ałrw, I take up, I take away.
ánabaįnw, I go up (ána means up)
ápoqn–skw, I die.
ápokteįnw, I kill.
ápostôllw, I send (pômpw is the general word for send, while ápostôllw means I send with a commission).
ąrtov, ť, a piece of bread, a loaf, bread.
baįnw, I go (the simple verb does not occur in the New Testament, but the compounds with various prepositions are exceedingly common).
Ěsqįw, I eat.
katÄ prep. with gen., against; with acc., according to (katÄ, of which the original meaning was down, has
many meanings in the New Testament).
katabaįnw, I go down.
môn ... dô on the one hand... on the other (used in contrasts, the môn often being best left untranslated and the dô being then best translated by but).
o«kôti, adv., no longer.
parÄ, prep. with gen., from; with dat., beside, in the presence of ; with acc., alongside of.
paralambÄnw, I receive, I take along.
sņn, prep. with dat., with (a close synonym of metÄ with gen.).
sunÄgw I gather together.
tÁte, adv., then.
122. In present time there is no special form of the verb in Greek to indicate continued action--there is no distinction in Greek between I loose and I am loosing. But in past time the distinction is made even more sharply than in English.
The tense which in the indicative is used as the simple past tense is called the aorist. It will be studied in Lesson XIV.
The tense which denotes continued action in past time is called the imperfect.
The aorist active indicative of lņw means I loosed, etc., whereas the imperfect active indicative means I was loosing, etc. This distinction should be carefully observed.
123. The imperfect active indicative of lņwis as follows:
Sing. Plur. 1. ěluon, I was loosing. 1. Ělņomen, we were loosing. 2. ěluev, thou wast loosing. 2. Ělņete, ye were loosing. 3. ělue(n), he was loosing. 3. ěluon, they were loosing.
124. The imperfect indicative, like the indicative of the other secondary tenses (see ß20, footnote), places an augment at the beginning of the stem of the verb.
125. In verbs that begin with a consonant the augment consists in an Ě- prefixed to the stem.
Examples: ěluon, I was loosing; Ěgįnwskon, I was knowing.
126. In verbs that begin with a vowel, the augment consists in the lengthening of that vowel. But a lengthens not to long a but to j.
Examples: The imperfect of Ěgeįrw is
ōgeiron; of ákoņw,
ōkouon; of aĻrw, śron.
127. The personal endings in the active of the secondary tenses are as follows:
Sing Plur. 1. -n
3. -n (or -san)
128. The variable vowel (placed between the stem and the personal endings) is, in the imperfect as in the present, o before m and n and e before other letters.
129. The third person singular, ělue(n) has the movable n (under the conditions mentioned in ß44).
130. It will be observed that the first person singular and the third person plural are alike in form. Only the context can determine whether ěluon means I was loosing or they were loooing.
Augment of Compound Verbs
131. In compound verbs (see ß117), the augment comes after the preposition and before the stem. If the preposition ends with a vowel, that vowel is usually dropped both before a verb that begins with a vowel and before the augment.
Examples: The imperfect, of ĚkbÄllw is Ěxôballon; of ápokteįnw, ápôkteinon of ápÄgw, áp“gon.
132. It should be observed that the accent does not go back of the augment. Thus áp“gon is correct, not ąpjgon.
133. Imperfect Indicative of ełmį
The imperfect indicative of ełmį is as follows:
Sing. Plur. 1. ōmjn, I was.
2. ŕv, thou wast.
3. ŕn, he wast.
1. ŕmen, we were
2. ŕte, ye were
3. ŕsan, they were
134. Accent of ěsti(n)
After o«k and certain other words the third person singular present indicative of ełmį is accented on the first syllable. This does not apply to the other forms of ełmį. Thus o«k ěstin, but o»k Ěsmen, etc.
