GERASENES, ger"a-sinz': According to the best readings of Mark v. 1 and Luke viii. 26, the name of the people in whose region Jesus healed a demoniac, permitting the "legion of demons" to enter into a herd of swine. In Matt. viii. 28 " Gadarenes " is the preferable reading, and " Gergesenes " is also found. Gadara, the capital of Per2ea, has been thought too far from the Sea of Galilee to satisfy the narrative, but its territory reached to the shores of the sea. A hill west of the sea, Jabal Kuran Jaradi, has been thought to retain the old name, changing Gadarenes into Garadenes. Gerasa can not be the modern Jerash, but may be Kersah, a ruined village on the left bank of the Wadi as-Samak about half-way between the northern and southern extremities of the Sea of Galilee, or as-Sur (connected with kursi, " seat ") farther up the same wadi. See Gaulanitis; Peraea.

GERBERON, zhar"be"ren', GABRIEL: One of the most famous disciples of St. Augustine and one of the most profilic writers of his time; b. at St. Calais (95 m. s.w. of Paris), in Maine, Aug. 12, 1628; d. at the abbey of St. Denis, Paris, Mar. 29, 1711. He received an excellent education from the fathers of the Congregation of St. Maur, of which he became a member in 1648. He taught rhetoric, philosophy, and theology in different abbeys; but, developing too great a zeal for the doctrine of the "disciples of grace" and being suspected as a Jansenist, his superiors finally sent him to the abbey of St. Germain des Pr6s at Paris, under supervision. After 1675 he was active in the abbey of Corbie


near Amiens. In 1676 his Miroir de la pi& chr& tienne appeared at Brussels, a work which several archbishops and writers criticized as a renewal of the five condemned sentences of Jansen; Gerberon defended his work in Le Miroir sans tache (Paris, 1680). The Jesuits and their partizans in his congregation denounced him in Paris for taking the part of the pope against the king in the disputes concerning the royal prerogative. Gerberon was threatened with arrest, but fled with the consent of his superior to the Spanish Netherlands. The Jansenist clergy called him to Holland, but owing to his attacks on the Protestants he was compelled to return to Brussels in 1690. In 1703 he was arrested, forced to sign the condemnation of the five sentences of Jansen, and delivered to his superiors for punishment; until 1707 he was kept a prisoner in Amiens. After he had given his signature, the pope allowed him to read mass. In Vincennes he was treated with greater severity; being stricken with paralysis, Cardinal Archbishop Noailles threatened to let him die "like a dog," without the Eucharist, if he did not sign certain further propositions expressing the cardinal's opinion. In 1710 he was handed over to his congregation. As soon as he learned that his signature was interpreted as a recantation of his doctrine, he wrote Le Vain Triomphe des Josuitm, but his superiors prevented its publication. On his death-bed he recalled all declarations, " wrested from his weakness by cunning and force," except the condemnation of the five sentences. Besides the works mentioned, he wrote Apologia pro Ruperto abbate Tiutense (Paris, 1669) against the Calvinistic doctrine of the Lord's Supper, Defense de liglise romaine eontre lee calomnies des `protestants (Cologne, 1688, 1691), and many other works, said to number 111 in all.

(C. Pfender.)

Bibliography: Supplhnent au n&rolope de 1'abbaye . . . de Port-Royal-dea-Champs, i. 498 sqq., Amsterdam, 1735; R. P. Tasein, Getehrtengeschichte der Congregation roan St. Maur, i. 505 sqq., Frankfort, 1773; KL, v. 350-353; Lichtenberger, ESN, v. 539-540.


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