delfēv, é a brother.
nqrwpov, é a man.
pēstolov, é an apostle.
doĀlov, é, a slave, a servant.
dņron a gift.
qnatov, é, a death.
³erēn, tē, a temple.
kai, conj., and.
lēgov, é, a word.
nēmov, é, a law.
÷kov, é, a house.
u³ēv, é, a son.
25. There are three declensions in Greek. The second declension is given before the first for purposes of convenience, since it is easier, and has a larger number of common nouns.26. There is no indefinite article in Greek, and so delfēv means either brother or a brother (usually the latter). Greek has, however, a definite article, and where the Greek article does not appear, the definite article should not be inserted in the English translation. Thus delfēv does not mean the brother. In the plural, English, like Greek, has no indefinite article. nqrwpoi, therefore, means simply men. But it does not mean the men.
27. The noun in Greek has gender, number, and case.
28. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter.
The gender of nouns must often be learned by observation
of the individual nouns. But nearly all nouns of the second
declension ending in
are masculine; and all nouns of the 'second declension
are neuter. The gender is indicated in the vocabulary by the article
placed after the
29. There are two numbers, singular and plural. Verbs agree with their subject in number.
30. There are five cases; nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and vocative.
31. The declension of nqrwpov, é, a man, is as follows:
Singular Plural Nom. nqrwpov, a man.
Gen. nqršpou, of a man.
Dat. nqršpū, to or for a man.
Acc. nqrwpon, a man.
Voc. nqrwpe, a man.
N.V. qrwpoi, men.
G. nqršpwn, of men.
D. nqršpoiv, to or for men.
A. nqršpouv, men.
32. The student should observe carefully how the principles of accent apply to this noun and all the others. In oral practice and recitations the stress in pronunciation should be placed carefully on the syllables where the accent appears.
33. The stem of a noun is that part of the noun which remains constant when the various endings are added. The stem of nqrwpov is nqrwpo-, and all other second-declension nouns, like nqrwpov, have stems ending in o The second declension, therefore, is sometimes celled the o- declension. But this final o of the stem becomes so much disguised when the endings enter into combination with it, that it is more convenient to regard nqrwp- as the stem and -ov, ou, etc., as the endings. It should at any rate be observed, however, that o (with the long of it, w ) is the characteristic vowel in the last syllable of second-declension nouns.
34. The subject of a sentence is put in the nominative
means an apostle knows.
The object of a transitive verb is placed in the accusative case. Thus blpw lēgon means I see a word.
35. The genitive case expresses possession. Thus lēgoi postēlwn means words of apostles or apostles' words. But the genitive has many other important uses, which must be learned by observation. The functions of the Latin ablative are divided, in Greek, between the genitive and the dative.
36. The dative case is the case of the indirect object. Thus lgw lēgon postēloiv means I say a word to apostles. But the dative has many other important uses which must be learned by observation.
37. The vocative case is the case of direct address. Thus delf, blpomen means brother, we see. In the plural the vocative case in words of all declensions is in form like the nominative. The vocative plural may therefore be omitted in repeating paradigms.
38. Learn the declension of lēgov, é a word and of doĀlov, é a servant, in §557. These nouns differ from nqrwpov only in that the accent is different in the nominative singular and therefore the application of the general rules of accent works out differently.
39. The declension of u³ēv a son, is as follows:
Sing. Plur. N. u³ēv
40. Here the rule of noun accent decrees that the accent must be on the ultima in all cases, because it was there in the nominative singular. But which accent shall it be? The general rules of accent answer this question where the ultima is short; for of course only an acute, not a circumflex, can stand on a short syllable. But where the ultima is long, the general rules of accent will permit either an acute or a circumflex. A special rule is therefore necessary. It is as follows:
In the second declension, when the ultima is accented at all, it has the circumflex in the genitive and dative of both numbers, elsewhere the acute.
Explanation: The "elsewhere" really refers only to the accusative plural, because in the nominative and vocative singular and plural and in the accusative singular the general rules of accent would forbid the circumflex, the ultima being short in these cases.
41. The declension of dņron, tē, a gift, is as follows:
Sing. Plur. N.V. dņron
42. It will be observed that dņron is a neuter noun. In all neuter nouns, of all declensions, the vocative and accusative of both numbers are like the nominative, and the nominative, vocative and accusative plural always end in short a.
43. Order of Words
The normal order of the sentence in Greek is like that in English-subject, verb, object. There is no special
When the -oĒsi of the third person plural of the verb comes either before a vowel or at the end of a sentence, a n called movable n is added to it. Thus blpousin postēlouv. Sometimes the movable n is added even before a word that begins with a consonant. Thus either lĄousi doĄlouv or lĄousin doĄlouv is correct. It must not be supposed that this movable n occurs at the end of every verb form ending in a vowel when the next word begins with a vowel. On the contrary, it occurs only in a very few forms, which must be learned as they appear.
I. 1. delfčv blpei nqrwpon. 2. doĀlov grfei lēgouv. 3. pēstoloi didskousin nqrwpon. 4. pēstoloi lĄousi doĄlouv. 5. doĀlov lambnei dņra. 6. lambnousin u³o± o¹kouv 7. doĄlouv ka± o¹kouv lambnousin delfo° 8. blpomen ³er ka± postēlouv. 9. doĄlouv blpete ka± delfoĄv. 10. grfeiv lēgon postēlū. 11. didskei nqrwpon. 12. delfčv lgei lēgon postēlū 13. delfčv postēlwn ginšskei nēmon. 14. doĀloi ginšskousi nēmon ka± lambnousi dņra. 15. ginšskousin nqrwpoi qnoton 16. lambnomen dņra ka± comen delfoĄv. 17. postēloiv ka± doĄloiv lgomen lēgouv qantou. 18. delfo± ka± doĀloi
ginšskousin ka± blpousin ³er ka± dņra. 19. grfei pēstolov nēmon ka± lgei lēgouv u³o²v doĄlou. 20. u³o± postēlwn lgousi lēgouv ka± lĄousi doĄlouv.
II. 1. A servant is writing a law. 2. A son sees words. 3. Brothers are loosing servants. 4. Sons take gifts. 5. An apostle sees a servant and a gift. 6. Servants and sons are saying a word to a brother. 7. We see gifts and servants. 8. Men see words and gifts of a brother and houses of apostles and sons. 9. Words and laws we write to brethren; a word of death we say to a servant. 10. A son is seeing temples and houses. 11. Ye know death. 12. Thou takest an apostle's gift (= a gift of an apostle). 13. Thou art writing a brother's word to a servant. 14. I loose servants and say words to sons and brothers. 15. A son sees death. 16. They know laws and teach servants of an apostle.