, the forms ep, lq, from lgw, and rcomai, have an irregular accent.


420. The Tenses in the Imperative Mood

There is no distinction of time between the tenses in the imperative mood. The aorist imperative refers to the action without saying anything about its duration or repetition, while the present imperative refers to it as continuing or as being repeated. Thus lson means simply loose, while le means continue loosing, or the like. Ordinarily it is impossible to bring out the difference in an English translation. Compare 283.

421. The Use of the Imperative

The imperative mood is used in commands.

Examples: kosate tov lgouv mou, hear my words; cwn nta koutw, let him who has ears hear. It will be observed that the English language has, properly speaking, no imperative of the third person. Hence in translating the Greek imperative of the third person we have to use the helping verb let, so that the noun or pronoun that is the subject of the imperative in Greek becomes the object of the helping verb in English.

422. Prohibition

Prohibition (the negative of a command) is expressed by the present imperative with m or by the aorist subjunctive with m.

Examples: (1) m le do not loose (m lv or m lson would be wrong); (2) m lutw or m ls, let him not loose; (3) l lete or m lsjte, do not loose; (4) m lutwsan or m lswsin, let them not loose.

423. Present Imperative of em

The present imperative of em, I am, is as follows:

Sing. 2.
sqi, be (thou).
stw, let him be.
Plur. 2.
ste, be (ye)
stwsan, let them be.


424. Exercises

I. 1. n d m kos, parlabe met so ti na do. 2. n djte tn Cristn poionta, toto poisate ka mev. 3. krie, ljson mv o gr poisamen kleusav. 4. m eslq ev tn plin n t rei. 5. otwv on prosecesqe mev Pter mn n tov oranov. HAgiasqtw t nom sou lqtw 111 basilea sou genjqtw 212 t qljm v n oran ka p gv. 6. pluson on, krie, t plqj dj gr rcetai nx. 7. mjdev xlq ev t rj, proseuxsqwsan d pntev t patr atn t n tov oranov. 8. labn atn ge prv mv. 9. mjden epjte edete. 10. grqjte 3 13kam fobesqe gr kriov ssei mv. 11. pnta on sa n epwsin mn poisate ka tjrete kat d t rga atn m poiete lgousin gr ka o poiosin. 12 legen at maqjtv tiv Krie, kleusn me lqen prv s p t data. d HIjsov epen HElq. 13. sa n kosjte tov qnesin. 14. n kosjte n t sktei kjrxate n t fwt. 15. makriov stiv fgetai rton n t basile to qeo. 16. n ken t tlei esn erev ponjro, otinev o poiosi t qljma to qeo. 17. xelqntev epete psi tov qnesi tov p psjv tv gv pojsen qev tov gapsin atn. 18. tan kljqv p tinov, poreqjti. 19 tan djte tata ginmena, gnsesqe ti ggv stin krsiv. 20. dete pntev mev tv cerv mou o gr pojsan atai a cerev n lgousin kenoi odn.


II. 1. Speak ye to all the Gentiles the things which I have spoken to you. 2. Do not say in your heart that ye do not wish to do the things which the king commands. 3. Let no one fear those evil priests, for whoever does the will of God shall go out with joy. 4. Let Him who has saved us through His blood have mercy on us in these evil days. 5. Whosoever loves God shall come to the light, but he who does not love Him shall walk in the darkness. 6. As manysoever things as ye do, do in the light, in order that the name of God may be hallowed. 7. Let these men be baptized, for Christ has saved them through His word. 8. Pray to thy Father in heaven, for He will do whatsoever things thou askest. 9. Let not the king say this, for we are all faithful men. 10. Let us not do.the things which the evil men said to us. 11. Have mercy on all men, for the Lord has had mercy on you. 12. As many things as are good, do; but as many things as axe evil, do not even speak concerning these. 13. The disciples asked the apostle what they should eat, and the apostle said to them," Go into the villages and eat the bread which is in them." 14. Do not begin to say in yourselves that you do not know the truth. 15. Let those who are in the fields not return into their houses. 16. Lord, save me, for I have broken thy commandments.


kkoa, perf. act. indic. of akow, I hear.
perf. pass. indic. of baptzw, I baptize.
ggona, perf. indic. of, gnomai, I become (gnetai, it comes pass, it happens).
ggrafa, ggrammai, perf. act. and perf. pass. indic. of grfw, I write
gennw, I beget.
ggzw, I come near.
ggertai, perf. pass. indic., third pers. sing., of gerw, I raise up.
gnwka, perf. act. indic. of ginskw, I know.
lluqa, perf. indic. of rcomai, I come, I go.
rrqjn, aor. pass. Indic. (aor. pass. part. jqev) of lgw, I say.
raka, perf. act. indic. of blpw (rw), I see.
qnskw, I die (used only in the perfect, tqnjka, I am dead, and in other tenses poqnskw is used).
marturw, I bear witness.
Ptrov, , Peter.
pljrw, I fulfil.

426. The perfect active indicative of lw is as follows:

lelkasi (l(tm)lukan)

427. The perfect active infinitive of lw is leluknai.
The irregular accent should be noticed.



The Perfect Tense. Review of lw.

428. The perfect active participle of lw is leluv, lelukua, lelukv.
The irregular accent should be noticed.

429. The forms given above constitute the perfect system, which is formed from the fourth of the principal parts, lkuka.

430. The perfect system is formed by adding k (in the indicative ka) to the verb stem, and by prefixing the reduplication. The reduplication consists in the first consonant of the verb stem followed by e.

431. The perfect, being a primary tense, might be expected to have primary personal endings. But in the indicative. the endings are exactly like the (secondary) endings of the first aorist, except in the third person plural, and even in the third person plural llukan sometimes stands instead of lelkasi(n).

432. The perfect active subjunctive is so rare that it need not be learned.

433. The declension of the perfect active participle is as follows:

M. F. N.
M. F. N.
leluksi(n )
leluksi(n )


434. It will be observed that the perfect active participle, like the other active participles and like the aorist passive participle, is declined according to the third declension in the masculine and neuter and according to the first declension in the feminine.

Formation of the Perfect Stem in Various Verbs

435. If the verb stem begins with a vowel or diphthong, the reduplication consists in the lengthening of that vowel or diphthong. In this case the reduplication is. like the augment.

Examples: The perfect active of lp°zw is Ølpika, and of a¸t™w, ätjka.

436. If the verb stem begins with two consonants the reduplication in certain cases (by no means always) consists in the prefixing of an of  (like the augment) instead of the repetition of the first consonant with e.
Examples: žgnwka is the perfect of ginðskw. But g™grafa is the perfect of gr€fw.

437. Verb stems beginning with f, q, or c, are reduplicated with p, t and k, respectively.
Examples: pef°ljka is the perfect of fil™w; t™qnjka, I am dead, is the perfect of qnÐskw (the present does not occur in the New Testament).

438. If the verb stem ends with a vowel that vowel is regularly lengthened before the K of the perfect active, just as it is before the a of the future and first aorist.

Examples: ×g€pjka from ‡gap€w, pef°ljka from fil™w.

439. If the verb stem ends with t, d, or q, the t, d, or q is dropped before the k of the perfect.
Example: Ølpika from lp°zw (stem lp°d-).


