. Accent of sti(n).">


Imperfect Active Indicative. Imperfect Indicative of em. Accent of sti(n).

121. Vocabulary

arw, I take up, I take away.
nabanw, I go up (na means up)
poqnskw, I die.
poktenw, I kill.
postllw, I send (pmpw is the general word for send, while postllw means I send with a commission).
rtov, , a piece of bread, a loaf, bread.
banw, I go (the simple verb does not occur in the New Testament, but the compounds with various prepositions are exceedingly common).
sqw, I eat.
kat prep. with gen., against; with acc., according to (kat, of which the original meaning was down, has
many meanings in the New Testament).
katabanw, I go down.
mn ... d on the one hand... on the other (used in contrasts, the mn often being best left untranslated and the d being then best translated by but).
okti, adv., no longer.
par, prep. with gen., from; with dat., beside, in the presence of ; with acc., alongside of.
paralambnw, I receive, I take along.
sn, prep. with dat., with (a close synonym of met with gen.).
sungw I gather together.
tte, adv., then.


122. In present time there is no special form of the verb in Greek to indicate continued action--there is no distinction in Greek between I loose and I am loosing. But in past time the distinction is made even more sharply than in English.

The tense which in the indicative is used as the simple past tense is called the aorist. It will be studied in Lesson XIV.

The tense which denotes continued action in past time is called the imperfect.

The aorist active indicative of lw means I loosed, etc., whereas the imperfect active indicative means I was loosing, etc. This distinction should be carefully observed.

123. The imperfect active indicative of lwis as follows:

1. luon, I was loosing. 1. lomen, we were loosing.
2. luev, thou wast loosing. 2. lete, ye were loosing.
3. lue(n), he was loosing. 3. luon, they were loosing.

124. The imperfect indicative, like the indicative of the other secondary tenses (see 20, footnote), places an augment at the beginning of the stem of the verb.

125. In verbs that begin with a consonant the augment consists in an - prefixed to the stem.

Examples: luon, I was loosing; gnwskon, I was knowing.

126. In verbs that begin with a vowel, the augment consists in the lengthening of that vowel. But a lengthens not to long a but to j.

Examples: The imperfect of gerw is geiron; of kow, kouon; of arw, ron.


127. The personal endings in the active of the secondary tenses are as follows:

1. -n
2. -v
3. none
1. -men
2. -te
3. -n (or -san)

128. The variable vowel (placed between the stem and the personal endings) is, in the imperfect as in the present, o before m and n and e before other letters.

129. The third person singular, lue(n) has the movable n (under the conditions mentioned in 44).

130. It will be observed that the first person singular and the third person plural are alike in form. Only the context can determine whether luon means I was loosing or they were loooing.

Augment of Compound Verbs

131. In compound verbs (see 117), the augment comes after the preposition and before the stem. If the preposition ends with a vowel, that vowel is usually dropped both before a verb that begins with a vowel and before the augment.

Examples: The imperfect, of kbllw is xballon; of poktenw, pkteinon of pgw, pgon.

132. It should be observed that the accent does not go back of the augment. Thus pgon is correct, not pjgon.

133. Imperfect Indicative of em

The imperfect indicative of em is as follows:

1. mjn, I was.
2. v, thou wast.
3. n, he wast.
1. men, we were
2. te, ye were
3. san, they were


134. Accent of sti(n)

After ok and certain other words the third person singular present indicative of em is accented on the first syllable. This does not apply to the other forms of em. Thus ok stin, but ok smen, etc.

135. Exercises I. 1. koomen tv fwnv ato n kenaiv tav mraiv, nn d okti koomen atv. 2. d maqjtv to kurou lege paraboln tov delfov ato. 3. pkteinon o doloi t tkna sn tov maqjtav. 4. tte mn katbainon ev tn okon nn d okti katabanw. 5. parelambnete tn rton tap tn dolwn ka sqete atn. 6. di tn lqeian pqnjskon o maqjta n tav mraiv kenaiv. 7. sungen otov pstolov ev tn kkljsan tov maqjtv to kurou mn. 8. nn mn didaskmeqa p tn postlwn, tte d didskomen mev tn kkljsan. 9. kriov mn re tv martav mn. 10. tte mn nbainon ev t ern, nn d okti nabanousin. 11. ponjro te, gaqo d st. 12. mev mn ste gaqo, mev d smen ponjro. 13. tte mjn n t ok mn men. 14. lgomen mn ti n t ok mn men. 15. xballev atov k to ero. 16. pstellon o nqrwpoi tov dolouv atn prv me. 17. kriov pstellen gglouv prv mv. 18. n t ksm n ka ksmov ok blepen atn. 19. dolov v to ponjro, ll nn okti e dolov. 20. tot sti t dron to nqrpou, kal`n d ok stin.

II 1. The servant was saying these words against them. 2. According to the word of the apostle, they were going up into the temple. 3. The Lord was in His temple. 4. They were killing our children. 5. Ye were dying in those days on account of the kingdom of God. 6. Thou wast taking away the sins of Thy disciples. 7. The prophet


was sending the same servants into the small house. 8. We are no longer sinners, because we are being saved by the Lord from the sin of our hearts. 9. I was receiving this bread from the apostle's servants. 10. Then he was writing these things to his brethren. 11. In that hour we were in the desert with the Lord. 12. They are good, but they were evil. 13. Thou wast good, but we were sinners. 14. Then I was a servant, but now I am a son. 15. The sons of the prophets were gathering these things together into the temple. 16. Now I am being sent by the Lord to the children of the disciples, but then I was sending the righteous men into the desert.



Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative
Singular Verb with Neuter Plural Subject
Uses Of ka and od

136. Vocabulary

prcomai, dep., I go away.
biblon, a book.
daimnion, t, a demon.
dcomai, dep., I receive.
kporeomai, dep., I go out.
rgon, a work.
ti, adv., still, yet.
qlassa, , a lake, a sea.
ka, conj., and, also, even; ka .. ka, both .. and. katrcomai, dep., I go down.
od, conj., and not, nor, not even; od .. od, neither . . nor.
opw, adv., not yet.
per, prep. with gen., concerning, about; with acc., around.
ploon, t, a boat.
sunrcomai, dep., I come together.
pr, prep. with gen., in behalf of, with acc., above.

137. As in the present tense, so also in the imperfect, the middle and passive voices are alike in form.

138. The imperfect middle indicative of lw is as follows:

1. lumjn, I was loosing for myself 1. lumeqa, we were loosing for ourselves
2. lou, thou wast loosing for thyself. 2. lesqe, ye were loosing for yourselves.
3. leto, he was loosing for himself. 3. lonto, they were loosing for themselves.


139. The personal endings in the middle of the secondary tenses are as follows:

Sing. Plur
1. -mjn
2. -so
3. -to
1. -meqa
2. -sqe
3. -nto

140. The variable vowel, as in the active of the imperfect, and in all three voices of the present, is o before m and n and e before other letters.

141. In the second person singular, lou is a shortened form for an original leso.

142. Great care should be taken to pronounce clearly both the long vowel in the ultima of the form lumjn and the accent on the penult.

143. The imperfect passive indicative of lw is as follows:

1. lumjn, I was being loosed 1. lumeqa, we were being loosed.
2. lou, thou wast being loosed. 2. lesqe ye were being loosed
3. lueto, he was being loosed. 3. lonto, they were being loosed.

144. Verbs which are deponent in the present are also deponent in the imperfect.

Example: The imperfect indicative of rcomai, I come, is rcmjn, I was coming.

145. The Neuter Plural Subject

A neuter plural subject may have its verb in the singular.

Examples: t daimnia xrcetai, the demons go out; tat sti t kal dra, these are the good gifts.


This strange idiom, however, is by no means invariable in New Testament Greek; the neuter plural subject often has its verb in the plural like any other plural verb.

Example: t tkna szontai, the children are being saved.

Uses of ka and od

146. The simple connective use of ka, where it means and, has already been studied. But ka has other uses. Frequently it means also or even. When it is thus used, it stands before the word with which it is logically connected. In the case of also, the English order is the reverse of the Greek order; in the case of even, it is the same as the Greek order.

Examples: toto d ka g lgw, but this I also say; ginskousi ka t tkna tn mon, even the children know the law.

147. od, like ka, is often simply connective and means and not or nor. But like ka, it has other uses. It often means not even.

Examples: toto d o lgw g od lgousin at o lloi, but this I do not say, nor do the others say it (simple connective use of od); tn dxan to qeo blpousin od o maqjta, not even the disciples see the glory of God.

148. Finally, ka . . . ka and od . . . od are used correlatively, and mean, respectively, both . . . and, and neither . . . nor.

Examples: (1) toto lgousin ka o pstoloi ka o doloi, both the apostles and the servants say this; (2) toto lgousin od o pstoloi od o doloi, neither the apostles nor the servants say this.


149. Exercises

I. 1. grfonto otoi o lgoi n bibl. 2. didaskmjn p@ ato k tn biblwn tn profjtn. 3. n kenaiv tav mraiv ka didaskmeqa p@ ato ka didskomen tov llouv, ll nn od didaskmeqa od didskomen. 4. prconto o martwlo prv tn qlassan. 5. xeporeeto prv atn kkljsa, ll nn okti kporeetai. 6. opw blpomen tn krion n t dx ato, ll didaskmeqa p@ ato ka n tav mraiv tav kakav. 7. lgeto n t er kalv lgov per totou to postlou. 8. per atn blpeto dxa ato. 9. freto t dra ka prv tov ponjrov. 10. dcou t bibla p tn profjtn. 11. sunrconto o maqjta prv toton. 12. t rga to ponjro ponjr stin. 13. od atv ponjrv od t rga ponjr. 14. pr tv kkljsav ato pqnjsken kriov. 15. ok stin maqjtv pr tn didskalon ato od dolov pr tn krion ato. 16. n t plo gou prv tn krion di tv qalssjv. 17. xrcesqe k tn okwn mn. 18. tata t daimnia xrceto di to lgou ato. 19. koonto ka kouon; koontai ka koousin. rcmjn prv tn krion, gon d ka tov llouv.

II. 1. Those words were being heard by the same apostle, but now they are no longer being heard. 2. These books were being written by him in behalf of his servants. 3. I was not yet being taught by this man, but I was leading the others to him. 4. Ye are not above me nor am I above you. 5. Thou wast sending others to him and wast being sent by him to others. 6. The demons were going out of the children. 7. Ye were coming in and going out in the church. 8. We were not yet going away to the sinners, but were still hearing the voice of the apostle and were being taught concerning the Lord out of the books of the prophets. 9. They were going down to the sea


and were going through it in boats. 10. Neither the evil nor the good were answering the Lord. 11. We were both seeing and hearing these disciples. 12. Thou wast being saved by the word of the Lord. 13. Not by your works but by the Lord were ye being saved from your sins. 14. Not even the good are saved by works. 15. Through the word of the Lord we were becoming good disciples. 16. Thou wast not dying in behalf of him, but he was dying in behalf of thee.