135. Exercises I. 1. ◊koņomen t“v fwn“v a«to¬ Ěn Ěkeįnaiv ta≤v ”môraiv, n¬n dö o«kôti ákoņomen a«t“v. 2. ť dö maqjt—v to¬ kurįou ělege parabol—n to≤v ádelfo≤v a«to¬. 3. ápôkteinon o≥ do¬loi tĀ tôkna sŃn to≤v maqjta≤v. 4. tÁte mön katôbainon ełv tŤn oļkon n¬n dö o«kôti katabaįnw. 5. parelambÄnete tŤn ąrton tapĀ tÚn doņlwn kaĪ ◊sqįete a«tÁn. 6. diĀ t—n ál–qeian ápôqnjskon o≥ maqjtaĪ Ěn ta≤v ”môraiv Ěkeįnaiv. 7. sun“gen o√tov ť ápÁstolov ełv t—n Ěkkljsįan toŃv maqjtĀv to¬ kurįou ”mÚn. 8. n¬n mön didaskÁmeqa √pŤ tÚn ápostÁlwn, tÁte dö ĚdidÄskomen ”me≤v t—n Ěkkljsįan. 9. ť kņriov ”mÚn ‚re tĀv Émartįav ”mÚn. 10. tÁte mön ánôbainon ełv tŤ ≥erÁn, n¬n dö o«kôti ánabaįnousin. 11. ponjroĪ ŕte, ágaqoĪ dö Ěstô. 12. √me≤v môn Ěste ágaqoį, ”me≤v dô Ěsmen ponjroį. 13. tÁte ōmjn Ěn tĢ oĻkŻ √mÚn ÷men. 14. lôgomen ”m≤n Íti Ěn tĢ oĻkŻ √mÚn ÷men. 15. Ěxôballev a«toŃv Ěk to¬ ≥ero¬. 16. ápôstellon o≥ ąnqrwpoi toŃv doņlouv a«tÚn prÁv me. 17. ž kņriov ápôstellen ággôlouv prŤv ”māv. 18. Ěn tĢ kÁsmŻ ŕn kaĪ ť kÁsmov o«k ěblepen a«tÁn. 19. do¬lov ŕv to¬ ponjro¬, állĀ n¬n o«kôti eļ do¬lov. 20. to¬tÁ Ěsti tŤ dÚron to¬ ánqrūpou, kal`n dö o«k ěstin.
1. The servant was saying these words against them.
2. According to the word of the apostle, they were going up into the temple.
3. The Lord was in His temple.
4. They were killing our children.
5. Ye were dying in those days on account of the kingdom of God.
6. Thou wast taking away the sins of Thy disciples.
7. The prophet
Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative
Singular Verb with Neuter Plural Subject
Uses Of kaį and o«dô
ápôrcomai, dep., I go away.
biblįon, a book.
daimÁnion, tÁ, a demon.
dôcomai, dep., I receive.
Ěkporeņomai, dep., I go out.
ěrgon, a work.
ěti, adv., still, yet.
qÄlassa, ”, a lake, a sea.
kaį, conj., and, also, even; kaį .. kaį, both .. and. katôrcomai, dep., I go down.
o«dô, conj., and not, nor, not even;
o«dô .. o«dô, neither . . nor.
o»pw, adv., not yet.
perį, prep. with gen., concerning, about; with acc., around.
plo≤on, tÁ, a boat.
sunôrcomai, dep., I come together.
√pôr, prep. with gen., in behalf of, with acc., above.
137. As in the present tense, so also in the imperfect, the middle and passive voices are alike in form.
138. The imperfect middle indicative of lņw is as follows:
Sing. Plur. 1. ĚluÁmjn, I was loosing for myself 1. ĚluÁmeqa, we were loosing for ourselves 2. Ělņou, thou wast loosing for thyself. 2. Ělņesqe, ye were loosing for yourselves. 3. Ělņeto, he was loosing for himself. 3. Ělņonto, they were loosing for themselves.
139. The personal endings in the middle of the secondary tenses are as follows:
Sing. Plur 1. -mjn
140. The variable vowel, as in the active of the imperfect, and in all three voices of the present, is o before m and n and e before other letters.
141. In the second person singular, Ělņou is a shortened form for an original Ělņeso.
142. Great care should be taken to pronounce clearly both the long vowel in the ultima of the form ĚluÁmjn and the accent on the penult.
143. The imperfect passive indicative of lņw is as follows:
|1. ĚluÁmjn,||I was being loosed||1. ĚluÁmeqa,||we were being loosed.|
|2. Ělņou,||thou wast being loosed.||2. Ělņesqe||ye were being loosed|
|3. Ělueto,||he was being loosed.||3. Ělņonto,||they were being loosed.|
144. Verbs which are deponent in the present are also deponent in the imperfect.
Example: The imperfect indicative of ěrcomai, I come, is ◊rcÁmjn, I was coming.
145. The Neuter Plural Subject
A neuter plural subject may have its verb in the singular.
Examples: tĀ daimÁnia Ěxôrcetai, the demons go out; ta¬tÄ Ěsti tĀ kalĀ dÚra, these are the good gifts.