440. Some verbs have a second perfect, which is conjugated like the first perfect except that there is no k.
Examples: g™grafa from gr€fw; ‡kÐkoa, from ‡koÀw

441. In general, the student should remember what was said in §159 about the variety in the formation of the tense systems of the Greek verb.

Perfect Middle and Passive

442. The perfect middle and passive indicative of lÀw is as follows:


443. The perfect middle and passive infinitive of lÀw is lelÀsqa.
The irregular accent should be noticed.

444. The perfect middle and passive participle of lÀw is lelum™nov, j, on, (declined like a regular adjective of the second and first declension) .
The irregular accent should be noticed.

445. The forms given above constitute the perfect middle, which is formed from the fifth of the principal parts, l™lumai.

446. The reduplication is the same as in the perfect active.

447. In the indicative, the primary middle endings (see §111) are added directly to the stem, without intervening variable vowel. They are not modified at all. So in the infinitive and participle -sqai and -mençv are added directly to the stem.


448. If the verb stem ends with a vowel, that vowel is regularly lengthened before the endings in the perfect middle and passive, as before the tense suffixes in the future, first aorist, perfect active, and aorist passive.
Example: memartÀrjmai from martur™w.

449. If the verb stem ends with a consonant, various changes occur when the endings of the perfect middle and passive are put on. These changes are best learned by observation in the individual verbs.

Example: g™grammai (third person Singular g™graptai) from gr€fw.

450. Pluperfect Tense

The pluperfect tense is so rare that its forms need not be learned. It is a secondary tense. The pluperfect active forms a part of the perfect system; and the pluperfect middle and passive, of the perfect middle system.

Use of the Perfect Tense

451. There is no English tense corresponding to the Greek perfect. The translations I have loosed for l™luka, I have loosed for myself for l™lumai (middle), and I have been loosed for l™lumai (passive) may often serve in the exercises. But they are makeshifts at the best. It has already been observed (see §169) that these same English expressions may often translate the aorist tense rather than the perfect.

452. The Greek perfect tense denotes the present state resultant upon a past action.
(1) Suppose someone asks an official, "What is your relation to that prisoner?", and he replies, "I have released


him," the verb in this answer of the official would be l™luka. The perfect would express the present state of the official (with reference to the prisoner) resultant upon his past action of releasing. But if, on the other hand, someone should ask an official, "What is the history of your dealings with that prisoner?" and he should answer, "I have released the prisoner three times and imprisoned him again three times," the first verb of this answer of the official would be žlusa, not l™luka, because there is here no thought of the present state resultant upon the past action. Indeed the act of releasing had no result continuing into the present. But even if it had a permanent result the verb referring to it would be aorist, not perfect, unless the present result rather than merely the past action were specially in view. Thus even if, after the question, "What have you done?" the official said merely, "I have released the prisoner," and even if as a matter of fact the releasing had a permanent result, still the aorist tense žlusa might very well be used; for the point under consideration might be the history of the official's dealings with the prisoner and not the official's present relation to him. The distinction is often a fine one. But the perfect should not be used in the exercises unless we can see some clear reason for deserting the aorist.

(2) The perfect passive is often much easier to translate into English than the perfect active. Thus g™graptai means it is written (in the Scriptures). Here the English it is written is not a present tense at all, but reproduces the Greek perfect very well; the meaning is it stands written. Both English and Greek here refer to a present state resultant upon an sot of writing which took place long ago.

(3) The perfect passive participle can often be translated neatly by the simple English passive participle. Thus lçgov gegramm™nov means a written word, ×gapjm™nov means beloved, etc. But the Greek perfect active participle is very


hard to translate. The student should carefully avoid thinking that having loosed is specially connected with the perfect. On the contrary, in the overwhelming majority of cases, having loosed is the literal translation of the aorist, not of the perfect - the participle having merely indicating that the action has taken place prior to the action of the main verb in the sentence. In general, it should be observed that the Greek aorist is vastly commoner - than the perfect.

(4) lluqa, the perfect of rcomai, means I am come, and ggona means I am become. It so happens that because of the peculiar nature of the verbs to come and to become in English we have a neat way of translating the Greek perfect of rcomai and gnomai.

Of course the student should not think that I am come has anything to do with the passive voice. It is not at all like I am loosed.

453. The conjugation of lw has now been completed. The student should review it thoroughly as a whole, using the paradigm given in 589. The verb should be learned in columns, strictly in the order given. Thus "present-active" should form one idea in the student's mind, and under it should be subsumed the various moods. It should be noticed particularly how the various parts of the verb are connected with the several principal parts.

454. Exercises

I. 1. odev stin dkaiov kat tn nmon e m poinsav pnta t gegrammna n t bibl to nmou. 2. ejggelsato pnta tn lan lgwn ti ggiken basilea tn orann. 3. wrkamen ka kjkamen lgomen ka mn, na ka mev pistesjte ev tn Cristn. 4. ka n tot ginskomen ti gnkamen atn n tv ntolv ato tjrmen.


5. gapn tn gennsanta gap tn gegennjmnon x ato. 6. pv gegennjmnov k to qeo oc martnei, ll@ ennjqev k to qeo tjre atn. 7. toto gjonen,1 14 ti otwv ggraptai di to proftou. 8. t gegennjmnon k tv sarkv srx stin, ka t gegennjmnon k to pnematov pnem stin. 9. atj d stin krsiv, ti t fv lluqen ev tn ksmon ka gpjsan o nqrwpoi t sktov. 10. legon on o HIoudaoi t teqerapeumn Ok xestin poisai toto. 11. g lluqa n t nmati to patrv mou ka o decesq me. 12. ll@ epon mn ti ka wrkat me ka o pisteete. 13. n m fgjte tn sarka to uo to nqrpou ka pjte ato t ama, ok cete zwn n autov 14. t mata g lelljka mn pnem stin ka zw stin. 15. pekrqj at Ptrov Krie, prv tna peleusmeqa? mata zwv ceiv, ka mev pepistekamen ka gnkamen ti s e giov to qeo. 16. tata ato lalontov pollo psteusan ev atn. 17. ggraptai ti do nqrpwn matura ljqv stin. 18. tata epen prv tov pepisteuktav ev atn HIoudaouv. 19. nn d zjtet me poktenai, nqrwpon v tn lqeian mn lelljka2 15 n kousa par to qeo. 20. elogjmnov rcmenov n nmati kurou.

II. 1. Where is the priest? He is already come. 2. All the baptized disciples are in the small city. 3. The priests having been baptized came together into the same house. 4. Where is the multitude? It has already come near. 5. What is in thy heart? I have believed on the Lord. 6. Art thou faithful? I have kept the faith. 7 . It is


written through the prophet that the Messiah is coming in these days, and we know that His kingdom is come near. 8. Children beloved by your Father, enter ye into the joy kept in heaven for those who have believed on Christ. 9. Who is this man? He is a child begotten by God. 10. Having been crucified by the soldiers the Lord died, but now He is risen. 11. Brethren beloved by all the disciples, why do ye not pity the little ones? 12. Those who are come out of the darkness into the light know that God will do all the things written in the Law and the prophets. 13. All the things written or spoken through this prophet are true. 14. This is come to pass in order that that which was said by the Lord through the prophet might be fulfilled. 15. If thou art already loosed, give thanks to Him who loosed you. 16. Where is the prophet whom the soldiers persecuted? He is become king of many cities.



