GERBERT, gAr'bart, MARTIN: Abbot of St. Blasien (St. Blaise) in the southern part of the Black Forest (20 m. s.e. of Freiburg), and one of the most learned ecclesiastics of the eighteenth century; b. at Horb-on-the-Neckar (31 m. s.w. of Stuttgart) Aug. 13, 1720; d. at his monastery May 3, 1793. He was educated at the Jesuit college of Freiburg, at Klingnau in Switzerland, and at the abbey of St. Blasien, where he was ordained priest in 1744, and chosen abbot in 1764. From 1759 to 17112 he traveled in Germany, Italy, and France, an-1 published a Latin account of his travels (St. Blasien, 1765; Germ. transl., Ulm, 1767). He was a zealous investigator of the history of monasteries, esoecially in the Black Forest, and his Historia nilroe sylvte ordinis S. Benedicti (3 vols., Cologne, 1783,88) contains much valuable information on this subject. He published also a Codex epistolaris Rudolphi 1. (St. Blasien, 1772), and completed the Taphographia principum Austrim, begun by Rustenus Heer, a former member of the chapter of St. Blasien (vol. iv. of Herrgott's Monuments domus Austriacm, Vienna, 1752). His favorite study, however, was the theory and history of music, and he enriched this field of literature with many valuable works: De canto et muaica sacra (2 vols., St. Blasien, 1774); Monuments veteris liturgice A'Iemannicee (2 vols., 1777-79); and Scriptures eccleaiaatici de muaica sacra (3 vols., 1784). He wrote also several theological and ascetical treatises, one of which was directed against Jansenism.

(K. Klupfel.)

Bibliography: J. Bader, Fitrsfaht Martin Gerbert van St. Biaeien, Freiburg, 1875; RL, v. 363-3b8; ADB, viii. 725.

GERDES, gär'des, DANIEL: Professor of dogmatics and church history at the University of Groningen; b. at Bremen Apr. 16, 1698; d. at Groningen Feb. 11, 1765. He was the son of a respected merchant, studied theology in his native city and then in Utrecht under F. A. Lamps. In 1724 he became preacher at Wageningen in Hol land, in 1726 professor of theology in Duisburg. From 1736 until his death he was professor at Groningen. His extensive scholarship and, his piety made him the mgt distinguished personal ity of the university. In his Doctrina gratiœ sive compendium theologiœ dogmaticœ (Duisburg, 1734; Groningen, 1744) he shows himself a very moderate disciple of Cocceius. His real importance lay in the sphere of church history. He presented the growth of the Evangelical faith, especially of the Reformed faith, in his Introductio in historiam Evangelii seculo XVI. passim per Europam renovati doctrinœque reformatœ (4 vols., Groningen, 1744 1752) and Scrinium antiquarium live miscellanea Groningana nova ad historiam reformationis ecclesiasticam prœcipus spedantia. (8 vols., Groningen and Bremen, 1761-85), and wrote also about the Reformation in Italy, in the diocese of Salzburg, and in Bremen. Many important documents are given in these works.

(E. F. Karl Müller.)

Bibliography: A short autobiography e:tists in his Mieultanea Duiaberpaneia, i. 128 sqq., 1732 sqq. E. Hollebeek treated of his life in the Preface to Gerdes, Specimen Italia reformatos, Leyden, 1765; A. J. Van der As, Biographisch Woordenboek roan der Nederlanden, vii. 123 sqq.; ADB, viii. 730-731.


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