This strange idiom, however, is by no means invariable in New Testament Greek; the neuter plural subject often has its verb in the plural like any other plural verb.
Example: tĀ tôkna sūzontai, the children are being saved.
Uses of kaį and o«dô
146. The simple connective use of kaį, where it means and, has already been studied. But kaį has other uses. Frequently it means also or even. When it is thus used, it stands before the word with which it is logically connected. In the case of also, the English order is the reverse of the Greek order; in the case of even, it is the same as the Greek order.
Examples: to¬to dö kaĪ ĚgŮ lôgw, but this I also say; ginūskousi kaĪ tĀ tôkna tŤn Ūmon, even the children know the law.
147. o«dô, like kaį, is often simply connective and means and not or nor. But like kaį, it has other uses. It often means not even.
Examples: to¬to dö o« lôgw ĚgŮ o«dö lôgousin a«tŤ o≥ ąlloi, but this I do not say, nor do the others say it (simple connective use of o«dô); t—n dÁxan to¬ qeo¬ blôpousin o«dö o≥ maqjtaį, not even the disciples see the glory of God.
148. Finally, kaį . . . kaį and o«dô . . . o«dô are used correlatively, and mean, respectively, both . . . and, and neither . . . nor.
to¬to lôgousin kaĪ o≥ ápÁstoloi kaĪ o≥ do¬loi,
both the apostles and the servants say this;
to¬to lôgousin o«dö o≥ ápÁstoloi o«dö o≥ do¬loi,
neither the apostles nor the servants say this.
I. 1. ĚgrÄfonto o∆toi o≥ lÁgoi Ěn biblįŻ. 2. ĚdidaskÁmjn √p@ a«to¬ Ěk tÚn biblįwn tÚn profjtÚn. 3. Ěn Ěkeįnaiv ta≤v ”môraiv kaĪ ĚdidaskÁmeqa √p@ a«to¬ kaĪ ĚdidÄskomen toŃv ąllouv, állĀ n¬n o«dö didaskÁmeqa o«dö didÄskomen. 4. áp–rconto o≥ ÉmartwloĪ prŤv t—n qÄlassan. 5. Ěxeporeņeto prŤv a«tŤn ” Ěkkljsįa, állĀ n¬n o«kôti Ěkporeņetai. 6. o»pw blôpomen tŤn kņrion Ěn tř dÁxŘ a«to¬, állĀ ĚdidaskÁmeqa √p@ a«to¬ kaĪ Ěn ta≤v ”môraiv ta≤v kaka≤v. 7. Ělôgeto Ěn tĢ ≥erĢ kalŤv lÁgov perĪ toņtou to¬ ápostÁlou. 8. perĪ a«tŤn Ěblôpeto ” dÁxa a«to¬. 9. Ěfôreto tĀ dÚra kaĪ prŤv toŃv ponjroņv. 10. Ědôcou tĀ biblįa ápŤ tÚn profjtÚn. 11. sun–rconto o≥ maqjtaĪ prŤv to¬ton. 12. tĀ ěrga to¬ ponjro¬ ponjrÄ Ěstin. 13. o«dö a«tŤv ponjrŤv o«dö tĀ ěrga ponjrÄ. 14. √pör t“v Ěkkljsįav a«to¬ ápôqnjsken ť kņriov. 15. o«k ěstin maqjt—v √pör tŤn didÄskalon a«to¬ o«dö do¬lov √pör tŤn kņrion a«to¬. 16. Ěn tĢ ploįŻ ōgou prŤv tŤn kņrion diĀ t“v qalÄssjv. 17. Ěx–rcesqe Ěk tÚn oĻkwn √mÚn. 18. ta¬ta tĀ daimÁnia Ěx–rceto diĀ to¬ lÁgou a«to¬. 19. ◊koņonto kaĪ ōkouon; ákoņontai kaĪ ákoņousin. ◊rcÁmjn prŤv tŤn kņrion, ŕgon dö kaĪ toŃv ąllouv.
II. 1. Those words were being heard by the same apostle, but now they are no longer being heard. 2. These books were being written by him in behalf of his servants. 3. I was not yet being taught by this man, but I was leading the others to him. 4. Ye are not above me nor am I above you. 5. Thou wast sending others to him and wast being sent by him to others. 6. The demons were going out of the children. 7. Ye were coming in and going out in the church. 8. We were not yet going away to the sinners, but were still hearing the voice of the apostle and were being taught concerning the Lord out of the books of the prophets. 9. They were going down to the sea