Comparison of Adjectives. Declension of mezwn.
Genitive of Comparison and Use of . Adverbs.
Genitive with Adverbs of Place. Genitive of Time.
Genitive of the Articular Infinitive Expressing Purpose.
Dative of Respect. Accusative of Specification. Dative of Time.
Possessive Adjectives. m Used as a Conjunction.
na with the Subjunctive in Various Uses. m with the Indicative
in Questions Expecting a Negative Answer.

455. Vocabulary

mv, , n, pose. adj., belonging to me, my.
mprosqen, adv., in front, in the presence of (with gen.).
npion, adv., before, in the sight of, in the presence of (with gen.).
xw, adv., outside, outside of (with gen.).
cqrv, , an enemy. , conj., than (the meaning or has already been given) .
mterov, a, on, adj., belonging to us, our.
diov, a, on, belonging to one's self, one's own.
kanv, , n, sufficient, worthy, considerable.

scurterov, a, on, stronger, comparative of scurv, a, on, strong.
kalv, adv., well. kresswn, on, better, comparative of gaqv.
mllon, adv., more, rather. mezwn, on, greater, comparative of mgav.
m, conj., lest, in order that not (the adverbial use of m = not has already been given).
mpote, lest perchance. . pwv, in order that (takes the subjunctive. Used very much as na is used).
plin, adv., again.


ple°wn, on, more, comparative of polÀv.
s€bbaton, tç,sabbath (the plural t s€bbata, with irregular dative to²v s€bbasi(n)
is often used in the singular sense.
sçv, Ó, çn, poss. adj., belonging to thee, thy.
Ãm™terov, a, on,
poss. adj., belonging to you, your.

Comparison of Adjectives

456. The comparative degree of adjectives ends sometimes in -terov, a, on, (declined like a regular adjective of the second and first declension) and sometimes in -iwn, -iwn, -ion (declined according to the third declension in all three genders).

457. The superlative degree ends in -tatov, j, on, or -istov, j, on, But in the New Testament the superlative is rather rare.

458. A number of adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative forms. These can be learned from the lexicon as they occur.
Example: mikrçv, little; l€sswn, less; l€cistov, least.

459. The declension of me°zwn, on, greater, the comparative of m™gav, is as follows:

Sing. Plur.
M.F. N. M.F. N.

460. sðfrwn, wise, ˆfrwn, foolish, l€sswn, less, ple°wn, more, kre°sswn, better, etc., are similarly declined.


461. The shortened form, me°zw, can stand for me°zona in the accusative singular masculine and feminine and neuter plural nominative and accusative, and the shortened form, me°zouv, in the nominative and accusative plural masculine and feminine.

462. Genitive of Comparison and Use of Ø, than

Where English uses than after a comparative word, Greek uses either (1) the genitive of comparison or (2) Ø followed by the same case as that which stands in the other member of the comparison.

Examples: (1) me°zona toÀtwn poiÐsei, greater things than these will he do. (2) ×g€pjsan o³ ˆnqrwpoi m‚llon tè skçtov Ø tè fòv, men loved darkness more than light. Here fòv is accusative. The meaning is men loved darkness more than they loved light.


463. Many adverbs are formed from adjectives by substituting s for v at the end of the genitive plural masculine and neuter.
Example: kalçv, good; genitive plural, kalòn; adverb, kalòv, well.

464. The comparative degree of adverbs is like the accusative singular neuter of the comparative degree of the corresponding adjective; and the superlative degree of the adverb is like the accusative plural neuter of the superlative degree of the corresponding adjective.

465. Many adverbs, however, are of diverse forms which must be learned by observation.

466. The Genitive with Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place take the genitive.
Example: žxw, outside; žxw tÒv pçlewv, outside of the city; ggÁv tÒv pçlewv, near the city.


Genitive of Time Within Which

The genitive is occasionally used to express time within which.
Example: par™labe tè paid°on ka± tÑn mjt™ra aÇto nuktçv, he took the young child and His mother by night.

Genitive of the Articular Infinitive
Expressing Purpose

The genitive of the articular infinitive, without any preposition, is sometimes used to express purpose.

Example: Úlqen prèv tèn profÐtjn to baptisqÒnai Ãp@ aÇtoÂ, he came to the prophet in order to be baptized by him. It will be remembered that for the most part the articular infinitive is used in the same constructions as those in which an ordinary noun with the article can be used. This use of the genitive to express purpose, however, would not be possible for an ordinary noun.

The Dative of Respect

The dative is used to indicate the respect in which anything exists or is true.
Example: ginwskçmenov tþ prosðpû, being known by face (i. e. being known so far as the face is concerned); kaqarèv tÞ kard°‹, pure in heart (i. e. pure so far as the heart is concerned); ‡nÑr ìnçmati @I€kwbov, a man by name James (i. e. a man who is James so far as the name is concerned).

Accusative of Specification

The accusative of specification is very much the same in meaning as the dative of respect, but is less frequently used.
Example: tèn ‡riqmèn óv pentakisc°lioi, about five thousand in number.


The Dative of Time

471. The dative is sometimes used to express time when.
Example: qer€peuse tþ sabb€tû, he healed on the sabbath.

472. Usually, however, time when is expressed by prepositional phrases. So on the sabbath could be n tþ sabb€tû.

Possessive Adjectives

473. The possessive adjectives mçv, my, sçv, thy, Óm™terov, our, Ãm™terov, your, are sometimes used instead of the genitive case of the personal pronouns when emphasis is desired. These possessive adjectives are declined like regular adjectives of the second and first declension. They can stand in the attributive position with the article.

Examples: é mèv lçgov, the belonging-to-me word (i. e., my word); Ó car Ó mÐ, my joy; tè q™ljma tè mçn, my will; t m p€nta s€ stin, all the belonging-to-me things are throe (i. e., all my things are throe); é Óm™terov lçgov, our word; é Ãm™terov lçgov, your word.

474. This usage is comparatively infrequent. The common way of saying my word is not é mèv lçgov or é lçgov é mçv, but é lçgov mou (the word of me).

Used as a Conjunction

475. Words denoting fear are followed by mÐ, lest, with the subjunctive. is here not an adverb, as is the case when it means not, but a conjunction.
Example: foboÂmai mÑ žlqÛ, I fear lest he come.

476. Negative clauses of purpose may also be introduced by the simple pig instead of by ´na mÐ.
Example: toÂto poie²te mÑ e¸s™lqjte e¸v kr°sin, do this lest you come into judgment.


477. na with the Subjunctive in Various Uses

In addition to the use by which it expresses purpose, na with the subjunctive is very frequently used after words of exhorting, wishing, striving, and in various ways that are not easily classified.

Examples: (1) ep t lq tot na gnjtai rtov, say to this stone that it become bread. (2) atj stn ntol m na gapte lllouv, this is my commandment, that you should love one another.

