with the Genitive. The Dative of Means. Deponent Verbs. Compound Verbs. The Position of o. Various Cases with Verbs.">


Present Middle and Passive Indicative. p with the Genitive. The Dative of Means. Deponent Verbs. Compound Verbs. The Position of o. Various Cases with Verbs.

108. Vocabulary
ll, conj., but (stronger adversative than d ).
kow, I hear (may take the genitive, but also takes the accusative).
martwlv, , a sinner.
pokrnomai, dep., I answer (takes the dative).
rcw, I rule (takesthe genitive; middle, I begin.
gnomai, dep., I become (takest he predicate nominative, not an accusative).
dircomai, I go through.
esrcomai, dep., I go in, I enter
xrcomai, dep., I go out.
rcomai, dep., I come, I go.
ti, conj., that, because.
o(ok before vowels, oc before rough breathing), proclitic, not.
poreomai, dep., I go.
szw, I save.
p, prep. with gen., by (expressing agent); with accusative, under.

109. There are three voices in Greek: active, middle and passive.

The active and the passive voices are used as in English.

The middle voice represents the subject as acting in some way that concerns itself, or as acting upon something that belongs to itself.

(1) Rarely the middle has the force which a verb followed by a reflexive pronoun in the objective case has in English. Thus low means I wash, and loomai means I wash myself.


But usually the force of the middle is much more subtle. Sometimes, therefore, it is impossible to make any difference in an English translation between active and middle. In the case of some verbs, on the other hand, the difference in meaning is so great that in an English translation it is necessary to use one verb for the active and an entirely different verb for the middle. For example, rcw means I rule, and rcomai (middle) means I begin.

(2) The middle of lw does not occur in the New Testament. But it is very important to learn it, since it will enable the student to recognize the middle of other verbs. The translations given in the paradigm for the middle of lw serve to indicate, in a rough, sort of way, the fundamental meaning of the middle voice, rather than the actual meaning of the middle voice of this particular verb.

(3) In the present tense the middle and passive voices are exactly alike in form, though in certain other tenses they are entirely distinct. In the exercises in this lesson, the forms which might be either middle or passive should be regarded as passive.

110. The Present Middle Indicative of lw is as follows:
Sing. Plur.
1. lomai, I loose (or am loosing) for myself. 1.lumeqa, we loose or are loosing) for ourselves.
2. l, thou loosest (or art loosing) 2. lesqe, ye loose (or are loosing)
3. letai, he looses (or is loosing) for himself. 3.lontai, they loose (or are loosing) for themselves)


111. The personal endings in the middle and passive of the so-called primary tenses are --mai, -sai, -tai, -meqa, -sqe, ntai. Between the stem and the personal endings is placed, in the present tense, the variable vowel o / e (o standing before m and n, e before other letters). The second person singular, l, is a shortened form instead of lsai.1 1

112. The Present Passive Indicative of lw is as follows:

Sing. Plur.
1. lomai, I am being loosed. 1. lumeqa, we are being loosed.
2. l, thou art being loosed. 2. lesqe, ye are being loosed.
3. letai, he is being loosed. 3. lontai, they are being loosed.

113. The present active indicative, lw,it will be remembered, can be translated either I loose or I am loosing. The passive of I loose, in English, is I am loosed;- the passive of I am loosing is I am being loosed. Both I am loosed and I am being loosed might, therefore, have been given in the translation of lomai (passive). But I am loosed is so ambiguous that the student is advised, at least in the earlier lessons, to adopt the alternative translation. I am loosed may mean I am now in a loosed condition, in which case it indicates a present state resultant upon a past action and would be translated, not by the present tense, but by the perfect tense in Greek.

Example: szomai means I am being saved. It represents the action as taking place at the present time. It could also be translated I am saved in such a sentence as every day I am saved from some new trouble. Here I am


saved is present because it indicates customary action. But in the majority of cases I am saved means I am in a saved condition resultant upon an action that took place in the past. And in these cues the English sentence I am saved would be translated by the perfect tense, not by the present tense, in Greek. It will be seen, therefore, that the translation I am loosed for lomai, though it is not wrong (since lomai may sometimes be translated in this way), would be misleading.

114. p with the Genitive

The preposition p with the genitive expresses the agent by which an action is performed. This usage occurs principally with the passive voice.

Example: pstolov lei tn dolon means the apostle looses the servant. If the same thought be expressed by the passive voice, the object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive and the subject of the active verb becomes p with the genitive. Thus dolov letai p to postlou means the servant is being loosed by the apostle.