Questions Expecting a Negative Answer

478. Questions expecting a negative answer are expressed by m with the indicative.

479. This rule constitutes an important exception to the general rule for the use of o and m (see 256). Questions expecting a positive answer have o with the indicative.

Example: m scurteroi ato smen? are we stronger than he? The answer expected is "No, of course not." Compare ok scurtero smen ato? are we not stronger than he? Here the answer expected is "Yes, certainly we are."

480. Exercises I. 1. parakal d mv na t at lgjte pntev. 2. sa n qljte na poisin mn o nqrwpoi, o ka mev poijte; otov gr stin nmov ka o proftai. 3. kleuson on tjrjqnai t sma p tn stratiwtn, mpote lqntev o maqjta lbwsin at ka epwsin t la ti grqj k tn nekrn. 4. ok stidolov mezwn to pmyantov atn. 5. mezona tatjv gpjn odev cei, na tiv poqn pr tn llwn. 6. plin psteilen llouv dolouv pleionav tn prtwn. 7. e dkain stin npion to qeo mn koein mllon to qeo, krnate. 8. g d lgw mn


HAgapte tov cqrov mn ka prosecesqe pr tn diwkntwn mv, pwv gnjsqe uo to patrv mn to n oranov 9. epen atov HIjsov ke di t enai tn tpon ggv tv plewv. 11. tte sunacqsontai mporosqen ato pnta t qnj. 12. m poei toto o gr kanv emi na ev tn okan mou eslqv. 13 lqntev o stratitai nuktv labon tn ndra ka gagntev atn xw pkteinan. 14. t mn sark ok ste meq@ mn, t d kard st ggv. 15. m peripatomen kat sarka? ok comen t pnema to qeo? 16. eslqen ev tn okan to pcierwv to enai ggv to tpou pou n HIjsov. 17. ev t dia lqen ka o dioi atn o parlabon. 18. g lluqa n t nmati to patrv mou, ka o lambnet me n llov lq n t nmati t d, kenon lmyesqe. 19. m pojsa t dion qljma? o mllon pojsa t sn? 20. e m dwxan, ka mv dixousin e tn lgon mou trjsan, ka tn mteron tjrsousin.

II. 1. Those who have done one work well will do also greater things. 2. He who rules his own house well does a greater thing than he who takes many cities. 3. Why do ye do these things? Are ye kings and priests? Are ye not servants? 4. Those who were in the darkness besought us that we should pity them and not cast them out. 5. Those who belong to me are in the city and those who belong to thee are outside of it, but we shall all be in the presence of God. 6. Art thou stronger than the One who made the earth and the sea and all the things that are in them? 7. Do not fear him who kills the body, but fear rather Him who has made all things. 8. When ye have seen your own brethren ye shall go also to the Gentiles. 9. We have more servants than you, but ours are not sufficient to evangelize1 16 all the


Gentiles. 10. Those who worship the Lord by day and by night shall be stronger than those who persecute them. 11. More are those who are with us than those who are with them. 12. Being with you in heart, not in countenance, we exhorted you that ye should do well all the things which we had commanded you. 13. The priests went out of the city, lest perchance the scribes might see them doing that which it is not lawful to do. 14. If anyone stronger than we comes against us we shall not remain in our city. 15. Jesus having healed a certain man on the Sabbath, the scribes were afraid lest the people should make Him a king. 16. It is better to die in behalf of the brethren than to do what the apostles exhorted us that we should not do.



Conjugation of ddwmi. Second Aorist of ginskw. The Article before mn and d. The Aorist Participle Denoting the Same Act as the Leading Verb. First Aorist Endings on Second Aorist Stems.

481. Vocabulary
aniov, on, adj. of two terminations, the feminine being like the masculine throughout, eternal.
nt, prep. with gen., instead of.
poddwmi, I give back, I give what is owed or promised, I render, I pay.
gun, gunaikv, , (with an irregular accent in some forms, see 566), a woman.
ddwmi, I give.
gnwn, 2nd. aor. (of mi form) of ginskw, I know.
xousa, , authority.
scon, 2nd. aor. of cw, I have.
zw, (has j instead of a in the present system. E.g. zv, z instead of zv z), I live.
do, demonstrative particle, behold!, lo!
mnov, j, on, adj., alone, only.
mustrion, t, a mystery, a secret.
rw, I see (The present system of this verb is very much less common that the present system of blpw. The common verb to see in the New Testament is blpw, yomai, edon, raka, (mmai), fqjn. Yet since blpw also has a future blyw and a first aorist bleya,it will perhaps be more convenient to give yomai etc. as the principal parts of rw rather than of blpw).
I deliver over.
peirzw, I tempt.
poov, a, on, interrogative pron., what sort of?
Smwn, Smwnov, , Simon.
cer, ceirv, , a hand.


482. The verbs which have been studied so far, with the exception of the irregular verb e¸m°, all belong to the same conjugation. They have various ways of forming their principal parts, but the endings that are appended to the principal parts all belong to the same type. There is in Greek only one other conjugation. It is called the mi conjugation (to distinguish it from the w conjugation which has been studied thus far), because its first person singular present active indicative ends in mi.

483. Verbs in jut differ from verbs in w only in the present and second aorist systems.

484. The principal parts of the mi verb, d°dwmi, I give, are as follows:
d°dwmi, dðsw, ždwka, d™dwka, d™domai, deçqjn.

485. The stem of d°dwmi is do-. If it were an w verb, its first form would be dçw.

486. The future dðsw is entirely regular, the final o of the stem being lengthened before the s of the future exactly as in the case (for example) of djlçw. From dðsw all of the future active and middle is formed, in exactly the same way as the corresponding forms of lÀw.

487. The first aorist ždwka is quite regularly formed except that k stands instead of s.

488. The perfect active d™dwka is entirely regular. From d™dwka all of the perfect active is quite regularly formed.

489. The perfect middle d™domai is quite regular except that the final vowel of the stem is not lengthened before


the personal endings (see §448) . From d™domai all of the perfect middle and passive is quite regularly formed.

490. The aorist passive dçqjn is quite regular, except that the final vowel of the stem is not lengthened before the tense suffix -qe. From dçqjn all of the aorist passive and future passive is quite regularly formed.

The Present System of d°dwmi

491. The sign of the present system of d°dwmi is the reduplication (of a different form from that in the perfect), which is prefixed to the stem.

492. The present active indicative of d°dwmi is as follows:

d°dwmi, I give.
d°dwv, thou givest.
d°dwsi(n), he gives.
d°domen, we give.
d°dote, ye give.
didçasi(n), they give.

493. The final vowel of the stem (the stem with the reduplication being dido-) is lengthened in the singular number, but not in the plural.

494. The personal endings are added directly to the stem, without any variable vowel.

495. These endings are -mi, -v, -ti (or -si), -men, -te, -asi.

496. The present active subjunctive is as follows:
Sing. Plur.


497. There has been contraction here, as is shown by the accent. The personal endings are the same as in w verbs.

498. The present active imperative is as follows:
d°dou, give (thou).
didçtw, let him give.
d°dote, give (ye).
didçtwsan, let them give.

499. The present active infinitive is didçnai, to give. The irregular accent should be noticed.

500. The present active participle is didoÀv, didoÂsa, didçn, giving.

501. The genitive singular is didçntov, didoÀsjv, didçntov. The masculine and neuter are declined regularly according to the third declension and the feminine regularly according to the first declension. The dative plural masculine and neuter is didoÂsi(n).

502. The accent is irregular in the nominative, not being recessive. Thereafter it follows the general noun rule, except in the genitive plural feminine, didousòn, where the special rule for nouns of the first declension is followed (see §§14, 51).

503. The imperfect active indicative is as follows:
Sing. Plur.
d°doun, I was giving.
d°douv, thou wast giving.
d°dou, he was giving.
d°domen, we were giving.
d°dote, ye were giving.
d°dosan, they were giving.

504. The characteristic reduplication, di-, of the present of course appears here, since the imperfect is always a part of the present system. The augment is regular. The final vowel of the stem is lengthened in the singular, as is


the present. But in the imperfect it is lengthened to ou instead of to w. The same secondary endings appear as in the w conjugation, except that the alternative ending -san appears instead of -n in the third person plural. (See § 127) .

505. The present and imperfect middle and passive of d°wmi may be found in §596. Only a few of these forms occur in the New Testament. They can easily be recognized as they occur.

Aorist Active of d°dwmi

506. The aorist active of d°dwmi is peculiar in that it is first aorist in the indicative and second aorist in the other moods.

507. The aorist active indicative is as follows:
ždwka, I gave.
thou gavest
he gave.
dðkamen, we gave.
dðkate, ye gave.
ždwkan, they gave.

508. It will be observed that the conjugation is exactly like that of žlusa, the first aorist active of lÀw. But the tense suffix is k instead of s. See §§171-177.

509. The aorist active subjunctive is as follows:


510. The conjugation is exactly like the present active subjunctive. But the second aorist has the mere verb stem, whereas the present prefixes the reduplication di-.


511. The aorist active imperative is as follows:
Sing. Plur.
2.dv, give (thou) 2. dte, give (ye).
3.dtw, let him give. 3. dtwsan, let them give.

512. These forms are like the present (without the reduplication), except for dv in the second person singular.

513. The aorist active infinitive is donai, to give.

514. The aorist active participle is dov, dosa, dn, having given.
It is declined like the present participle didov.

515. The aorist middle of ddwmi occurs only a very few times in the New Testament. The forms can easily be understood with the aid of a lexicon.

The Second Aorist of -yw&o-Kw

516. ginskw, I know, is an w verb. But it has a second aorist active of the mi form. The stem is -gno- which is nearly everywhere lengthened to gnw-.

517. Learn the conjugation in 601.

The Article before mn and d.

518. Before mn or d the article is often used as a pronoun meaning he, she, it, they.

Examples: (1) toto rtjsan atn. d pekrqj atov, this they asked him. And he answered them. (2) lqon prv atov atn ti par@ atn; o d pojsan odn, I came to them asking something from them. But they did nothing.

519. It should be observed very carefully that this usage is quite different from all the uses of the article which have been studied heretofore. For example, in the phrase o n t ok, those in the house, it would be a great mistake


to think that the article is used as a pronoun meaning those. On the contrary, the English idiom those in the house (in which those is not really a demonstrative pronoun at all) is expressed in Greek by saying the in-the-house people. In this Greek phrase, is just as much an ordinary article as in the phrase of o³ ‡gaqo°, the good people, n tþ o¹kû being treated as an adjective like ‡gaqçv. Or, to take another example, it would be a great mistake to suppose that in the phrase a é lÀwn, he who looses, the article is used as a pronoun meaning he. On the contrary the article is here just as much an article as in the phrase é ‡gaqçv, the good man. But before d™ the article can really be used as a pronoun. In é dš eºpen, but he said, there is no adjective or adjective expression for é to go with.

520. The Aorlst Participle Denoting the Same Act as the Leading Verb

The aorist participle is sometimes used to denote the same act as the leading verb.

Examples: (1) ‡pokriqe±v eºpen é HIjsoÂv, Jesus said by way of answer, or Jesus answered and said. In §§233, 254 it was said that the present participle denotes action contemporary with the action of the leading verb and the aorist participle denotes action prior to the action of the leading verb. That rule needed to be impressed firmly upon the mind before the exceptions to it could be considered. But as a matter of fact the rule does not completely represent the facts. Properly speaking the tenses in the participle do not have to do with time, and their fundamental, non-temporal character appears in the usage now under discussion. In ‡pokriqe±v eºpen, the "answering" and the "saying" represent exactly the same act, and the participle simply defines more closely the action denoted by eºpen. The phrase does not, however, mean while he


was answering he said. That would rather be pokrinmenov epen. It is recommended that the free translation, he answered and, said, be adopted invariably for the phrase pokriqev epen, which is exceedingly common in the Gospels. And it is exceedingly important that this idiom should not be allowed to obscure the fact that in the majority of cases the aorist participle denotes action prior to the time of the leading verb. The student should carefully avoid any confusion between the present and the aorist participle.

(2) d pokriqev epen, and he answered and said (with a slight emphasis on he). Of course pokriqev might here be taken as the substantive participle with , and the sentence might mean and the having-answered one said, or and the one who had answered said. But in a very great many places where these words occur in the gospels, the article is to be taken as a pronoun and the pokriqev is joined only loosely to it, in the manner indicated in the translation above.

521. First Aorist Endings on Second Aorist Stems

Very frequently, in the New Testament, first aorist endings instead of second aorist endings are used on second aorist stems.

Examples: epan instead of epon (third person plural), epn instead of ep (imperative). This usage is much more common in some parts of the aorist than in others. epon in the indicative has almost exclusively first aorist forms. See 188, footnote.
522. Exercises

I. 1. pardwka gr mn n prtoiv ka parlabon, ti Cristv pqanen pr tn martin mn kat tv grafv. 2. m contov d ato podonai plusen atn


kriov ato. 3. ka pokriqev pv lav epen T ama ato f@ mv ka p t tkna mn. 4. qlw d tot t sct donai v ka so. 5. sqintwn d atn labn HIjsov rton ka elogsav klasen1 17 ka dov tov maqjtav epen Lbete fgete, toto stin t sm mou. ka labn potrion2 18 ka ecaristsav dwken atov lgwn Pete x ato pntev. 6. ka epan lgontev prv atn Epn mn n po xous tata poiev, tiv stin dov soi tn xousan tatjn. pokriqev d epen prv atov HErwtsw kg3 19 lgon, ka epat moi. 7. gr rtov to qeo stin katabanwn k to orano ka zwn didov t ksm. 8. lgei atov hUmev d tna me lgete enai? pokriqev d Smwn Ptrov epen S e Cristv uv to qeo to zntov. 9. lgei at HIjsov Poreou uv sou z psteusen nqrwpov t lg n epen at HIjsov ka poreeto. 10. rte m tiv kakn nt kako tini pod. 11. lqen ra, do paraddotai uv to nqrpou ev tv cerav tn martwln. geresqe, gwmen.4 20 do paradidov me ggiken. 12. ka do ev proselqn at epen Didskale, t gaqn poisw na sc zwn anion? d epen na o liqoi otoi rtoi gnwntai. d pokriqev epen Ggraptai Ok p@ rt mn zsetai nqrwpov. 14. ka proselqntev o maqjta epan at Di t n parabolav lalev atov? d pokriqev epen ti5 5 ti 21 HUmn ddotai gnnai t


mustria tv basileav tn orann, kenoiv d o ddotai. 15. legon at o maqjta HApluson atov. d pokriqev epen atov Dte atov mev fagen.