115. The Dative of Means

The simple dative without any preposition sometimes expresses means or instrument.


(1) gerontai t lg to kurou, they are being raised up by (by means of) the word of the Lord. Compare gerontai p to kurou, they are being raised up by the Lord. The comparison will serve to distinguish p with the genitive (expressing the active personal agent) from the dative expressing means.

(2) gomen tov dolouv met tn un atn lgoiv ka-


lov, we are leading the servants with their sons with good words. This example will serve to distinguish the dative expressing means from met with the genitive expressing accompaniment. The two ideas, though they are logically quite distinct, happen often to be expressed by the same preposition, with in English. met with the genitive means with in the sense of in company with; the dative means with in the sense of by means of.

116. Deponent Verbs

Many verbs have no active forms, but only middle or passive forms with active meaning. These verbs axe called deponent.

Example: poreomai is passive in form, like lomai, but it is active in meaning, like lw. It means simply I go or I am going.

117. Compound Verbs

Prepositions are frequently prefixed to verbs. The meaning of the verb is modified by the preposition in a way that is often easily understood from the common meaning of the preposition. Sometimes, however, the matter is not so simple; sometimes the meaning of the compound verb cannot easily be determined from the separate meanings of its two component parts.

Example: k means out of, and poreomai means I go. Hence kporeomai means I go out. But the meaning of pokrnomai, I answer, is not easily derived from the meanings of its component parts.

The Position of o

The negative, o, precedes the word which it negatives. And since in the great majority of cases the nega-


tive in a sentence negatives the verb, the normal place of o is immediately before the verb.

Examples: o lw, I do not loose, or I am not loosing;o lomai, I do not loose, or I am not loosing; o lomai, I am not being loosed.

119. Various Cases With Verbs

Many verbs take the genitive case and many the dative case to complete their meaning, where the corresponding verbs in English take a direct object.

Examples: kow tv fwnv, I hear the voice (but kow may also take the accusative); pokrnomai t postl, I answer the apostle.

120. Exercises

I. 1. lontai otoi o doloi p to kurou. 2. t lg to kurou gmeqa ev tn kkljsan to qeo. 3. ok koete tv fwnv to proftou, ll' 12 xrcesqe k to okou ato. 4. t lg ato to kurou gnesqe maqjta ato. 5. kenoi o gaqo didskaloi ok esrcontai ev tov okouv tn martwlon. 6. o baptzontai o martwlo p tn postlwn, ll' xrcontai k totwn tn okwn prv l'llouv didasklouv. 7. lgete kenoiv tov martwlov ti szesqe p to qeo ptn martn mn. 8. rcei atv szetai p to kurou atv. 9. ernjn cei kkljsa, ti szetai p to kurou atv. 10. ok pokrinmeqa t postl ti o ginskomen atn. 11. oc p tn maqjtn sz p tn martin sou, ll' p' ato to qeo. 12. o pore n t d t kak, ll sz p tn martn sou kai1 o delfo sou koousi tv fwnv to kurou. 13. met tn delfn ato getai ev tn basilean to qeo t fwn tn postlwn. 14. o gn maqjtv to kurou, ti ok esrc ev tn kkljsan ato.


II. 1. These churches are being saved by God from death. 2. I am being saved by Him and am being taught by His word. 3. We are becoming disciples of the good apostle, but ye are not hearing his voice. 4. I am a sinner, but am being taught by the apostles of the Lord. 5. I am an evil servant, but thou art becoming a teacher of this church. 6. The evil men say to those churches that our brethren do not see the face of the Lord. 7. The world is being destroyed by the word of our God. 8. We know the Lord because we receive good gifts from Him and are being taught by Him in parables. 9. Thou art writing these things to thy brethren and art being saved from thy sin. 10. He is teaching others and is himself being taught by this apostle. 11. That disciple is not answering this prophet, because he does not know his words. 12. Thou art saying to this church that thou art a bad servant. 13. You are abiding in that temple, because you are not servants of the Lord. 14. We do not see the faces of our Lord's disciples,1 3 because we are not in their houses. 15. In our Lord's house are joy and peace. 16. God rules this world by His word. 17. These sinners are not entering into the Lord's house, but are going out into the desert. 18. These words are being written by God to His faithful churches


1 1 An alternative form for l is lei. But the former seems to be preferred in the New Testament.

2 1The final vowel of ll is often elided before a word that begins with a vowel. The elision is marked by an apostrophe.

3 1 The phrase should be turned around into the form, the disciples of our Lord, before it is translated into Greek. A similar transposition should be made in other similar phrases.