II. 1. The woman besought the apostle that he might give her something. But he1 22 answered her nothing. 2. Those who had killed the women said that they had known the king. But he answered and said that he was not willing to give them what they asked. 3. If we believe on Him who loved us and gave Himself in behalf of us, we shall have eternal life instead of death. 4. While the apostle was giving to the children the things which they had asked, the women were giving gifts to us. 5. The Lord delivered over the gospel to the apostles, and they delivered it over to the Gentiles. 6. What shall we give back to Him who gave Himself in behalf of us? 7. Behold He gives us eternal life. Let us therefore do His will. 8. What shall anyone give instead of his life? 9. Whatever we give to Him will not be enough. 10. Whatever thou wishest that men should give to thee, give thou also to them. 11. Let them give thanks to those who delivered over to them the gospel. 12. They asked the Lord what they should give to Him. And He answered and said to them that to do the will of God is greater than all the gifts. 13. Those women are giving back to the children the things which they have taken from them, lest the king cast them out of the city. 14. When the priests had said these things to those who were in the city, the apostle departed. 15. What is this? Will He give us His flesh? 16. Whatever He asks I will give. But He gave to me eternal life.



Conjugation of tqjmi, fjmi, deknumi, and pllumi,
Accusative and Infinitive in Result Clauses The subjunctive after wv


nogw (for principal parts of this verb and the other verbs, see the general vocabulary), I open.
pllumi, or, I destroy; middle, I perish.
rc, , a beginning.
fjmi, I permit, I leave, I forgave (when it means forgive, fjmi, takes the acc. of the thing forgiven and the dat, of the person to whom it is forgiven).
deknumi and deiknw, I show.
erskw, I find.
pitqjmi, I lay upon (with acc. of the thing laid and dat. of the person or thing upon which it is laid).
wv, adv, with gen., up to, until; conj., while, unto.

kaqv, adv., just as.
kairv, , a time, a fined time, an appointed time.
mnjmeon, t, a tomb.
mnon, adv., only.
pr, purv, t, a fire.
sjmeon, t, a sign.
stma, stmatov, t, a mouth.
tqjmi, I place, I put; tqjmi tn yucn, I lay down my life.
pgw, I go away.
carw, I rejoice (crjn, 2nd aor. I rejoiced).
crnov, , time (especially a period of time, as .distinguished from kairv, a definite or appointed time).
de, adv., hither, here.
sper,adv., just as.
ste, conj., so that.


524. The principal parts of the -mi, verb t°qjmi, I place, I put, are as follows:
t°qjmi, qÐsw, žqjka, t™qeika, t™qeimai, t™qjn.

525. The stem is qe-. The present system is reduplicated after the same manner as d°dwmi. The future is regular. The first aorist is regular except that (like d°dwmi) it has k instead of s. The perfect active and the perfect middle are regular except that qe- is lengthened to qei- instead of to qj-. The aorist passive is regular except that (1) the final vowel of the stem is not lengthened, and (2) the stem qe- is changed to te- to avoid having two q's come in successive syllables.

526. Learn the active voice of the present system of t°qjmi in §598.

527. The treatment of the stem and of the ending in the present system is very much the same as in the case of d°dwmi, t°qjmi. The declension of the participle tiqe°v is like that of luqe°v, the aorist passive participle of lÀw.

528. Learn the active voice of the aorist system of t°qjmi in §599.

529. Like d°dwmi, t°qjmi has a first aorist active in the indicative and a second aorist active in the other moods. The second aorist participle qe°v is declined like the present participle tiqe°v.

530. The present middle and aorist middle forms of ,t°qjmi can easily be recognized when they occur, if it be remembered that the second aorist has the mere verb stem qe-, whereas the present has the stem tiqe-. Thus if a form ‡neq™mjn be encountered, the student should see that


‡n- is plainly the preposition ‡na-, e is the augment, qe is the stem of t°qjmi, and -mjn is the secondary ending in the first person singular middle. Therefore, the form is second aorist middle indicative, first person singular. On the other hand, tiqento belongs to the present system because it has the ti- which is the sign of the present system; it is imperfect, not present, because it has the augment and a secondary ending. It is evidently imperfect middle or passive indicative, third person plural.

The Conjugation of ‡f°jmi

531. ‡f°jmi, I let go, I permit, I leave, I forgive, is a compound verb composed of the preposition ‡pç (‡f@ before the rough breathing) and the mi verb ¹jmi. The stem of ¸jmi is -.

532. The forms can usually be recognized if it be remembered that the i- before the stem - is the sign of the present system, and that the short forms with - alone are second aorist. Thus ‡feiv is evidently second aorist participle (e¹v coming from the stem - as qe°v from the stem qe-). In the indicative there is a first aorist active in k instead of s, as is the ease with d°dwmi and t°qjmi. The irregular forms of ‡f°jmi can be found in the lexicons and reference grammars.

Conjugation of de°knumi and ‡pçllumi

These two verbs have some mi forms in the present system. The mi forms can be recognized from the fact that they add the personal ending directly to the present stem. The present stem ends in u. Both de°knumi and ‡pçllumi are also sometimes conjugated like w verbs even in the present system. See the vocabulary.


Accusative and Infinitive after ste

534. ste, so that, expressing result, is sometimes followed by the accusative and infinitive.

Example: qerpeusen atov ste tn clonqaumsai...., he healed them; so that the crowd marvelled ...

535. The accent of ste apparently violates the general rules of accent. But originally the te was an enclitic separate from the v. So also sper and ote (for the latter see vocabulary in Lesson XXXIII).

536. The Subjunctive With wv n

The conjunction wv, when it means until, takes the subjunctive with n, except when the verb which it introduces refers to an actual occurrence in past time. The n is sometimes omitted. When wv means while, it takes the indicative. The phrase wv o in which wv is a preposition and o the genitive singular neuter of the relative pronoun, has the same meaning as wv (conjunction) alone.

Examples: (1) menate wv n lqw, remain until I come. (2) meinen wv o lqon, he remained until I came (actual occurrence in past time).

537. Exercises

I. 1. di tot me patr gap ti g tqjmi tn yucn mou, na plin lbw atn. odev ren atn p@ mo, ll@ g tqjmi atn p@ mauto. tatjn tn ntoln labon par to patrv mou. 2. atj stn ntol m na gapte lllouv kaqv gpjsa mv. mezona tatjv gpjn odev cei, na tiv tn yucn ato q pr


tn plwn 1 23 ato. 3. ll lqn pqev tn cer sou p@ atn ka zsetai. 4. d HIjsov epen Afete t paida ka m kwlete2 24 at lqen prv me tn gr toitwn 3 25 stn basilea tn orann. ka piqev tv cerav atov poreqj keqen. 4 26 5.ka proseuxmenoi pqjkan atov tv cerav. 6. tte petqesan tv cerav p@ atov, ka lmbanon pnema gion. 7. kosantev d baptsqjsan ev t noma to kurou HIjso· ka piqntov atov to Palou 5 27 cerav lqe t pnema t gion p@ atov. 8. zwopoie 6 28 uv to qeo n qlei. 9. mev p@ rcv kosate p@ rcv, 7 29 n mv n t u ka n t patr menete. 10. ka gneto se 8 30 nekrv ste tov pollov lgein ti pqanen. 11. sqi ke wv n epw soi mllei gr hJrdjv 9 31 zjten t paidon to polsai at. 12. Krie, sson, pollmeqa. 13. ka noxav t biblon eren tn tpon. 14. t d ktopeumena k to stmatov k tv kardav xrcetai. 15. o per totwn d rwt mnon, ll ka per tn pisteuntwn di to lgou atn ev m, na pntev n sin, kaqv s, patr, 10 32 n mo kg n soi, na ka ato n mn sin, na ksmov piste ti s me psteilav. 16. epen on HIjsov


ti crnon mikrn meq@ mn emi ka pgw prv t pmyant me. 17. te d ggisen kairv tn karyn, psteilen tov dolouv ato. 18. atv d swqsetai, otwv d v di purv.

II. 1. This commandment he laid upon them, that they should lay down their lives in behalf of their brethren. 2. If ye forgive those who persecute you, I also will forgive you. 3. When the men had found him who had done this thing they left him and went away. 4. Having put the body into the tomb he went away. 5. We saw those who were laying down their lives in behalf of the children. 6. The women saw where the body was placed. 7. We shall question him until he answers us. 8. We ought to give thanks to Him who has forgiven us our sins. 9. We did not know Him, but He knew us. 10. Give me the body in order that I may place it in a tomb. 11. He showed all things to you, in order that you might place them in your hearts. 12. The apostle answered and said to those who were questioning him that he would not put these gifts into the temple. 13. After we had seen the sign which Jesus had shown to us, we believed in Him.



Conjugation of stjmi and oda
The Optative Mood. Conditions Contrary to Fact.
Uses of gnomai


nsqmi, transitive, I cause to rise, in the present, fut., and 1st aor. act.; intransitive, I stand up, I arise, in the 2nd aor. and perf. act., and in the middle.
dokw, I seem, I think.
dnamai, dep. (the present system conjugated like the middle of stjmi), I am able
dnamiv, dunmewv, , power, a miracle.
bjn, , 2nd aor. (of the mi form) of banw (conjugated like the 2nd aor. of stjmi) .
terov, a, on, another (sometimes, but not always, implies difference of kind, whereas llov often denotes mere numerical distinction).
stjmi, transitive, 1 cause to stand, in the pres., fat. and 1st aor. act.; intransitive, I stand, in the perf. (which has the sense of a present = I stand) and in the 2nd aor.
kqjmai, dep. of the mi form, I sit (pres. part, kaqmenov, sitting) .
oda, 2nd perf. used as pres., 1 know.
lov, j, on, adj., whole, all
moiov, a, on, adj., like, similar (with the dative of that to which anything is similar).
ote, 2nd perf. used as pres. (ote.... ote, neither .... nor). paragnomai, I become near, I arrive, I come (paragnomai ev tn plin, I arrive in the city).
fanerw, 1 make manifest, I manifest.
fjm, 1 say (a mi verb with stem fa-. Much less common than lgw).
v, adv. and conj.,. as, when (some of its other uses have already been studied)


539. The principal parts of the mi verb stjmi, I cause to stand, are as follows:

stjmi, stsw, stjsa, stjka, stamai, stqjn, 2nd aor. act. stjn.

540. The stem is sta-. The present system is reduplicated by the prefixing of -. The future and first aorist systems are perfectly regular, the sta- of the stem being lengthened to stj- before the v of the tense suffixes. The perfect active is regular except that the - of the reduplication has the rough breathing. The perfect middle and passive retains the sta- of the stem unchanged instead of lengthening its vowel. The aorist passive also retains the sta- but otherwise is regular.

541. Learn the active voice of the present system of stjmi in 600.

542. The treatment of the stem and of the endings in the present system is very much the same. as in the case of ddwmi and tqjmi. The declension of the participle stv is like that of lsav, the aorist active participle of lw, except for the accent.

543. Learn the middle and passive forms of the present system of stjmi in 600. It will be noticed that the endings are joined directly to the reduplicated stem ista-, except in the subjunctive mood.

544. stjmi differs from ddwmi and tqjmi in that it has a complete second aorist active as well as a complete first aorist active. The first aorist means I caused to stand (transitive), and the second aorist means I stood (intransitive).

545. Learn the second aorist active of stjmi in 601.


546 It will be observed that the conjugation is very much like that of the aorist passive of lw. The participle stv is declined like the present participle stv.

547. A second aorist middle of stjmi does not occur.

548. In addition to the first perfect active participle, stjkv, stjmi has a second, perfect participle stv, stsa, stv, gen. sttov, etc. Both stjkv and stv mean standing.

549. Learn the conjugation of oda I know (a second perfect used as a present, the pluperfect, dein being used as an imperfect) in 603.

550. The Optative Mood

In the classical period, the Greek language had another mood, the optative, in addition to those which we have studied. In New Testament Greek, however, most of the classical uses of the optative have practically disappeared. The optative is still retained to express a wish. Thus m gnoito (gnoito being the second aorist optative, third person singular, of gnomai) means may it not take place, God forbid. The few other optative forms in the New Testament can be noted when they occur.

551. Conditions Contrary To Fact

Conditions contrary to fact are expressed by the secondary tenses of the indicative in both protasis and apodosia. The protasis is introduced by e, , and the apodosis has the particle n, which, however, is sometimes omitted.

Example: krie, e v de, ok n pqanen delfv mou, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother would not have died.


Uses of g°nomai

552. Thus far, in the exercises, it has usually been possible to translate g°nomai by the English word become. But very often, in the New Testament, such a translation is impossible. The English word become requires a predicate nominative, but in very many cases g°nomai has no predicate nominative. In such cases it means happen, come into being, come to pass, appear, arise; be made. Sometimes it can be translated by the words come or be.

Examples: (1) n ke°naiv ta²v Óm™raiv g™neto ³ereÀv tiv, in those days there was (appeared in history) a certain priest. (2) p€nta di@ aÇto g™neto, all things came into being (or were made) through him. (3) ×den t gençmena, he saw the things that had happened. (4) fwnÑ g™neto k tòn oÇranòn, a voice came out of the heavens. [But it must not be supposed that g°nomai is a verb of motion.]

553. The usage of ka± g™neto and geneto d™, meaning and it came to pass, calls for special comment. There are three forms of this usage, which may be illustrated as follows.1 33

(1) ka± g™neto aÇtèn lqe²n, and it came to pass that he came. Here the accusative and infinitive depend on g™neto in a way that is at least after the analogy of ordinary Greek usage.

(2) ka± g™neto ka± Úlqen, and it came to pass and he came. The literal English translation is here intolerable, and the Greek also is not in accordance with the ordinary usage of the Greek language, but is derived from a Hebrew idiom.

(3) ka± g™neto Úlqen, and it came to pass he came. This also is not an ordinary Greek usage, Úlqen, being left


without a construction. Both (2) and (3), as well as (1) may be translated freely and it came to pass that he came.


I. 1. di toto ksmov o ginskei mv ti ok gnw atn. HAgapjto, nn tkna teo smen, ka opw fanerqj t smeqa. odamen ti n fanerwq moioi at smeqa, ti ymeqa atn kaqv stin. 2. legon on at Po stin patr sou? pekrqj HIjsov Ote m odate ote tn patra mou e m deite, ka tn patra mou n deite. 3. zjtset me ka oc ersete, ka pou em g mev o dnasqe lqen. 4. ka sunrcetai plin clov, ste m dnasqai atov mjd rton fagen. 5. kosate ti g epon jmn hUpgo ka rcomai prv mv. e gapt me, crjte n ti poreomai prv tn patra, ti patr mezwn mo stin. 6. eren llouv sttav ka kgei atov T de stkate ljn tn mran? 7. proftjn mn nastsei kriov qev k tn delfn mn v m ato kosesqe1 1 34 kat pnta sa n lals mn. 8. ka nastv rcierev epen at Odn pokrn? 9. tte on eslqen ka llov maqjtv lqn prtov ev t mnjmeon, ka eden ka psteusen od2 2 35 gr deisan tn grafn, ti de atn k nekrn nastnai. 10. e n Zodmoiv3 3 36 genqjsan a dunmeiv a genmenai n so, meinen n mcri4 4 37 tv smeron.5 5 38 11. dwken atov dnamin ka xousan p pnta d daimnia. 12. gneto d n t baptisqnai panta6 6 39 tn lan ka HIjso


baptisqntov ka proseucomnou necqnai tn orann, ka katabnai t pnema t gion. 13. gneto d n tav mraiv kenaiv xelqen atn ev t rj prosexasqai. 14. xlqon d den t gegonv, ka lqon prv tn HIjson, ka eron kaqmenon tn nqrwpon f@ o t daimnia xlqon. 15. ka gneto n t enai aton n tp tin proseucmenon, v pasato1 40 , epn tiv tn maqjtn ato prv atn Krie ddaxon mv prosecesqai, kaqv ka HIwnjv2 41 ddaxen tov maqjtv ato. 16. d fj at HAgapseiv krion tn qen sou n l t kard sou. 17. dokete ti ernjn paregenmjn dounai n t g. 18. per tnov proftjv lgei toto? per auto per trou tinv; 19. atv mv baptsei n pnemati g ka pur.

II. 1. He forgave those who had risen up against their king. 2. We know that those who are sitting in the house will not go out until they see the apostle. 3. When Jesus had gone down from the mountain, the disciples saw the man sitting in the house. 4. We saw the apostles standing in the presence of the chief priests. 5. When the women had arrived in the city they saw Jesus doing many miracles. 6. In those days there rose up a certain king who did not know us. 7. Thou hast manifested Thyself to those who are sitting in darkness. 8. When he had seen these things he did not know what he was saying. 9. We are not able to know all these things unless the Lord manifests them to us. 10. We have found the One who is able to take away our sins. 11. We know that no one is able to do what the king does.


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1 1 What noun or pronoun is naturally to be supplied as that with which e¸selqçnta agrees?

2 1 This simple rule does not cover all of the facts. For example, it takes no account of "present general" conditions, which are expressed, like future conditions, by n with the subjunctive. But present general conditions are closely allied to future conditions. In the sentence, if any one does wrong he suffers, which is a present general condition, the contemplated possibility of one's doing wrong stretches out into the future; what is meant is that at any time when a man does wrong or shall do wrong he will suffer for it. It is perhaps unnecessary, therefore, to trouble the beginner with this additional category. In general, the simple rule given in the text will serve fairly well for New Testament Greek. The exceptions can be noted as they occur. Conditions contrary to fact will be treated in 551.

3 1The English word unless is another way of saying if not. It is to be translated, therefore, by e¸ mÐ with the indicative or by n mÐ with the subjunctive. Which is correct here?

4 1 The following formulation of the rules of contraction is, in essentials, that which is given in White, Beginner's Greek Book, 1895, pp.75f . It has been used here by kind permission of Messrs. Ginn and Company.

5 1 With rcomai, I begin, the present infinitive, not the aorist infinitive, should be used.

6 1 What noun is naturally to be supplied with t mikr?

7 1e m and n m are often to be translated except.

8 2With what is in heaven to be construed? If it is to be construed with Father, it should be put in the attributive position. The meaning then is our in-heaven Father, our Father who is in heaven.

9 1A noun or pronoun in the genitive case may stand in the predicate with the verb to be. Thus basilea st to qeo or qeo stin basilea means the kingdom is God's or the kingdom belongs to God.

10 1 The Greek language frequently uses a double negative where it is not allowable in English. Thus o lgw odn means I do not say anything, or I said nothing.

11 1 A first aorist ending is here placed on a second aorist stem, as very frequently in New Testament Greek. See 186. footnote, and 521.

12 2 The aorist passive of gnomai is the same in meaning as the aorist middle, tho verb being deponent throughout. The meaning of the verb here is to take place, to be done.

13 3 The passive of gerw is frequently used as a deponent meaning I arise, I rise.

14 1gnomai here means to take place, to come to pass, to happen.

15 2 The relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person as well as in gender and number. In this sentence, the antecedent of hv is nqrwton, which is first person because it is in apposition with the personal pronoun of the first person, me.

16 1What construction has been used after kanv to express the idea sufficient (or worthy) that they should......?

17 1Aorist active indicative of klw, I break.

18 2 potrion, t, a cup.

19 3 kg stands for ka g.

20 4 gw is sometimes used in the intransitive sense, I go.

21 frequently introduces direct (instead of indirect) discourse. When it introduces direct discourse, it must be left untranslated. In such cases, it takes the place of our quotation marks.

22 1 In all such cues, the slight emphasis on the he in English is to be expressed in Greek by the pronominal use of the article before.

23 1 flov, , a friend.

24 2 kwlw, I hinder.

25 3 toiotov, toiatj, toioto, such, often used with the article.

26 4 keqen, adv., thence.

27 5 Palov, , Paul.

28 6 zwopoiw, I make alive, I quicken.

29 7 In many such phrases the article is omitted in Greek where it is used in English.

30 8 se is a strengthened form of v.

31 9 hJrdjv, o, , Herod.

32 10 patr has a vocative form, pter. But even such nouns sometimes use the nominative form in the vocative case.

33 1This method of illustration is taken, in essentials, from J. H. Moulton, Grammar of New Testament Greek, Vol. I, "Prolegomena," 2nd Edition, 1906, p. 16.

34 The future of kow is here deponent.

35 odpw, not yet.

36 Sdoma, wn, t. plural in singular sense, Sodom.

37 smeron, adv., today; smeron (supply mra) today.

38 mcri with gen., until, up to.

39 pav, pasa, pan, all (a strengthened form of pv).

40 1 paomai (middle), I cease.

41 2 HIwnjv, ou, . = John.